Recent Submissions

  • Design of a smart system for rapid bacterial test

    Patil, Rajshree; Levin, Saurabh; Rajkumar, Samuel; Ajmal, Tahmina; Institute of Chemical Technology (ICT), Mumbai; Foundation for Environmental Monitoring, Bangalore; University of Bedfordshire (MDPI, 2019-12-19)
    In this article, we present our initial findings to support the design of an advanced field test to detect bacterial contamination in water samples. The system combines the use of image processing and neural networks to detect an early presence of bacterial activity. We present here a proof of concept with some tests results. Our initial findings are very promising and indicate detection of viable bacterial cells within a period of 2 h. To the authors' knowledge this is the first attempt to quantify viable bacterial cells in a water sample using cell splitting. We also present a detailed design of the complete system that uses the time lapse images from a microscope to complete the design of a neural network based smart system.
  • A survey on MAC protocols for complex self-organizing cognitive radio networks

    Shah, Munam Ali; Zhang, Sijing; Kamran, Muhammad; Javaid, Qaisar; Fatima, Bahjat; COMSATS Institute of Information Technology; University of Bedfordshire; University of Sindh; International Islamic University (SpringerOpen, 2016-08-18)
    Complex self-organizing cognitive radio (CR) networks serve as a framework for accessing the spectrum allocation dynamically where the vacant channels can be used by CR nodes opportunistically. CR devices must be capable of exploiting spectrum opportunities and exchanging control information over a control channel. Moreover, CR nodes should intelligently coordinate their access between different cognitive radios to avoid collisions on the available spectrum channels and to vacate the channel for the licensed user in timely manner. Since inception of CR technology, several MAC protocols have been designed and developed. This paper surveys the state of the art on tools, technologies and taxonomy of complex self-organizing CR networks. A detailed analysis on CR MAC protocols form part of this paper. We group existing approaches for development of CR MAC protocols and classify them into different categories and provide performance analysis and comparison of different protocols. With our categorization, an easy and concise view of underlying models for development of a CR MAC protocol is provided.
  • Double threshold authentication using body area radio channel characteristics

    Zhao, Nan; Ren, Aifeng; Hu, Fangming; Zhang, Zhiya; Ur-Rehman, Masood; Zhu, Tianqiao; Yang, Xiaodong; Alomainy, Akram; Xidian University, China; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016-06-06)
    The demand of portable and body-worn devices for remote health monitoring is ever increasing. One of the major challenges caused by this influx of wireless body area network (WBAN) devices is security of user's extremely vital and personal information. Conventional authentication techniques implemented at upper layers of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model usually consumes huge amount of power. They also require significant changes at hardware and software levels. It makes them unsuitable for inherently low powered WBAN devices. This letter investigates the usability of a double threshold algorithm as a physical layer security measure in these scenarios. The algorithm is based on the user's behavioral fingerprint extracted from the radio channel characteristics. Effectiveness of this technique is established through experimental measurements considering a variety of common usage scenarios. The results show that this method provides high level of security against false authentication attacks and has great potential in WBANs.
  • Unidirectional light propagation photonic crystal waveguide incorporating modified defects

    Soltani, A.; Ouerghi, F.; AbdelMalek, Fathi; Haxha, Shyqyri; Ademgil, Huseyin; Akowuah, E.K.; Université de Tunis El Manar; University of Bedfordshire; European University of Lefke; Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (Elsevier GmbH, 2016-11-29)
    In this paper, we have proposed a design of an Optical Diode-like in two-dimensional (2D) Photonic Crystal (PC) waveguide. The proposed device consists of 2D square-lattice PC structures, and it is based on two PC waveguides with different symmetric guiding modes, where various configurations of defects, including elliptic or/and semi-circular defects have been incorporated. The proposed one-way light propagation Optical Diode has been designed and optimized by employing in-house 2D Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) numerical method. We have reported that the unidirectional light propagation depends strongly on the coupling region between the introduced defects and the adjacent waveguides, and it also depends on the matching and mismatching between the defects and waveguide modes. It has been shown also that owing to its tunable features, the proposed Optical Diode can be potentially applied as a building block in future complex optical integrated circuits.
  • Real-time price savings through price suggestions for the smart grid demand response model

