Recent Submissions

  • Improving utility of GPU in accelerating industrial applications with user-centered automatic code translation

    Yang, Po; Dong, Feng; Codreanu, Valeriu; Williams, David; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Liu, Baoquan; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Min, Geyong; University of Bedfordshire; SURFsara; et al. (IEEE Computer Society, 2017-07-24)
    Small to medium enterprises (SMEs), particularly those whose business is focused on developing innovative produces, are limited by a major bottleneck in the speed of computation in many applications. The recent developments in GPUs have been the marked increase in their versatility in many computational areas. But due to the lack of specialist GPUprogramming skills, the explosion of GPU power has not been fully utilized in general SME applications by inexperienced users. Also, the existing automatic CPU-to-GPU code translators are mainly designed for research purposes with poor user interface design and are hard to use. Little attentions have been paid to the applicability, usability, and learnability of these tools for normal users. In this paper, we present an online automated CPU-to-GPU source translation system (GPSME) for inexperienced users to utilize the GPU capability in accelerating general SME applications. This system designs and implements a directive programming model with a new kernel generation scheme and memory management hierarchy to optimize its performance. A web service interface is designed for inexperienced users to easily and flexibly invoke the automatic resource translator. Our experiments with nonexpert GPU users in four SMEs reflect that a GPSME system can efficiently accelerate real-world applications with at least 4× and have a better applicability, usability, and learnability than the existing automatic CPU-to-GPU source translators.
  • Evaluation of autoparallelization toolkits for commodity GPUs

    Williams, David; Codreanu, Valeriu; Yang, Po; Liu, Baoquan; Dong, Feng; Yasar, Burhan; Mahdian, Babak; Chiarini, Alessandro; Zhao, Xia; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; et al. (Springer Verlag, 2014-12-31)
    In this paper we evaluate the performance of the OpenACC and Mint toolkits against C and CUDA implementations of the standard PolyBench test suite. Our analysis reveals that performance is similar in many cases, but that a certain set of code constructs impede the ability of Mint to generate optimal code. We then present some small improvements which we integrate into our own GPSME toolkit (which is derived from Mint) and show that our toolkit now out-performs OpenACC in the majority of tests.
  • The dark web: cyber-security intelligence gathering opportunities, risks and rewards

    Epiphaniou, Gregory; French, Tim; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire (University of Zagreb, 2014-12-31)
    We offer a partial articulation of the threats and opportunities posed by the so-called Dark Web (DW). We go on to propose a novel DW attack detection and prediction model. Signalling aspects are considered wherein the DW is seen to comprise a low cost signaling environment. This holds inherent dangers as well as rewards for investigators as well as those with criminal intent. Suspected DW perpetrators typically act entirely in their own self-interest (e.g. illicit financial gain, terrorism, propagation of extremist views, extreme forms of racism, pornography, and politics; so-called 'radicalisation'). DWinvestigators therefore need to be suitably risk aware such that the construction of a credible legally admissible, robust evidence trail does not expose investigators to undue operational or legal risk.
  • Towards DR inventor: a tool for promoting scientific creativity

    O’Donoghue, D.P.; Saggion, H.; Dong, Feng; Hurley, D.; Abgaz, Y.; Zheng, X.; Corcho, O,; Zhang, J.J.; Careil, J.M.; Mahdian, B.; et al. (Jozef Stefan Institute, 2014-12-31)
    We propose an analogy-based model to promote creative scientific reasoning among its users. Dr Inventor aims to find novel and potentially useful creative analogies between academic documents, presenting them to users as potential research questions to be explored and investigated. These novel comparisons will thereby drive its users’ creative reasoning. Dr Inventor is aimed at promoting Big-C Creativity and the H-creativity associated with true scientific creativity.
  • Study of a microstrip patch antenna with multiple circular slots for portable devices

