• Edge intelligence case study on medical Internet of Things security

      Feng, Xiaohua (Elsevier, 2023-02-01)
      MIoT (Medical Internet of Things) systems produced many of sensing data in the world. Consequently, there is a demand of scientific research in this field. Edge intelligence fit in this trends, as one of the developing cutting-edge technology. A systematic approach had been applied on the health informatics edge intelligence devices’ investigation. The observing and recording action that occurs in the process of this research to date had been satisfed. This work had been reported here. The analyzing of the case study data was carried out. Eventually, some results have been summarized based on the investigation. Furthermore, a solution is proposed for the kind of medical edge intelligence device data cyber security problem-solving. Edge intelligence was defined as “the devices available at the edge layer have some limited amount of computing resource which can be utilized and incorporated with machine learning or AI (Artificial intelligence) algorithms to perform RT (real time) data analytics”. Studying more in the category of edge intelligence would influence MIoT system. This survey on edge intelligence had been carried out on investigated recent MIoT, Robot, Raspberry Pi and AV (autonomous vehicle) and so on as edge terminal - edge intelligence devices and the challenges they had encounter. In particular, AI application in edge intelligence device handle medical data security threat. AI face more challenges in edge intelligence computing. In this survey, through some case studies, some advantages and disadvantages had been studied. MIoT edge intelligence device challenges on big data security issues had been discussed.
    • A novel integrated framework for securing online instructor-student communication

      Salem, Maher; Samara, Khalid; AlDaheri, Mohammed Saeed (Inderscience, 2019-01-08)
      Academic advising is a time-consuming effort in educational institutions. Advising and consulting students are critical, which can cause latency and additional overhead for both the instructor and student. This paper proposes an effective and secured online framework to enrich the advising experience between the instructor and student and enhance time management. It provides two main services: reserved time slots for each student and common discussion between students and instructors. Reserving a time slot means that the student can communicate with the advisor anywhere. It can start an embedded web-based virtual machine to interact with the instructor in real time. The second service is to share a general post with all students and instructors to come up with a generic solution. Security plays a dominant role in the framework. It uses a strong authentication mechanism and encrypts the entire traffic to keep the data confidential.
    • EPPR: using blockchain for sharing educational records

      Alkouz, Akram; HaiYasien, Ahmed; Alarabeyyat, Abdulsalam; Samara, Khalid; Al-Saleh, Mohammed; Higher Colleges of Technology; Al-Balqa’ Applied University (IEEE Xplore, 2020-04-23)
      There have been recent, marked increases in the challenges of privacy, data interoperability and quality of Educational Professional Personal Record (EPPR). This calls into question the current model, in which different parties generate, exchange and monitor massive amounts of personal data related to EPPR. Ethereum blockchain has demonstrated that trusted, auditable transactions is visible using a decentralized network of nodes accompanied by a general ledger. Thus, the rapid development of educational and professional data generators such as online universities and distance learning, learners need to engage in detail into their EPPR as well as the educational and professional data generators. In this paper, we propose a novel decentralized approach to manage EPPR using Ethereum blockchain technology. The decentralized approach provides the owner of the EPPR a comprehensive immutable log and ease of access to their educational records across the educational record editors and consumers. Utilizing Ethereum blockchain features, can provide solutions with the main concerns of exchanging data between parties such as privacy, accountability and data interoperability. The aim of this approach is to also facilitate educational stakeholders (universities and employing agencies) to participate in the network as blockchain miners rewarded by pseudonymized data in compliance with General Data Protection Rules (GDPR) in United Arab Emirates (UAE).
    • Outgoing data filtration for detecting spyware on personal computers

      Afzulpurkar, Aishwarya; Alshemaili, Mouza; Samara, Khalid (Springer, Cham, 2019-02-06)
      One of the most critical issues emerging from the Internet is the diverse number of spyware and bots. When a spyware is installed in your PC then it will be difficult to detect, mainly because it deploys covert channels to communicate with outbound data transmissions. These attacks are usually sent from PCs infected with a bot that communicates with malicious controllers over an encrypted channel. However, the available pattern-based intrusion detection system (IDS) and antivirus systems (AVs) are unable to detect the infected PC. This paper presents a Monitoring and Filtering method (SMF) for outgoing packets based on machine learning and behavioral-based methods that can help in the protection of PCs. In addition, this paper presents recent research contributions and emerging tools in the field of spyware detection and identifies existing gaps in the literature. The paper then presents a High-level Architecture to inspect the outgoing packet from the hardware and the software installed in PCs as a solution.
    • Optimisation of perfect preventive maintenance and component replacement schedules (PPMCRS) using SPEA2