    Mahmud, ASM Ashraf; Sant, Paul; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017-06-15)
    The smart grid is the solution for the outdated current state of the power grid. An Energy Provider (EP) and Energy User (EU) are both looking to achieve savings. A Real-Time (RT) Demand Response (DR) pricing mechanism can reduce an EUs' bill and at the same time reduce the overall peak demand and Peak to Average Ratio (PAR) so that EP save their cost. In this paper, we will provide a model that uses a Price Suggestion Unit (pSU) and Price Control Unit (PCU) that provides Real-Time Price suggestions in the SG; we tested the model with a simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) algorithm considering the threshold energy consumption with real data by using a stochastic iterative process. The EU has a choice to respond to the price suggestion. However, if they are non-responsive still they can still save on their bill in terms of taking advantage of the overall responses of other EUs.
  • Patient empowerment for cancer patients through a novel ICT infrastructure

    Kondylakis, Haridimos; Bucur, Anca; Crico, Chiara; Dong, Feng; Graf, Norbert; Hoffman, Stefan; Koumakis, Lefteris; Manenti, Alice; Marias, Kostas; Mazzocco, Ketti; et al. (Academic Press Inc., 2019-12-06)
    As a result of recent advances in cancer research and “precision medicine” approaches, i.e. the idea of treating each patient with the right drug at the right time, more and more cancer patients are being cured, or might have to cope with a life with cancer. For many people, cancer survival today means living with a complex and chronic condition. Surviving and living with or beyond cancer requires the long-term management of the disease, leading to a significant need for active rehabilitation of the patients. In this paper, we present a novel methodology employed in the iManageCancer project for cancer patient empowerment in which personal health systems, serious games, psychoemotional monitoring and other novel decision-support tools are combined into an integrated patient empowerment platform. We present in detail the ICT infrastructure developed and our evaluation with the involvement of cancer patients on two sites, a large-scale pilot for adults and a small-scale test for children. The evaluation showed mixed evidences on the improvement of patient empowerment, while ability to cope with cancer, including improvement in mood and resilience to cancer, increased for the participants of the adults′ pilot.
  • IManageCancer: developing a platform for empowering patients and strengthening self-management in cancer diseases

    Graf, Norbert; Hoffman, Stefan; Koumakis, Lefteris; Pravettoni, Gabrielli; Marias, Kostas; Tsiknakis, Manolis; Kiefer, Stefan; Kondylakis, Haridimos; Bucur, Anca; Dong, Feng; et al. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017-11-13)
    Cancer research has led to more cancer patients being cured, and many more enabled to live with their cancer. As such, some cancers are now considered a chronic disease, where patients and their families face the challenge to take an active role in their own care and in some cases in their treatment. To this direction the iManageCancer project aims to provide a cancer specific self-management platform designed according to the needs of patient groups while focusing, in parallel, on the wellbeing of the cancer patient. In this paper, we present the use-case requirements collected using a survey, a workshop and the analysis of three white papers and then we explain the corresponding system architecture. We describe in detail the main technological components of the designed platform, show the current status of development and we discuss further directions of research.
  • Guaranteed timely delivery of control packets for reliable industrial wireless networks in industry 4.0 Era