    Farooq, Waqas; Ur-Rehman, Masood; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; Maqbool, Khawaja Qasim; Qaraqe, Khalid; University of Bedfordshire; Texas A & M University, Qatar; Bahria University (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-03-16)
    This paper presents the design and study of a high performance microstrip rectangular patch antenna for the 2.5 GHz ISM band. The proposed antenna make use of small multiple circular slots embedded in the radiator to enhance the performance of the traditional patch antenna. Introduction of the new multi-slot arrangement offers a low profile antenna with reduced size, improved impedance matching, broadband operation. A comparatively wider -10 dB impedance bandwidth of 95 MHz is achieved. The maximum achievable gain is 6.8 dBi.Good performance, light weight, mechanically rugged and inexpensive design make this antenna a potential candidate for wireless portable devices.
  • Ontology driven personal health knowledge discovery

    Yu, Hong Qing; Zhao, Xia; Deng, Zhikun; Dong, Feng; University of Bedfordshire (Springer Verlag, 2015-08-04)
    With fast development of smart sensor devices and mobile applications, all different kinds of information related to humans can be founded on the Internet that can be seen as a universal data repository or called Web of Data. Health or healthcare related data are not exceptional in the Web of Data age. The most important and valuable data comes from IoT such as sensors and mobile activity tracking applications to support developing self-health risk detection and management applications. This paper presents a comprehensive ontology driven knowledge discovery framework in personal health domain, which aims to reason and discover health knowledge from various data sources of IoT. The framework contains a sensor oriented Personal Wellness Knowledge Ontology and data integration architecture to complete a whole lifecycle of health knowledge detecting and reasoning path. In addition, a cloud computing based parallel semantic lifting algorithm is described for illustrating the semantic data generation process in detail.
  • Implantable antennas for bio-medical applications

    Malik, Nabeel A.; Sant, Paul; Ajmal, Tahmina; Ur-Rehman, Masood; University of Bedfordshire; University of Glasgow (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-10-08)
    Biomedical telemetry has gained a lot of attention with the development in the healthcare industry. This technology has made it feasible to monitor the physiological signs of patient remotely without traditional hospital appointments and follow up routine check-ups. Implantable Medical Devices(IMDs) play an important role to monitor the patients through wireless telemetry. IMDs consist of nodes and implantable sensors in which antenna is a major component. The implantable sensors suffer a lot of limitations. Various factors need to be considered for the implantable sensors such as miniaturization, patient safety, bio-compatibility, low power consumption, lower frequency band of operation and dual-band operation to have a robust and continuous operation. The selection of the antenna is a challenging task in implantable sensor design as it dictates performance of the whole implant. In this paper a critical review on implantable antennas for biomedical applications is presented.
  • A tri-band implantable antenna for biotelemetry applications

    Malik, Nabeel A.; Ajmal, Tahmina; Sant, Paul; Ur-Rehman, Masood; University of Bedfordshire; University of Glasgow (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-29)
    In this paper we propose a compact size rectangular implantable tri-band patch antenna for biotelemetry applications. Rogers RT6010 is used as substrate and superstrate material. The resonant frequency is further lowered by using a shorting pin which also reduces patch resistance. For excitation 50-ohm microstrip line is used. The antenna operates in MICS band (402405) MHz, ISM band (902-928) MHz and (2.4-2.48) GHz at 402 MHz, 915 MHz and 2.4 GHz. The gain of the antenna is 2.05 dBi, 2.67 dBi and 5.39 dBi with bandwidth of 120 MHz, 166 MHz and 190 MHz at relevant frequencies when simulated in a fat layer box. SAR values are within allowable limits. The simulated results show that the antenna is an excellent choice for implantable applications as it can be used for data transmission, wakeup signal and wireless power transfer by using three frequency bands.
  • A compact size implantable antenna for bio-medical applications