      Ikechukwu, Anthony O.; Nggada, Shawulu H.; Quenum, Jose G.; Samara, Khalid; Namibia University of Science and Technology; Higher Colleges of Technology (IEEE Xplore, 2020-04-23)
      As the proliferation in processes and technological options increases, the complexity of designing safety-critical systems may pose challenges to meeting the requirements to ensure that these systems are dependable. The number of the failures occurring can be minimized through preventive maintenance and replacement (PMR). Although different components have different PM times (aT), each preventive maintenance (PM) interval T, reduces the effective age of a component of the system. The degree of age reduction is hinged upon the effectiveness of PM and the coefficient of maintenance interval (CoMI). The Perfect Preventive Maintenance (PPM) policy renews the component being maintained is adopted in this paper. This paper investigates the effects of component replacement on component and system level reliability, and optimising PPM schedules taking into account component replacement as an improvement parameter on system's unavailability.
    • Predicting car park prices indices in Hong Kong using AutoML

      Li, Rita Yi Man; Song, Lingxi; Li, Bo; Crabbe, M. James C.; Yue, Xiao-Guang; Hong Kong Shue Yan University; Rajamangala University of Technology Tawan-Ok; Jinke Property Group Co., Ltd.; Oxford University; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Tech Science Press, 2022-07-06)
      The aims of this study were threefold: 1) study the research gap in carpark and price index via big data and natural language processing, 2) examine the research gap of carpark indices, and 3) construct carpark price indices via repeat sales methods and predict carpark indices via the AutoML. By researching the keyword “carpark” in Google Scholar, the largest electronic academic database that coversWeb of Science and Scopus indexed articles, this study obtained 999 articles and book chapters from 1910 to 2019. It confirmed that most carpark research threw light on multi-storey carparks, management and ventilation systems, and reinforced concrete carparks. The most common research method was case studies. Regarding price index research, many previous studies focused on consumer, stock, press and futures, with many keywords being related to finance and economics. These indicated that there is no research predicting carpark price indices based on an AutoML approach. This study constructed repeat sales indices for 18 districts in Hong Kong by using 34,562 carpark transaction records from December 2009 to June 2019.Wanchai’s carpark price was about four times that of Yuen Long’s carpark price, indicating the considerable carpark price differences in Hong Kong. This research evidenced the features that affected the carpark price indices models most: gold price ranked the first in all 19 models; oil price or Link stock price ranked second depending on the district, and carpark affordability ranked third.
    • Behavior-neutral smart charging of plugin electric vehicles: reinforcement learning approach

      Dyo, Vladimir; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE, 2022-06-16)
      High-powered electric vehicle (EV) charging can significantly increase charging costs due to peak-demand charges. This paper proposes a novel charging algorithm which exploits typically long plugin sessions for domestic chargers and reduces the overall charging power by boost charging the EV for a short duration, followed by low-power charging for the rest of the plugin session. The optimal parameters for boost and low-power charging phases are obtained using reinforcement learning by training on EV’s past charging sessions. Compared to some prior work, the proposed algorithm does not attempt to predict the plugin session duration, which can be difficult to accurately predict in practice due to the nature of human behavior, as shown in the analysis. Instead, the charging parameters are controlled directly and are adapted transparently to the user’s charging behavior over time. The performance evaluation on a UK dataset of 3.1 million charging sessions from 22,731 domestic charge stations, demonstrates that the proposed algorithm results in 31% of aggregate peak reduction. The experiments also demonstrate the impact of history size on learning behavior and conclude with a case study by applying the algorithm to a specific charge point.
    • Artificial intelligence robot safety: a conceptual framework and research agenda based on new institutional economics and social media