    Karimireddy, Thanmayee; Zhang, Sijing; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE Computer Society, 2017-07-27)
    Industry 4.0 initiated the need of networking the factory automation and manufacturing facilities by forming industrial wireless networks. The industrial wireless networks transmit control packets having hard real time traffic with stringent deadline and reliability requirements. This paper presents a novel control panel approach that guarantees timely delivery of the control packets in a reliable industrial wireless network. Considering the wireless channel contention in these networks, the control panel aims at offering deterministic channel access time to each node in the network based on their relative message deadlines. A deterministic channel access algorithm is proposed in this paper to offer time guaranteed control packet delivery and a parameter, Pguarantee is developed to determine the probability of timely delivery of control packets before the deadline. The use of this proposed deterministic channel access algorithm in Industry 4.0 applications along with adaptive error control approach helps in supporting the timely and reliable delivery of the control packets. The performance of the proposed method is shown through detailed analytical and simulation experiment results in this paper.
  • A novel framework to provide reliable and timely communication for industrial control applications using wireless token passing approach

    Karimireddy, Thanmayee; Zhang, Sijing; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017-05-04)
    This paper investigates the strict reliable and timely requirements of the hard real traffic based control packets in the industrial control applications. As a result, a framework is proposed with two novel approaches intended to meet the strict deadline requirements and reliability requirements of the industrial control packets. The first novel approach, timed control panel incorporates timed token protocol to provide guaranteed channel access time to each station present in the wireless ring structure. The second novel approach, adaptive sub-MAC Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ) reduces the packet error rate and the packet loss rate by reducing the size of MAC frame by half. The mathematical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed framework ensures in providing the reliable and timely communications for Industrial control applications.
  • Relia-MAC: timely and reliable communication for safety critical applications of VANET

    Aredla, Jyothi; Zhang, Sijing; Liu, Enjie; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019-11-11)
    A vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) is a type of ad-hoc network that has gained high attention over the past few years and is extensively used in safety critical applications in case of emergency like road accidents. The proper working of VANET in these safety critical applications requires the need of VANET supporting timely and reliable delivery of the data to the receiver vehicles. However, supporting both timely and reliable delivery of the data messages to the receiver has become highly challenging in VANET because vehicle mobility, dynamic mobility pattern of the vehicles, dynamic network topology, and error-prone wireless communication channel. In this paper, this challenge is addressed by proposing Relia-MAC framework that adds timing properties to the novel Adaptive Byte-Hybrid Automatic Repeat request (AB-HARQ) method. The uniqueness of this paper lies in developing a single framework which when implemented in a vehicular ad-hoc network can assure both timely and reliable delivery of the data packets. Both analytic model and simulation studies are used in this paper to evaluate the effectiveness of proposed framework. The simulation studies have identified the effectiveness of Relia-MAC framework in recording higher ring throughput value and packet delivery ratio.
  • Incorporation of timing properties into adaptive error control method for timely and reliable communication in industrial automation networks

    Karimireddy, Thanmayee; Zhang, Sijing; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2017-08-23)
    With the evolution of Industry 4.0, factory automation and manufacturing facilities are integrated and interconnected with each other, resulting in the formation of industrial automation networks. In industrial automation networks, transmission of high priority control packets help in monitoring and controlling the industrial machinery automatically. Proper working of these industrial automation networks require timely and reliable communication of control packets dealing with hard real-time traffic due to the presence of highly error prone wireless channels for communication. This study investigates the application of error control approaches to increase the reliability of control packet delivery within the strict deadline of industrial control applications of automation networks. In particular, Adaptive Sub MAC-Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (ASM-HARQ) error control method is proposed in this paper to improve reliability of control packets delivery using both data redundancy and packet retransmission approaches. In order to ensure timely recoverability of any error packets at the receiver, an end-to-end delay packet retransmission metric, Tdelay, is developed in this study that helps in calculating the time required for packet retransmissions. The performance of ASM-HARQ method and its timing properties is shown through detailed analytical model and validated through simulated experiments in this study.
  • Reliable communication framework for time-critical wireless industrial control networks