    Malik, Nabeel A.; Ajmal, Tahmina; Sant, Paul; Ur-Rehman, Masood; University of Bedfordshire; University of Glasgow (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-29)
    Implantable antennas play a vital role in implantable sensors and medical devices. In this paper, we present the design of a compact size implantable antenna for biomedical applications. The antenna is designed to operate in ISM band at 915 MHz and the overall size of the antenna is 4 imes 4 imes 0.3 mm {3}. A shorting pin is used to lower the operating frequency of the antenna. For excitation purpose a 50-ohm coaxial probe feed is used in the design. A superstrate layer is placed on the patch to prevent the direct contact between the radiating patch and body tissues. The antenna is simulated in skin layer model. The designed antenna demonstrates a gain of 3.22 dBi while having a-10 dB bandwidth of 240 MHz with good radiation characteristics at 915 MHz. The simulated results show that this antenna is an excellent candidate for implantable applications.
  • Green communications: techniques and challenges

    Malik, Nabeel A.; Ur-Rehman, Masood; ; University of Bedfordshire (European Alliance for Innovation, 2017-10-04)
    Green technology has drawn a huge amount of attention with the development of the modern world. Similarly with the development in communication technology the industries and researchers are focusing to make this communication as green as possible. In cellular technology the evolution of 5G is the next step to fulfil the user demands and it will be available to the users in 2020. This will increase the energy consumption by which will result in excess emission of co2. In this paper different techniques for the green communication technology and some challenges are discussed. These techniques include device-to-device communication (D2D), massive Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems, heterogeneous networks (HetNets) and Green Internet of Things (IoT).
  • Design an asymmetrical three-beam laser interference lithography for fabricating micro- and nano-structures

    Dong, Litong; Zhang, Ziang; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Dayou; Liu, Mengnan; Changchun University of Science and Technology; University of Bedfordshire; Changchun Observatory (Japan Laser Processing Society, 2020-09-01)
    Multi-beam laser interference lithography (LIL) has become one of the most important techniques and shown significant advantages in the fabrication of micro- and nano-structures. Controlling inten-sity ratio of optical distributions is a key issue in LIL for fabricating micro- and nano-structures. This paper presents an asymmetrical three-beam LIL system which effectively improves the intensity ratio of optical distributions. Comparing with the symmetrical three-beam interference, the asymmetrical three-beam LIL achieved the high intensity ratio of optical distribution when producing the similar interference pattern. In addition, this system also avoids modulation patterns in multi-beam LIL sys-tems and reduces the difficulty of actual LIL processing. A fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis used to study the pattern distributions of the asymmetrical three-beam interference from frequency spectra which shows that the pattern with a high-intensity array can be obtained by adjusting the parameter settings of incident laser beams. The asymmetrical three-beam LIL system was verified through fab-ricating patterns. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical analyses.
  • Application of atomic force microscope in diagnosis of single cancer cells

    Lu, Zhengcheng; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Dayou; ; University of Bedfordshire; Changchun University of Science and Technology (American Institute of Physics Inc., 2020-09-04)
    Changes in mechanical properties of cells are closely related to a variety of diseases. As an advanced technology on the micro/nano scale, atomic force microscopy is the most suitable tool for information acquisition of living cells in human body fluids. AFMs are able to measure and characterize the mechanical properties of cells which can be used as effective markers to distinguish between different cell types and cells in different states (benign or cancerous). Therefore, they can be employed to obtain additional information to that obtained via the traditional biochemistry methods for better identifying and diagnosing cancer cells for humans, proposing better treatment methods and prognosis, and unravelling the pathogenesis of the disease. In this report, we review the use of AFMs in cancerous tissues, organs, and cancer cells cultured in vitro to obtain cellular mechanical properties, demonstrate and summarize the results of AFMs in cancer biology, and look forward to possible future applications and the direction of development.
  • Impingement behaviour of single ethanol droplet on a liquid film of glycerol solution