      Li, Rita Yi Man; Crabbe, M. James C. (Springer, 2022-05-15)
      According to "Huang's law", Artificial intelligence (AI)-related hardware increases in power 4 to 10 times per year. AI can benefit various stages of real estate development, from planning and construction to occupation and demolition. However, Hong Kong's legal system is currently behind when it comes to technological abilities, while the field of AI safety in built environments is still in its infancy. Negligent design and production processes, irresponsible data management, questionable deployment, algorithm training, sensor design and/or manufacture, unforeseen consequences from multiple data inputs, and erroneous AI operation based on sensor or remote data can all lead to accidents. Yet, determining how legal rules should apply to liability for losses caused by AI systems takes time. Traditional product liability laws can apply for some systems, meaning that the manufacturer will bear responsibility for a malfunctioning part. That said, more complex cases will undoubtedly have to come before the courts to determine whether something unsafe should be the manufacturer's fault or the individual's fault, as well as who should receive the subsequent financial and/or non-financial compensation, etc. Since AI adoption has an inevitable relationship with safety concerns, this project intends to shed light on responsible AI development and usage, with a specific focus on AI safety laws, policies, and people's perceptions. We will conduct a systematic literature review via the PRISMA approach to study the academic perspectives of AI safety policies and laws and data-mining publicly available content on social media platforms such as Twitter, YouTube, and Reddit to study societal concerns about AI safety in built environments. We will then research court cases and laws related to AI safety in 61 jurisdictions, in addition to policies that have been implemented globally. Two case studies on AI suppliers that sell AI hardware and software to users of built environment will also be included. Another two case studies will be conducted on built environment companies (a contractor and Hong Kong International Airport) that use AI safety tools. The results obtained from social media, court cases, legislation, and policies will be discussed with local and international experts via a workshop, then released to the public to provide the international community and Hong Kong with unique policy and legal orientations.
    • Crowdsourced linked data question answering with AQUACOLD

      Collis, Nick; Frommholz, Ingo; University of Bedfordshire; University of Wolverhampton (IEEE, 2021-12-29)
      There is a need for Question Answering (QA) to return accurate answers to complex natural language questions over Linked Data, improving the accessibility of Linked Data (LD) search by abstracting the complexity of SPARQL whilst retaining its expressiveness. This work presents AQUACOLD, a LD QA system which harnesses the power of crowdsourcing to meet this need.
    • Bi-layered disulfiram-loaded fiber membranes with antibacterial properties for wound dressing

      Xie, Chenchen; Yan, Jin; Cao, Siyuan; Liu, Ri; Sun, Baishun; Xie, Ying; Qu, Kaige; Zhang, Wenxiao; Weng, Zhankun; Wang, Zuobin; et al. (Springer, 2021-10-29)
      In this study, the bi-layered disulfiram-loaded fiber membranes with the antibacterial activity and different surface wettabilities are prepared using electrospinning technology. In the application of wound dressing, the hydrophilic surface of fiber membranes is beneficial for cell adhesion and drug release to heal the wound. Meanwhile, the outside hydrophobic surface is able to block water penetration to reduce the probability of wound infection. The obtained bi-layered drug-loaded fiber membranes are composed of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) bottom surface and disulfiram (DSF)/polylactic acid (PLA) top surface. To modify the top surface wettability, the oxygen plasma modification of bi-layered membranes was carried out. The morphology, wettability, and chemical compositions of bi-layered drug-loaded fiber membranes were analyzed using the scanning electronic microscope (SEM), drop shape analysis instrument, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS). The bi-layered disulfiram-loaded membranes showed the potent antibacterial activity in vitro against both Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive). It was found that the bi-layered membranes had good biocompatibility with L929 cells. Thus, the obtained bi-layered disulfiram-loaded fiber membranes are suitable for wound dressing application.
    • Real-time user clickstream behavior analysis based on Apache Storm streaming

      Pal, Gautam; Li, Gangmin; Atkinson, Katie (Springer, 2021-12-22)
      This paper presents an approach to analyzing consumers’ e-commerce site usage and browsing motifs through pattern mining and surfing behavior. User-generated clickstream is first stored in a client site browser. We build an ingestion pipeline to capture the high-velocity data stream from a client-side browser through Apache Storm, Kafka, and Cassandra. Given the consumer’s usage pattern, we uncover the user’s browsing intent through n-grams and Collocation methods. An innovative clustering technique is constructed through the Expectation-Maximization algorithm with Gaussian Mixture Model. We discuss a framework for predicting a user’s clicks based on the past click sequences through higher order Markov Chains. We developed our model on top of a big data Lambda Architecture which combines high throughput Hadoop batch setup with low latency real-time framework over a large distributed cluster. Based on this approach, we developed an experimental setup for an optimized Storm topology and enhanced Cassandra database latency to achieve real-time responses. The theoretical claims are corroborated with several evaluations in Microsoft Azure HDInsight Apache Storm deployment and in the Datastax distribution of Cassandra. The paper demonstrates that the proposed techniques help user experience optimization, building recently viewed products list, market-driven analyses, and allocation of website resources.
    • Predicting cumulative effect of lifestyle risk factors for complex disease

      Effiok, Emmanuel; Liu, Enjie; Hitchcock, Jonathan James; University of Bedfordshire (IET/Wiley, 2022-03-17)
      In medical domain, risk factors are often used to model disease predictions. In order to make the most use of the predictive models, linking the model with real patient data generates personalized disease progression and predictions. However, the risk factors are fragmented all over medical literature, certain risks can be accumulated for a disease and the aggregated probability may increase or decrease the occurrence of a disease. In this paper, we propose a risk predictive framework which forms a base for a complete risk prediction model that can be used for various health applications.
    • A systematic approach of impact of GDPR in PII and privacy

