• OpenFlow 1.3 extension for OMNeT++

      Salih, Mukhald; Cosmas, John; Zhang, Yue; Brunel University; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-12-28)
      This paper presents an upgrade for OpenFlow 1.0 extension module [1]. The new module developed for the simulation of OpenFlow 1.3 based networks with OMNeT++, a well-known, widely-used modular simulation framework, which offers a high degree of experiment support. It focuses mainly on modelling the OpenFlow switch and controller with a particular attention on the aspects related to support load balancing, fault tolerance, Quality of Service, and the extensible match. Subsequently, we describe in detail the general architecture of the module and its components with particular emphasis on the switch module.
    • CRS interference cancellation algorithm for heterogeneous network

      Luo, Hua; Li, W.; Zhang, Yue; Huang, Li-Ke; Cosmas, John; Ni, Q.; University of Bedfordshire; Cobham Wireless; Brunel University; Lancaster University (Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2016-01-11)
      Heterogeneous network is introduced to improve the network capacity in LTE Release 9 and system beyond. The potential traffic congestion due to increased users can be alleviated by the cooperation between macro-cell and pico-cell. However, the inter-cell interference caused by RF signal from macro-cell will reduce the performance severely. Enhanced inter-cell interference coordination is proposed in Rel. 10 to solve this problem using almost blank subframe (ABS). Yet, the cell specific reference signal in ABS can still cause interference to the data resource element (RE) from the pico-cell inevitably for noncolliding scenario. In this Letter, a novel interference cancellation (IC) algorithm is proposed to mitigate the interference. First, the timing and carrier frequency offset of interference signal is estimated and compensated. Second, the interfering channel response is estimated by utilising the channel statistics. Third, the interference signal is reconstructed based on the channel estimation and cancelled in the received signal in time domain. The experiment results show that the performance of proposed IC algorithm is robust.
    • Data mining techniques in health informatics: a case study from breast cancer research

      Lu, Jing; Hales, Alan; Rew, David; Keech, Malcolm; Fröhlingsdorf, Christian; Mills-Mullett, Alex; Wette, Christian; Southampton Solent University; University Hospital Southampton; University of Bedfordshire (Springer Verlag, 2015-08-11)
      This paper presents a case study of using data mining techniques in the analysis of diagnosis and treatment events related to Breast Cancer disease. Data from over 16,000 patients has been pre-processed and several data mining techniques have been implemented by using Weka (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis). In particular, Generalized Sequential Patterns mining has been used to discover frequent patterns from disease event sequence profiles based on groups of living and deceased patients. Furthermore, five models have been evaluated in Classification with the objective to classify the patients based on selected attributes. This research showcases the data mining process and techniques to transform large amounts of patient data into useful information and potentially valuable patterns to help understand cancer outcomes.
    • A novel approach to knowledge discovery and representation in biological databases

      Lu, Jing; Wang, Cuiqing; Keech, Malcolm (Inderscience, 2017-09-25)
      Extraction of motifs from biological sequences is among the frontier research issues in bioinformatics, with sequential patterns mining becoming one of the most important computational techniques in this area. A number of applications motivate the search for more structured patterns and concurrent protein motif mining is considered here. This paper builds on the concept of structural relation patterns and applies the concurrent sequential patterns (ConSP) mining approach to biological databases. Specifically, an original method is presented using support vectors as the data structure for the extraction of novel patterns in protein sequences. Data modelling is pursued to represent the more interesting concurrent patterns visually. Experiments with real-world protein datasets from the UniProt and NCBI databases highlight the applicability of the ConSP methodology in protein data mining and modelling. The results show the potential for knowledge discovery in the field of protein structure identification. A pilot experiment extends the methodology to DNA sequences to indicate a future direction.
    • Timeline and episode-structured clinical data: pre-processing for Data Mining and analytics

      Lu, Jing; Hales, Alan; Rew, David; Keech, Malcolm; Southampton Solent University; University Hospital Southampton; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016-06-23)
      Data Mining has been used in the healthcare domain for diagnosis and treatment analysis, resource management and fraud detection. It brings a set of tools and techniques that can be applied to large-scale patient data to discover underlying patterns and provide healthcare professionals an additional source of knowledge for making decisions. The Southampton Breast Cancer Data System (SBCDS) containing some 16,000 timeline-structured records is a visually rich and highly intuitive system for the manual and automated transfer of demographic, pathology and treatment data into an episode-based structure. While expansion of the data mining capability in SBCDS is one of the objectives of our research, real-world patient data is generally incomplete, inconsistent and containing errors. This case study will focus on the data pre-processing stage in order to clean the raw data and prepare the final dataset for use in data mining and analytics. Some initial results are given for sequential patterns mining and classification which highlight the advantages of the approach.
    • Emerging technologies for health data analytics research: a conceptual architecture