    Lu, Lili; Pei, Yiqiang; Qin, Jing; Peng, Zhijun; Wang, Yuqian; Zhu, Qingyang; Tianjin University; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier Ltd, 2020-05-16)
    Research on single drop impact, especially in the past two decades, has been motivated by a need for better predictive capability in many industries. However, there are few reports in the literature describing the case of single droplet impinging on liquid films with different physicochemical properties. In this study, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) methods were used to clarify the impingement behaviour of millimetre-sized single ethanol droplets onto films of different concentrations of glycerol solution. The impingement behaviour is found to differ depending on the Weber number of the incident droplet and the viscosity and the thickness of the liquid film. New results on coalescence/splash thresholds criteria are obtained taking into account the incident droplet Weber number and liquid film characteristics. In addition, the formation mechanism and composition of secondary droplets and crown structures after collision are analysed. For the crown structure parameters, we found that the evolution of the crown height over time is affected by the combination of droplet and liquid film characteristics. The maximum height and diameter of the crown are proportional to the Weber number of the incident droplet, and these parameters can be predicted by the combination of the incident droplet Weber number and the liquid film Ohnesorge number.
  • Fabrication of biomimetic superhydrophobic and anti-icing Ti6Al4V alloy surfaces by direct laser interference lithography and hydrothermal treatment

    Liu, Ri; Chi, Zhengdong; Cao, Liang; Weng, Zhankun; Wang, Lu; Li, Li; Saeed, Sadaf; Lian, Zhongxu; Wang, Zuobin; Changchun University of Science and Technology; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-08-17)
    Nature gives us a large number of inspirations in designing functional materials. Many plant leaves with self-cleaning properties are ubiquitous in nature. These plants have hierarchical structures, which have extreme repellency to liquids and have considerable technical potential in various applications. Herein, we present a method for fabricating bionic taro leaf surfaces by direct laser interference lithography (DLIL) and hydrothermal treatment. The micro-pillar array structure (MPA) was fabricated by DLIL, and a layer of nano-grass structure (NG) was grown on it by hydrothermal treatment. Experiments indicate that the hierarchical composite structures not only have a satisfactory superhydrophobic function with the apparent contact angle (CA) of 172° and sliding angle (SA) of 4°, but also have a strong anti-icing ability with the delay time (DT) of 3723 s. The method is simple and high-efficient for fabricating bionic self-cleaning and anti-icing surfaces.
  • Counting calories without wearables: device-free human energy expenditure estimation

    Rahaman, Habibur; Dyo, Vladimir; University of Bedfordshire (2020-10-12)
    Maintaining certain physical activity levels is important to prevent or delay the onset of many medical conditions such as diabetes, or mental health disorders. Traditional calorie estimation methods require wearing devices, such as pedometers, smart watches or smart bracelets, which continuously monitor user activity and estimate the energy expenditure. However, wearable devices may not be suitable for some patients due to the need for periodic maintenance, frequent recharging and having to wear it all the time. In this paper we investigate a feasibility of a device- free human energy expenditure estimation based on RF-sensing, which recognises coarse-grained user activity, such as walking, standing, sitting or resting by monitoring the impact of a person’s activity on ambient wireless links. The calorie estimation is then based on Metabolic Equivalent concept that expresses the energy cost of an activity as a multiple of a person’s basal metabolic rate using Harrison-Benedict model. The experimental evaluation using low cost IEEE 802.15.4 transceivers demonstrated that the approach estimated energy expenditure within an indoor environment within 7.4% to 41.2% range when compared to a FitBit Blaze bracelet.
  • Can sustainable water monitoring be a reality?

    Ajmal, Tahmina; Guimares, Laura; Genthe, Bettina; Rivett, Ulrike; University of Bedfordshire; University of Porto; Water Resources - CSIR; University of Cape Town (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-05-13)
    In this paper, authors discuss the current methods used for surface water monitoring and the gaps left in monitoring in context of a low resourced area. Water quality monitoring [1] is a complex problem that can only be tackled through a systemic application of a transdisciplinary approach. This paper suggests use of a variety of innovative solutions adapted to the local conditions encouraging the prospect of sustainability. The approach relies on an emphasis on environmental and water quality for human life that will contribute to: 1) improved capacity building of local actors, including the role of women; 2) increased economic and social well-being at local and regional levels; and 3) protect natural capital in the region. This article reviews the state of water monitoring in low resourced area, example is taken here from Southern Arica and attempts to establish a sustainable water quality monitoring plan for application to cross-boundary water resources in the region. These are essential to diagnose and raise understanding on water quality problems in resources shared by countries with contrasting development levels. The innovative vision presented here proposes to resolve this multidimensional water quality problem by considering the broader system ranging from aquatic ecosystems providing this service to supply systems serving final consumers.
  • Nanoantenna arrays combining enhancement and beam control for fluorescence-based sensing applications