      Feng, Xiaohua; Feng, Yunzhong; Asante, Audrey; University of Bedfordshire; Hebei Normal University (International Journal of Engineering Science Invention, 2021-01-31)
      Since EU (European Union) published GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation) in 2016, every countries related have started to pay more attention on PII (Personally Identifiable Information) and personal privacy. GDPR and Data Protection Act 2018 lawsbrought people’s attention on how to cope with data privacy, especially in the current pandemic.Conventional personal privacy breach crimes had been boostedwith the rapid development of ICT technology. The Internet had brought rise in cybercrimes even though it had changed the stages of activities, communications, socialization and way of access to information. Internet had now been applied as a tool by many cyber criminals hunt PII and personal privacy in order to performing their malicious activities. One of the reason behind Internet being frequently exploited by most cyber criminals had been that Internet was a low-cost, relative easyapproach for interaction [Schneier,2019]. Although there were different strategies had been developed and approved to control these cybercrimespotentially,people in the society realized handling of these crimes were seriouslysignificant. Attacks carried online by offenders or perpetrates were considered to have importantimpact, which could be severe when compared to attacks carried out offline and in the physical domain [Lipton 2011]. A strategy was proposed with feasible method to improve on privacy protection, in terms of enhance people’s awareness on PII privacy in our society.
    • Smart data analysis and data governance

      Feng, Yunzhong; Feng, Xiaohua; Hebei Normal University; University of Bedfordshire (Association for Computing Machinery, 2021-10-31)
      Data governance is still an outstanding issue currently, especially in big data cases. There is a planned big event in 2022 at Chongli. A Smart Chongli has up and running. In order to run the event properly, information security protection should be taken into account. This research is to consider generalize this issue to the future, including the Smart Chongli winter event, but not only limited there. Because of many Smart Cities services are running by online devices, to protect their data, cyber security is in demand, for the Smart Cities' quantity. As a case study, Smart Chongli is discussed, in terms of participants' data. Analysis of these data needs to pay attention to the "Measures for the Administration of Data Security", "GDPR"and so on. Cyber security should be taken care of, from the start to its final ending. Nevertheless, for Smart Chongli, overall development and management need to consider data security impact. A solution is suggested to fill this gap, according to MKSmart trial project Phase 2 experience. Which could also be applied to other smart cities similar project for the time being. c 2021
    • StaResGRU-CNN with CMedLMs: a stacked residual GRU-CNN with pre-trained biomedical language models for predictive intelligence

      Ni, Pin; Li, Gangmin; Hung, Patrick C.K.; Chang, Victor; University College London; University of Bedfordshire; Ontario Tech University; Teesside University (Elsevier Ltd, 2021-10-13)
      As a task requiring strong professional experience as supports, predictive biomedical intelligence cannot be separated from the support of a large amount of external domain knowledge. By using transfer learning to obtain sufficient prior experience from massive biomedical text data, it is essential to promote the performance of specific downstream predictive and decision-making task models. This is an efficient and convenient method, but it has not been fully developed for Chinese Natural Language Processing (NLP) in the biomedical field. This study proposes a Stacked Residual Gated Recurrent Unit-Convolutional Neural Networks (StaResGRU-CNN) combined with the pre-trained language models (PLMs) for biomedical text-based predictive tasks. Exploring related paradigms in biomedical NLP based on transfer learning of external expert knowledge and comparing some Chinese and English language models. We have identified some key issues that have not been developed or those present difficulties of application in the field of Chinese biomedicine. Therefore, we also propose a series of Chinese bioMedical Language Models (CMedLMs) with detailed evaluations of downstream tasks. By using transfer learning, language models are introduced with prior knowledge to improve the performance of downstream tasks and solve specific predictive NLP tasks related to the Chinese biomedical field to serve the predictive medical system better. Additionally, a free-form text Electronic Medical Record (EMR)-based Disease Diagnosis Prediction task is proposed, which is used in the evaluation of the analyzed language models together with Clinical Named Entity Recognition, Biomedical Text Classification tasks. Our experiments prove that the introduction of biomedical knowledge in the analyzed models significantly improves their performance in the predictive biomedical NLP tasks with different granularity. And our proposed model also achieved competitive performance in these predictive intelligence tasks.
    • Content-based technical solution for cyberstalking detection