    Karimireddy, Thanmayee; Zhang, Sijing; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE Computer Society, 2017-07-27)
    Industrial control network is considered as a system of several interconnecting devices that can control and monitor the industrial environments. Most control networks are widely used in industries with high degree of automation where the need of real of hard real time data accuracy is highly critical for high yield and machine uptime. The control packets transmitted over these control networks consists of hard real time data that is characterized as time-critical. Considering the hard real-time data accuracy and time-criticality, this paper proposes a framework to support reliable and timely transmission of control packets over industrial control networks. This framework is built on two approaches: control panel method and adaptive HARQ method. The control panel method is based on wireless token passing approach called timed token protocol that is widely used for hard real time traffic. The adaptive HARQ is developed to guarantee delivery of control packets accurately before the deadline. A combination of mathematical analysis and simulation studies are used in this paper to show the effectiveness of the proposed framework in providing reliable communication of time-critical control data.
  • Fabrication of TiO2 nanowire arrays using laser interference lithography aided hydrothermal method

    Ning, Xiao-Hui; Meng, Qing-Ling; Li, Li; Han, Yong-Lu; Zhou, Dong-Yang; Cao, Liang; Weng, Zhankun; Ding, Ran; Wang, Zuobin; Changchun University of Science and Technology; et al. (IEEE, 2018-02-08)
    Titanium dioxide (TÍO 2 ) is one of the most widely investigated semiconductor materials because of its unique properties. TiO 2 nanowire arrays can be synthesized through a two-step method, the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates were ablated using laser interference lithography technology, and TiO 2 nanowire arrays grown on the patterned FTO substrates. The TiO 2 nanowire arrays were characterized by SEM and XRD measurements. This work provides a high efficient method for the fabrication of ordered TiO 2 nanowire arrays for different applications in highly functionalized assemblies and composites.
  • Controlled manipulation of TRAIL into single human colon cancer cells using atomic force microscope

    Qu, Yingmin; Liu, Jinyun; Wang, Guoliang; Song, Zhengxun; Wang, Zuobin; Changchun University of Science and Technology; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018-02-08)
    In this study, an AFM tip was used to penetrate the human colon cancer cells (SW480) in the culture medium containing pEGFP-N1-TRAIL plasmids. The trail plasmids encoded with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were moved into the SW480 cells through membrane holes created by the AFM probe. Following the penetration, the culture medium was changed into the RPMI1640 medium supplemented with 10% of fetal bovine serum and incubated for 24h. The expression of PEGFP-N1-TRAIL in SW480 cells was then observed by inverted fluorescence microscope. The experiment results indicate that the AFM tip can be used to penetrate the membranes of targeted cells individually.
  • Surface texturing on stainless steel by direct laser interference lithography

    Li, Wenjun; Cao, Liang; Liu, Qi; Yu M; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Dayou; Li, Dong; Meng, Jiao; Changchun University of Science and Technology; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018-02-08)
    A method for the surface texturing of well-designed and high controllable micro dimple structures on stainless steel by direct laser interference lithography (DLIL) is presented. The method offers its innovation that the micro circular dimple structures can be fabricated directly by controlling the process of three-beam laser interference. Different exposure durations have been studied to achieve the optimum value of the dimple diameter and density in order to reduce the friction coefficient of stainless steel. The dry sliding test of friction coefficients were performed by mechanical tester (UMT-TriboLab) under normal loads of 15 N. The results indicate that the micro circular dimple structures with the average dimple diameter of 4.2 μm and density of 23 percent have about 77% reduction of friction coefficient compared with untreated surfaces.
  • Establishing an optimized method for the separation of low and high abundance blood plasma proteins