    Dorh, N.; Sarua, A; Ajmal, Tahmina; Okache, Julius; Rega, C.; Müller, G.; Cryan, M.; University of Bristol; University of Bedfordshire; ABB Ltd; et al. (OSA - The Optical Society, 2017-12-31)
    This paper presents measured fluorescence enhancement results for ~250 × 250 element aluminum nanoantenna arrays fabricated using electron beam lithography. The arrays have been designed to use diffractive coupling to enhance and control the direction of fluorescent emission. Highly directional emission is obtained at the designed angles with beam widths simulated to be in the range of 4–6°. Angle-resolved spectroscopy measurements of dye-coated nanoantenna arrays were in good agreement with finite difference time domain modeling. Critically, these results were obtained for near UV wavelengths (~360 nm), which is relevant to a number of biosensing applications.
  • Direct imaging of antigen-antibody binding by atomic force microscopy

    Hu, Jing; Gao, Mingyan; Wang, Zuobin; Chen, Yujuan; Song, Zhengxun; Xu, Hongmei; Changchun University of Science and Technology; University of Bedfordshire (Springer, 2020-09-24)
    Direct observation of antigen-antibody binding at the nanoscale has always been a considerable challenging problem, and researchers have made tremendous efforts on it. In this study, the morphology of biotinylated antibody-specific Immunoglobulin E (IgE) immune complexes has been successfully imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the tapping-mode. The AFM images indicated that the individual immune complex was composed of an IgE and a biotinylated antibody. Excitingly, it is the first time that we have actually seen the IgE binding to biotinylated antibody. Alternatively, information on the length of IgE, biotinylated antibodies and biotinylated antibody-specific IgE immune complexes were also obtained, respectively. These results indicate the versatility of AFM technology in the identification of antigen-antibody binding. This work not only lays the basis for the direct imaging of the biotinylated antibody-IgE by AFM, but also offers valuable information for studying the targeted therapy and vaccine development in the future.
  • 5G Internet of radio light services for Musée de la Carte à Jouer

    Cosmas, John; Meunier, Ben; Ali, Kareem; Jawad, Nawar; Meng, Hong-Ying; Goutagneux, Florian; Legale, Eric; Satta, Matteo; Jay, Pascaline; Zhang, Xun; et al. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018-03-19)
    In this paper we present a 5G Internet Radio-Light (IoRL) architecture and services for museums that can be readily deployed because it utilizes unlicensed visible light and millimeter wave part of the electromagnetic spectrum and which is used to provide museums' visitors with accurate location, interaction, access to Internet and high resolution video on a Tablet PC. The paper describes the museum, its related use case scenarios, the user and functional requirements and the IoRL architecture.
  • Measuring student acceptance of game based learning for game and technology education curriculum development

    Saleh, Nada; Prakash, Edmond C.; Manton, Rob; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-01-12)
    Technological education is the modernized practice of learning through the use of technologies. Edutainment is a kind of education which integrates entertainment for educational purposes and uses video games for education. It is a hybrid learning system that depends basically on narrative, visual materials or game-like formats, with less didactic address styles and on a more informal way. Game based learning or edutainment, just like other technology-based education methods, is being used in western or developed countries. Saudi Arabia is considered a developing country just like other Arab countries; hence, computer education has recently appeared in Saudi Arabian education. Therefore, studying this new development in the Saudi educational systems will effect significantly on the speed of developing the educational systems in Saudi Arabia. However, no edutainment games have been designed for this new curriculum. Therefore this research ultimately aims to design a new edutainment game to be used for the computer technology curriculum. To design an efficient edutainment game system, edutainment game effectiveness and the attitudes of students will be measured to know their technology acceptance level for the new edutainment tool and curriculum. The study is carried out using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), based on four factors; usability, usefulness, ease of use and effectiveness.

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