      Asante, Audrey; Feng, Xiaohua; Catholic University College of Ghana; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2021-07-27)
      The continued usage of technology has led to the rise of cyberstalking. Cyberstalking is seen as traditional method of stalking that has been altered by technology. This crime has now been modernized using technological tools and techniques. The continued increase in cyberstalking in the world today has drawn attention to the need to address this problem. Though studies on this crime have been conducted in the fields of criminology, legal, public health, sociology, and psychology, it still remains a challenge to detect, prevent, and investigate this crime. Traditional stalking methods have been used to combat it, despite the fact that this crime is committed online. Unfortunately, these methods have provided few solutions for detecting and preventing it. The prevalence of this crime, combined with technological advancement, has necessitated the development of technical strategies to mitigate it, protect victims, and assist law enforcement agencies. In this study, a content-based detection framework for cyberstalking is proposed. The framework consists of message identification, filtering, detection (content detection and profiling offender) and evidence modules. It is designed as a forensic readiness framework that can automatically detect cyberstalking, gather evidence and profile potential offenders. The framework employs machine learning, data mining techniques, digital forensics, and profiling to analyze text, image, and media contents, collect evidence, and profile offenders. This framework would not only detect cyberstalking automatically, but it would also be useful as an investigative tool for law enforcement.
    • Reinforcement learning-driven information seeking: a quantum probabilistic approach

      Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Liu, Haiming; Frommholz, Ingo; University of Bedfordshire (CEUR-WS, 2020-07-30)
      Understanding an information forager’s actions during interaction is very important for the study of interactive information retrieval. Although information spread in an uncertain information space is substantially complex due to the high entanglement of users interacting with information objects (text, image, etc.). However, an information forager, in general, accompanies a piece of information (information diet) while searching (or foraging) alternative contents, typically subject to decisive uncertainty. Such types of uncertainty are analogous to measurements in quantum mechanics which follow the uncertainty principle. In this paper, we discuss information seeking as a reinforcement learning task. We then present a reinforcement learning-based framework to model the foragers exploration that treats the information forager as an agent to guide their behaviour. Also, our framework incorporates the inherent uncertainty of the foragers’ action using the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics.
    • Semantic Hilbert space for interactive image retrieval

      Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Liu, Haiming; Frommholz, Ingo; University of Bedfordshire (Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, 2021-07-11)
      The paper introduces a model for interactive image retrieval utilising the geometrical framework of information retrieval (IR). We tackle the problem of image retrieval based on an expressive user information need in form of a textual-visual query, where a user is attempting to find an image similar to the picture in their mind during querying. The user information need is expressed using guided visual feedback based on Information Foraging which lets the user perception embed within the model via semantic Hilbert space (SHS). This framework is based on the mathematical formalism of quantum probabilities and aims to understand the relationship between user textual and image input, where the image in the input is considered a form of visual feedback. We propose SHS, a quantum-inspired approach where the textual-visual query is regarded analogously to a physical system that allows for modelling different system states and their dynamic changes thereof based on observations (such as queries, relevance judgements). We will be able to learn the input multimodal representation and relationships between textual-image queries for retrieving images. Our experiments are conducted on the MIT States and Fashion200k datasets that demonstrate the effectiveness of finding particular images autocratically when the user inputs are semantically expressive.
    • Letter to the editor: gratitude and good outcomes: rediscovering positivity and perspective in an uncertain time

      Minaev, Sergey; Schetinin, Vitaly; Kirgizov, Igor; Grigorova, Alina Nikolaevna; Akselrov, Michael; Gerasimenko, Igor (Springer, 2021-11-08)
    • Deep neural-network prediction for study of informational efficiency

      Sulaiman, Rejwan Bin; Schetinin, Vitaly; University of Bedfordshire (Springer, 2021-08-03)
      In this paper, we attempt to verify a hypothesis of informational efficiency of financial markets, known as “random walk” introduced by Fama. Such hypotheses could be considered in relation to financial crises. In our study the hypothesis is tested on data taken from Warsaw Stock Exchange in 2007–2009 years. The hypothesis is tested by predictive modelling based on Machine Learning (ML). We compare conventional ML techniques and the proposed “deep” neural-network structures grown by Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH). In our experiments a GMDH-type neural-network model has outperformed the conventional ML techniques, which is important for achieving the reliable results of predictive modelling and testing the hypothesis. GMDH-type modelling does not require the knowledge of network structure, as a desired network of near-optimal connectivity is learnt from the data. The experimental results compared in terms of prediction error show that the GMDH-type prediction model has a significantly smaller error than the conventional autoregressive and neural-network models.