• Analysis of colchicine-induced effects on hepatoma and hepatpcyte cells by atomic force microscopy

      Liu, Lanjiao; Wang, Zuobin; Zhang, Wenxiao; Zhu, Xinyao; Li, Li; Weng, Zhankun; Changchun University of Science and Technology; University of Warwick (American Scientific Publishers, 2018-06-01)
      Biomechanical properties of cells are altered by many diseases. Cancer cell metastasis is related to the properties such as the cell stiffness that influences cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. In this paper, we used an atomic force microscope to analyze the colchicine-induced effects on the mechanical properties of hepatocyte (HL-7702 cells) and hepatoma cells (SMCC-7721 cells) in culture at the nanoscale. The cells were exposed to a solution with a normal dose of colchicine for two, four and six hours. Surface topographic images showed that colchicine decreased the stability of the cytoskeleton. After the same six-hour treatment in a solution with a normal dose of colchicine, the biomechanical properties of HL-7702 cells were almost unchanged. However, the stiffness and the adhesion force of the SMCC-7721 cells were clearly increased (more than twofold of the normal values), especially after four hours. The deformability of SMCC-7721 cancer cells was significantly decreased within the six-hour treatment in the solution with a normal dose of colchicine. Analysis of the biomechanical properties of post-treatment hepatoma cells provided a complementary explanation for the mechanism of action of colchicine on cells at the nanoscale. This method is expected to allow the monitoring of potential metastatic cancer cell changes, thus preventing the emergence and the transmission of disease, and improving the diagnosis of cancer.
    • Anti-degranulation response of herbal formula in RBL-2H3 cells

      Hu, Jing; Chen, Yujuan; Zhu, Jiajing; Gao, Mingyan; Li, Jiani; Song, Zhengxun; Xu, Hongmei; Wang, Zuobin; Changchun University of Science and Technology; University of Warwick; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-12-28)
      Allergic diseases not only bring serious economic burden to the patients, but also consume a lot of substantial resources of social medical systems. Thus, the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases are imperative. In this study, the anti-degranulation activity of herbal formula was evaluated using the rat basophil leukemia cells (RBL-2H3) as in vitro model. The morphological and biophysical properties of RBL-2H3 cells before and after treatment with herbal formula were also determined. Notably, the herbal formula exhibits clearly inhibited degranulation by RBL-2H3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner without cytotoxic effect. Therefore, this herbal formula can be used as an alternative and promising therapeutic agent to ameliorate allergic diseases.
    • Biomedical applications of capsule and rehabilitation robots

      Zhang, Guangda; Yue, Yong; Liang, Hai-Ning; Li, Dayou; Qiu, Renxi; Wang, Zuobin; Maple, Carsten; Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University; University of Bedfordshire; Changchun University of Science and Technology; et al. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016-03-07)
      The rapid development of emerging technologies in the areas of traditional mechanical machinery, electronic engineering and advanced micro-processors, has brought a great opportunity for the development and applications of biomedical engineering instruments with robot technology in traditional medicine. At the same time, because of the progress of human civilisation and improvement of living standards, people have higher and more critical requirements to the bio-medical technology. Under these circumstances, researchers from all over the world have made fruitful achievements in promoting the development of medical robots, medical automation and robotic manipulation. Medical robot engineering is a discipline which applies the latest results of research and development to the medical treatment and rehabilitation. This paper reviews a range of widely-used applications of the micro-robot and rehabilitation robots to provide an overview and understanding of the current development in this area.
    • A hybrid approach to combat email-based cyberstalking

      Ghasem, Zinnar; Frommholz, Ingo; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire; University of Warwick (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-10-26)
      Email is one of the most popular Internet applications which enables individuals and organisations alike to communicate and work effectively. However, email has also been used by criminals as a means to commit cybercrimes such as phishing, spamming, cyberbullying and cyberstalking. Cyberstalking is a relatively new surfacing cybercrime, which recently has been recognised as a serious social and worldwide problem. Combating email-based cyberstalking is a challenging task that involves two crucial steps: a robust method for filtering and detecting cyberstalking emails and documenting evidence for identifying cyberstalkers as a prevention and deterrence measure. In this paper, we discuss a hybrid approach that applies machine learning to detect, filter and file evidence. To this end we present a new robust feature selection approach to select informative features, aiming to improve the performance of machine learning within this task.
    • Low latency parallel turbo decoding implementation for future terrestrial broadcasting systems

      Zhang, Xun; Luo, Hua; Zhang, Yue; Li, Wei; Huang, Li-Ke; Cosmas, John; Li, Dayou; Maple, Carsten; Institute Supérieur d’Electronique de Paris; University of Warwick; et al. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017-06-21)
      As a class of high-performance forward error correction codes, turbo codes, which can approach the channel capacity, could become a candidate of the coding methods in future terrestrial broadcasting (TB) systems. Among all the demands of future TB system, high throughput and low latency are two basic requirements that need to be met. Parallel turbo decoding is a very effective method to reduce the latency and improve the throughput in the decoding stage. In this paper, a parallel turbo decoder is designed and implemented in field-programmable gate array (FPGA). A reverse address generator is proposed to reduce the complexity of interleaver and also the iteration time. A practical method of modulo operation is realized in FPGA which can save computing resources compared with using division operation. The latency of parallel turbo decoder after implementation can be as low as 23.2 us at a clock rate of 250 MHz and the throughput can reach up to 6.92 Gbps.
    • A machine learning framework to detect and document text-based cyberstalking