      Lu, Jing; Keech, Malcolm; Southampton Solent University; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016-02-15)
      This paper gives a brief review of how emerging database technologies can be used to provide additional value from available health information such as electronic patient records. It is not only about the integration of technologies for data warehousing, OLAP analysis and data mining, but also the integration of data from various sources and how to share and connect the resources. The organisational structure of healthcare in the UK is illustrated before the Solent Health Informatics Partnership (SHIP) is introduced, highlighting the proposed conceptual architecture for data analytics in this context. The applicability of NoSQL and Big Data technologies is considered with an emphasis on data warehousing and mining approaches.
    • Adaptive traffic fingerprinting for darknet threat intelligence

      Haughey, Hamish; Epiphaniou, Gregory; al-Khateeb, Haider; Dehghantanha, Ali (Springer New York LLC, 2018-04-24)
      Darknet technology such as Tor has been used by various threat actors for organising illegal activities and data exfiltration. As such there is a case for organisations to block such traffic, or to try and identify when it is used and for what purposes. However, anonymity in cyberspace has always been a domain of conflicting interests. While it gives enough power to nefarious actors to masquerade their illegal activities, it is also the corner stone to facilitate freedom of speech and privacy. We present a proof of concept for a novel algorithm that could form the fundamental pillar of a darknet-capable Cyber Threat Intelligence platform. The solution can reduce anonymity of users of Tor, and considers the existing visibility of network traffic before optionally initiating targeted or widespread BGP interception. In combination with server HTTP response manipulation, the algorithm attempts to reduce the candidate data set to eliminate client-side traffic that is most unlikely to be responsible for server-side connections of interest. Our test results show that MITM manipulated server responses lead to expected changes received by the Tor client. Using simulation data generated by shadow, we show that the detection scheme is effective with false positive rate of 0.001, while sensitivity detecting non-targets was 0.016±0.127. Our algorithm could assist collaborating organisations willing to share their threat intelligence or cooperate during investigations.
    • A model for android and iOS applications risk calculation: CVSS analysis and enhancement using case-control studies

      Petraityte, Milda; Dehghantanha, Ali; Epiphaniou, Gregory; University of Salford; University of Bedfordshire (Springer New York LLC, 2018-04-24)
      Various researchers have shown that the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) has many drawbacks and may not provide a precise view of the risks related to software vulnerabilities. However, many threat intelligence platforms and industry-wide standards are relying on CVSS score to evaluate cyber security compliance. This paper suggests several improvements to the calculation of Impact and Exploitability sub-scores within the CVSS, improve its accuracy and help threat intelligence analysts to focus on the key risks associated with their assets. We will apply our suggested improvements against risks associated with several Android and iOS applications and discuss achieved improvements and advantages of our modelling, such as the importance and the impact of time on the overall CVSS score calculation.
    • Mobile phone forensics: an investigative framework based on user impulsivity and secure collaboration errors

      Petraityte, Milda; Dehghantanha, Ali; Epiphaniou, Gregory; University of Salford; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier Inc., 2017-01-06)
      This paper uses a scenario-based, role-play experiment based on the usage of QR codes to detect how mobile users respond to social engineering attacks conducted via mobile devices. The results of this experiment outline a guided mobile phone forensics investigation method that could facilitate the work of digital forensics investigators while analyzing the data from mobile devices. The behavioral response of users could be impacted by several aspects, such as impulsivity, smartphone usage and security, or simply awareness that QR codes could contain malware. The findings indicate that the impulsivity of users is one of the key areas that determines the common mistakes of mobile device users. As a result, an investigative framework for mobile phone forensics is proposed based on the impulsivity and common mistakes of mobile device users. It could help the forensics investigators by potentially shortening the time spent on investigation of possible breach scenarios.
    • A scalable and license free 5G Internet of radio light architecture for services in homes businesses

      Cosmas, John; Meunier, Ben; Ali, Kareem; Jawad, Nawar; Salih, Mukhald; Meng, Hong-Ying; Ganley, Martin; Gbadamosi, James; Savov, Atanas; Hadad, Zion; et al. (IEEE Computer Society, 2018-08-16)
      In this paper we present a 5G Internet Radio-Light (IoRL) architecture for homes that can be readily deployed because it utilizes unlicensed visible light and millimeter wave part of the spectrum, which does not require Mobile Network Operator (MNO) permission to deploy and which is used to provide inhabitants of houses with accurate location, interaction, access to Internet and Cloud based services such as high resolution video on a Tablet PC. The paper describes the home use cases and the IoRL architecture.
    • Performance analysis of opportunistic relaying and opportunistic hybrid incremental relaying over fading channels