    Yang, Henian; Wang, Guijie; Zhang, Tiantian; Beattie, John H.; Zhou, Shaobo; University of Bedfordshire; Bournemouth University; University of Aberdeen (PeerJ, 2020-02-01)
    The study tested the efficiency and reproducibility of a method for optimal separation of low and high abundant proteins in blood plasma. Firstly, three methods for the separation and concentration of eluted (E: low abundance), or bound (B: high abundance) proteins were investigated: TCA protein precipitation, the ReadyPrep™ 2-D cleanup Kit and Vivaspin Turbo 4, 5 kDa ultrafiltration units. Secondly, the efficiency and reproducibility of a Seppro column or a ProteoExtract Albumin/IgG column were assessed by quantification of E and B proteins. Thirdly, the efficiency of two elution buffers, containing either 25% or 10% glycerol for elution of the bound protein, was assessed by measuring the remaining eluted volume and the final protein concentration. Compared to the samples treated with TCA protein precipitation and the ReadyPrep™ 2-D cleanup Kit, the E and B proteins concentrated by the Vivaspin4, 5 kDa ultrafiltration unit were separated well in both 1-D and 2-D gels. The depletion efficiency of abundant protein in the Seppro column was reduced after 15 cycles of sample processing and regeneration and the average ratio of E/(B + E) × 100% was 37 ± 11(%) with a poor sample reproducibility as shown by a high coefficient of variation (CV = 30%). However, when the ProteoExtract Albumin/IgG column was used, the ratio of E/(B + E) × 100% was 43 ± 3.1% (n = 6) and its CV was 7.1%, showing good reproducibility. Furthermore, the elution buffer containing 10% (w/v) glycerol increased the rate of B protein elution from the ProteoExtract Albumin/IgG column, and an appropriate protein concentration (3.5 µg/µl) for a 2-D gel assay could also be obtained when it was concentrated with Vivaspin Turbo 4, 5 kDa ultrafiltration unit. In conclusion, the ProteoExtract Albumin/IgG column shows good reproducibility of preparation of low and high abundance blood plasma proteins when using the elution buffer containing 10% (w/v) glycerol. The optimized method of preparation of low/high abundance plasma proteins was when plasma was eluted through a ProteoExtract Albumin/IgG removal column, the column was further washed with elution buffer containing 10% glycerol. The first and second elution containing the low and high abundance plasma proteins, respectively, were further concentrated using Vivaspin® Turbo 4, 5 kDa ultrafiltration units for 1 or 2-D gel electrophoresis.
  • A developed magnetic force microscope

    Liu, Jinyun; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Dayou; Changchun University of Science and Technology; University of Bedfordshire (Springer Verlag, 2017-06-13)
    In this paper, a magnetic force microscope (MFM) was developed for applications in liquid environment. The 3D structure of the developed MFM system was designed first and then the components of every part were machined and assembled. The laser beam horizontally reached the mirror and reflected vertically to the cantilever of the probe to reduce the effect of air, glass and liquid refraction. This research focuses on the design of a specific MFM system to obtain the magnetic force images in liquids.
  • Effect of liquid on the magnetic force microscope imaging

    Liu, Jinyun; Song, Zhengxun; Wang, Zuobin; Qiu, Renxi; Li, Dayou; Changchun University of Science and Technology; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018-02-08)
    It is known that when the probe vibrating in liquid, the oscillation of the cantilever is significantly damped by the interaction forces between the water molecule and the probe surface, which is known as the hydration force. Thus, the parameters of a tapping magnetic probe are affected. In this work, the resonant frequency, Q-factor and spring constant of the magnetic probe in air and liquid environments were analyzed. The MFM images of a hard disk acquired in ambient and liquid conditions were compared. It was found that the hydration force affected the parameters of the magnetic probe and then the quality of the MFM images was decreased. To improve the quality of the magnetic images, the drive amplitude and the lift height were adjusted. The results showed that the magnetic features were recognized with the increases of the drive amplitude and the appropriate lift height.
  • An implementation of SLAM using ROS and Arduino

    Ibáñez, Adrián Lendínez; Qiu, Renxi; Li, Dayou; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018-02-08)
    This paper aims to explore the Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) problem in the context of implementation using the Robot Operating System (ROS) framework and the Arduino technology. The implementation of an inexpensive differential drive robot for SLAM is detailed and verified by mapping experiments conducted within domestic environments. Furthermore, a modest, yet convenient, theoretical explanation of the algorithm (Rao-Blackwellization particle filter) behind the platform is also presented. Overall, this report leads to a simple and cost effective way - including a code base and guidelines - to create robots for 2D mapping using modern technologies such as ROS.

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