• Fabrication of Pt nanowires with a diffraction-unlimited feature size by high-threshold lithography

      Li, Li; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Wenjun; Peng, Kuiqing; Zhang, Ziang; Yu, Miao; Song, Zhengxun; Weng, Zhankun; Wang, Dapeng; Zhao, Le; et al. (American Institute of Physics Inc., 2015-09-29)
      Although the nanoscale world can already be observed at a diffraction-unlimited resolution using far-field optical microscopy, to make the step from microscopy to lithography still requires a suitable photoresist material system. In this letter, we consider the threshold to be a region with a width characterized by the extreme feature size obtained using a Gaussian beam spot. By narrowing such a region through improvement of the threshold sensitization to intensity in a high-threshold material system, the minimal feature size becomes smaller. By using platinum as the negative photoresist, we demonstrate that high-threshold lithography can be used to fabricate nanowire arrays with a scalable resolution along the axial direction of the linewidth from the micro- to the nanoscale using a nanosecond-pulsed laser source with a wavelength λ0 = 1064 nm. The minimal feature size is only several nanometers (sub λ0/100). Compared with conventional polymer resist lithography, the advantages of high-threshold lithography are sharper pinpoints of laser intensity triggering the threshold response and also higher robustness allowing for large area exposure by a less-expensive nanosecond-pulsed laser.