      Lateef, Hafiz Yasar; Dyo, Vladimir; Allen, Ben; University of Bedfordshire; University of Oxford (Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), 2015-06-01)
      In this study, the authors develop and present a comprehensive analysis of two opportunistic cooperative relaying schemes for long term evolution (LTE)-advanced networks operating over generalised- K and Nakagami- m fading channels. They present and compare the performance of opportunistic relaying (OR) and opportunistic hybrid automatic repeat request incremental relaying (OHIR). They analyse performance in terms of the average symbol error rate for both conventional OR and OHIR LTE-advanced networks with the radio channel modelled as composite generalised- K fading (encompassing both fading and shadowing) and Nakagami- m fading channels. They also analyse the outage probability for OR operating over these channels. Both the theoretical analysis and simulations confirm that for conventional OR LTE-advanced networks operating over composite generalised- K fading channels, a diversity order of k ( N + 1) is achieved when shadowing is more severe than fading, and a diversity order of m ( N + 1) is achieved when fading is more severe than shadowing (where k and m represent the generalised- K distribution shape parameters and N represents the number of candidate relays for the OR selection). The simulation results confirm the accuracy of the analytical expressions developed in this study. It is evident from the theoretical analysis and simulations that, for a similar quality of service as that for OR, OHIR not only reduces the amount of required radio resources but also maintains the full diversity order.
    • Network coding for reliable safety message communication in vehicular Ad-Hoc networks: a review

      Muhammad, Shehu Jabaka; Zhang, Sijing; Dyo, Vladimir; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-10-26)
      Advancements in hardware, software, and computing technologies make the design and application of series and diverse kinds of networks deployment in several environments possible. An instance of such networks greeted with the enormous interest in research and industries is the vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs). Currently, information dissemination in the practical communication networks is achieved by routing. However, network coding can be thought of as the hopeful generalisation of routing that has further potential to network changing situations. Despite the existence of numerous studies on the applicability of network coding to broadcasting communications for mobile ad-hoc networks, there are few broadcasting protocols designed for VANETs that applied network coding. This paper reviews some of the applications of network coding for reliable safety message communication in VANETs, classifying them based on the transmission orientation and divulging the gain realized when the method is used. A summary table presenting the comparative study of the protocols is provided.
    • Affective interaction in smart environments

      Caon, Maurizio; Angelini, Leonardo; Khaled, Omar Abou; Lalanne, Denis; Yue, Yong; Mugellini, Elena; University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland; University of Fribourg; University of Bedfordshire; Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University (Elsevier B.V., 2014-06-05)
      We present a concept where the smart environments of the future will be able to provide ubiquitous affective communication. All the surfaces will become interactive and the furniture will display emotions. In particular, we present a first prototype that allows people to share their emotional states in a natural way. The input will be given through facial expressions and the output will be displayed in a context-aware multimodal way. Two novel output modalities are presented: a robotic painting that applies the concept of affective communication to the informative art and an RGB lamp that represents the emotions remaining in the user's peripheral attention. An observation study has been conducted during an interactive event and we report our preliminary findings in this paper.
    • Differential magnetic force microscope imaging

      Wang, Ying; Wang, Zuobin; Liu, Jinyun; Hou, Liwei (John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2015-02-04)
      This paper presents a method for differential magnetic force microscope imaging based on a two-pass scanning procedure to extract differential magnetic forces and eliminate or significantly reduce background forces with reversed tip magnetization. In the work, the difference of two scanned images with reversed tip magnetization was used to express the local magnetic forces. The magnetic sample was first scanned with a low lift distance between the MFM tip and the sample surface, and the magnetization direction of the probe was then changed after the first scan to perform the second scan. The differential magnetic force image was obtained through the subtraction of the two images from the two scans. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that the proposed method for differential magnetic force microscope imaging is able to reduce the effect of background or environment interference forces, and offers an improved image contrast and signal to noise ratio (SNR). SCANNING 37:112-115, 2015.
    • Transferring porous layer from InP wafer based on the disturbance

      Zhang, Yang; Cao, Liang; Chai, Xiangyu; Liang, Kaihua; Han, Yong-Lu; Wang, Yanqi; Wang, Zuobin; Wang, Shuting; Weng, Zhankun; Changchun University of Science and Technology; et al. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017-01-16)
      We present a new method to transfer the three dimensional (3D) porous layer from InP wafer based on the disturbance, during electrochemical etching of n-InP (100) with chronopotentiometry with current ramp in 3 mol-L-1 NaCl solution. The potential bursting phenomenon was observed due to the disturbing instantaneously. In addition, the correlation between the amplitude of the potential and the porous layers separated from the InP wafer was discussed.
    • Tunable electrochemical oscillation and regular 3D nanopore arrays of InP