      Ghasem, Zinnar; Frommholz, Ingo; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire; University of Warwick (CEUR-WS, 2015-12-31)
      Cyberstalking is becoming a social and international problem, where cyberstalkers utilise the Internet to target individuals and disguise themselves without fear of any consequences. Several technologies, methods, and techniques are used by perpetrators to terrorise victims. While spam email filtering systems have been effective by applying various statistical and machine learning algorithms, utilising text categorization and filtering to detect text- and email-based cyberstalking is an interesting new application. There is also the need to gather evidence by the victim. To this end we discuss a framework to detect cyberstalking in messages; short message service, multimedia messaging service, chat, instance messaging and emails, and as well as to support documenting evidence. Our framework consists of five main modules: a detection module which detects cyberstalking using message categorisation; an attacker identification module based on cyberstalkers' previous messages history, personalisation module, aggregator module and messages and evidence collection module. We discuss our ongoing work and how different text categorization and machine learning approaches can be applied to identify cyberstalkers.
    • A new approach for selecting informative features for text classification

      Ghasem, Zinnar; Frommholz, Ingo; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire; University of Warwick (CEUR-WS, 2015-12-31)
      Selecting useful and informative features to classify text is not only important to decrease the size of the feature space, but as well for the overall performance and precision of machine learning. In this study we propose a new feature selection method called Informative Feature Selector (IFS). Different machine learning algorithms and datasets have been utilised to examine the effectiveness of IFS, and it is compared to well-established methods, namely Information Gain, Odd Ratio, Chi Square, Mutual Information and Class Discriminative Measure. Our experiments show that IFS is able to outperform aforementioned methods and to produce effective and efficient results.
    • Play that funky password! Recent advances in authentication with music

      Gibson, Marcia; Renaud, Karen; Conrad, Marc; Maple, Carsten; Gupta, Manish; University of Bedfordshire; University of Glasgow; University of Warwick; State University of New York at Buffalo (IGI Global, 2014-12-22)
      Over the last few years, there has been emerging interest in authenticating users through the medium of music. Historically, developers of alternate modality systems have focused on image- and haptic-based techniques, instinctively shying away from music. This might be due to the inherently temporal nature of the listening task and the belief that this would be impractical and frustrating for users. In this chapter, the authors discuss and present new research in this field that, to the contrary, indicates that the “enjoyability factor” means users may be more willing to spend additional time authenticating with music than they would with other techniques. Although undeniably not the optimal solution in time-critical contexts, for many other pursuits music-based authentication could feasibly replace passwords, easing the number of secure strings the average user is expected to remember. Music may also offer a better solution for those suffering memory or cognitive impairments. This chapter incorporates discussion on recent advances in the field of authentication research within the context of a changing threat landscape. A prototype musical password system is presented and a summary of results from online user testing and a lab-based controlled experiment are presented which further reinforce the importance of accounting for “enjoyability” in the assessment of recognition-based authentication schemes.
    • Self-IQ-demodulation based compensation scheme of frequency-dependent IQ imbalance for wideband direct-conversion transmitters

      Li, Wei; Zhang, Yue; Huang, Li-Ke; Cosmas, John; Maple, Carsten; Xiong, Jian; Cobham Wireless; University of Bedfordshire; Brunel University; University of Warwick; et al. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-09-25)
      A low cost frequency-dependent (FD) I/Q imbalance self-compensation scheme is investigated in this paper. The direct conversion transmitters are widely used in wireless systems. However, the unwanted image-frequencies and distortions are inevitably introduced into the direct conversion system. This problem is even severer in wideband systems. Therefore, the accurate estimation and compensation of I/Q imbalance is crucial. The current compensation method is based on external instruments or internal feedback path which introduces additional impairments and is expensive. This paper proposes a low cost FD I/Q imbalance self-IQ-demodulation based compensation scheme without using external calibration instruments. First, the impairments of baseband and RF components are investigated. Further, I/Q imbalance model is developed. Then, the proposed two-step self-IQ-demodulation based compensation scheme is investigated. In the first step of the scheme, the local oscillator (LO) related I/Q impairments parameters are estimated. Then in the second step, the overall FD I/Q imbalance parameters are estimated by utilizing the transmitter LO. To realize this self-IQ-demodulation algorithm, this paper introduces minor modifications to the current power detector circuit. Afterwards, the estimated parameters are applied to the baseband equivalent compensator. This sophisticated algorithm guarantees low computation complexity and low cost. The compensation performance is evaluated in laboratory measurement.