      Chai, Xiangyu; Weng, Zhankun; Xu, Liping; Wang, Zuobin; Changchun University of Science and Technology; University of Bedfordshire (Electrochemical Society Inc., 2015-06-16)
      Tunable potential oscillations are obtained by electrochemical etching of n-InP (100) in the 3MNaCl solution using the chronoptentiometry with current ramp. The regular 3D nanopore arrays are formed with the change of the current density from 320 to 260 mA · cm-2 at the scan rate 0.72 - 0.80 mA · cm-2 · s-1. The results showed that the current density ranges and scan rate have the effect on the E-t curves and the pore's morphology. The scan rate can regulate not only on the charge consumed per period but also on the amplitude of potential oscillation, and shown that the charge per period and the amplitude can be tuned when proper electrochemical parameters are selected. Furthermore, the pore's morphology will change from the regular structure to irregular with the increasing of the scan rate. In addition, the relation has also been discussed between the E-t curves and the pore's morphology.
    • Study of a novel multi-band antenna for body-centric wireless networks

      Farooq, Waqas; Ur-Rehman, Masood; Yang, Xiaodong; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; University of Bedfordshire; Xidian University; Texas A & M University at Qatar (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-12-07)
      Body-centric wireless networks are used for connectivity between on-body and on-off body communications for various applications for rescue, diagnostics and medical usage. Multiple features of modern portable and wearable devices necessitate antenna operation at a number of frequencies. A compact, low profile and multi-band antenna is presented for body-centric wireless networks in this study. The conventional microstrip rectangular patch antenna has been converted into a multi-band antenna by using layers of mercury and liquid crystal polymer (LCP). The antenna performance in free space and in body-mounted configurations are evaluated and compared using computer simulations. The proposed antenna supports six frequencies for operation at ISM/Wi-Fi/C band. A minimal shift in the operating frequencies while operating in on-body configuration makes this the proposed antenna very resilient to frequency de-tuning caused by the human body presence. The antenna also offers high peak gain values (>7.68 dBi) in the two configurations at all of the operating frequencies.
    • A circular patch frequency reconfigurable antenna for wearable applications

      Farooq, Waqas; Ur-Rehman, Masood; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; Qaraqe, Khalid; University of Bedfordshire; Texas A & M University at Qatar (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-12-07)
      A novel frequency reconfigurable microstrip patch antenna has been presented for 3.6 GHz and 5 GHz. Compared to the traditional, complicated and high cost frequency reconfigurable antennas, our work is featured by a simple and concise design. The frequency reconfiguration is obtained by using layers of mercury and liquid crystal polymer (LCP) on conventional patch antenna. The proposed structure was modelled and simulated using CST Microwave Studio. The antenna was first simulated in free space to check the antenna parameters such as return loss, gain, radiation pattern and efficiency. After obtaining the results, the antenna was simulated for analysing the on-body performance by using numerical model of human body. The simulated return loss for both the configurations is less than -10 dB at the radiating frequencies. The free space simulated results show the close agreement with the on-body test results.
    • 3D reconstruction in surgery of hydatid cyst of the liver

      Minaev, Sergey; Gerasimenko, Igor; Shchetinin, Evgeny; Schetinin, Vitaly; Mishvelov, Artem Evgenevich; Nuzhnaya, Kristina Vladimirovna; Grigorova, Alina Nikolaevna; Rubanova, Maria Fedorovna (Stavropol State Medical University, 2019-12-31)
      Preoperative evaluation of the liver with hydatid cyst and surrounding tissue structures is extremely important for planning the course of surgery. The first experience of treating a patient with a parasitic cyst using a 3D reconstruction of the liver with hydatid cyst at the preoperative stage was presented. Thus, this approach allowed us to avoid the development of intraoperative complications and to obtain a good result of treatment.
    • Fabrication of Pt nanowires with a diffraction-unlimited feature size by high-threshold lithography

      Li, Li; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Wenjun; Peng, Kuiqing; Zhang, Ziang; Yu, Miao; Song, Zhengxun; Weng, Zhankun; Wang, Dapeng; Zhao, Le; et al. (American Institute of Physics Inc., 2015-09-29)
      Although the nanoscale world can already be observed at a diffraction-unlimited resolution using far-field optical microscopy, to make the step from microscopy to lithography still requires a suitable photoresist material system. In this letter, we consider the threshold to be a region with a width characterized by the extreme feature size obtained using a Gaussian beam spot. By narrowing such a region through improvement of the threshold sensitization to intensity in a high-threshold material system, the minimal feature size becomes smaller. By using platinum as the negative photoresist, we demonstrate that high-threshold lithography can be used to fabricate nanowire arrays with a scalable resolution along the axial direction of the linewidth from the micro- to the nanoscale using a nanosecond-pulsed laser source with a wavelength λ0 = 1064 nm. The minimal feature size is only several nanometers (sub λ0/100). Compared with conventional polymer resist lithography, the advantages of high-threshold lithography are sharper pinpoints of laser intensity triggering the threshold response and also higher robustness allowing for large area exposure by a less-expensive nanosecond-pulsed laser.