• The 30-15 intermittent fitness test: can it predict outcomes in field tests of anaerobic performance?

      Scott, Brendan R.; Hodson, Jacob A.; Govus, Andrew; Dascombe, Ben; Murdoch University; University of Newcastle, New South Wales; University of Bedfordshire; La Trobe University (Wolters Kluwer, 2017-10-29)
      This study determined whether a composite assessment of intermittent fitness could be used to quantify performance in several anaerobic tasks. Fifty-two male recreational athletes (age: 24.3 ± 4.4 years; body mass: 85.1 ± 12.2 kg; height: 180.5 ± 7.0 cm) were recruited from various team sports. Participants completed a battery of field tests to assess sprinting speed (40-m sprint), acceleration ability (10-m sprint), change of direction speed (505 test), anaerobic capacity (300-m shuttle), lower-body power (vertical jump), and repeated-sprint ability and the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test to determine the velocity of intermittent fitness (VIFT). Relationships between anaerobic tests and VIFT were quantified via Pearson product-moment correlations, and a 2-predictor model multiple linear regression estimated the predictive relationships between the exercise tests and the VIFT. Multiple linear regression showed that VIFT significantly predicted 56, 51, 44, 36, 12, and 1% of the variance in the 300-m shuttle, repeated sprint, 505- and 40-m sprint, vertical jump, and 10-m sprint tests, respectively. The 2-predictor model determined the 300-m shuttle, and repeated-sprint performance accounted for 67% of the variance in VIFT. These findings highlight that various anaerobic characteristics contribute to the intermittent fitness qualities that are quantified through VIFT. More specifically, these data indicate that VIFT is useful for tracking performance in tasks largely determined by anaerobic capacity, but may not be a good predictor of brief all-out sprinting and jumping efforts.
    • '5,000 feet is the best’: drone warfare, targets and Paul Virilio’s ‘accident’

      Piotrowska, Agnieszka (Edinburgh University Press, 2017-02-01)
    • aaa Clarivate analytics (formerly produced by Thomson Reuters) journal metrics and AJPH

      Shelepak A. (American Public Health Association Inc., 2018-12-12)
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    • The ABA-1 allergen of Ascaris lumbricoides: sequence polymorphism, stage and tissue-specific expression, lipid binding function, and protein biophysical properties

      Xia, Y.; Spence, H.J.; Moore, Joyce; Heaney, N.; McDermott, Lindsay C.; Cooper, Alan; Watson, D.G.; Mei, B.; Komuniecki, R.; Kennedy, Malcolm W.; et al. (Cambridge University Press, 2000-02-28)
      The ABA-1 protein of Ascaris lumbricoides (of humans) and Ascaris suum (of pigs) is abundant in the pseudocoelomic fluid of the parasites and also appears to be released by the tissue-parasitic larvae and the adult stages. The genes encoding the polyprotein precursor of ABA-1 (aba-1) were found to be arranged similarly in the two taxa, comprising tandemly repeating units encoding a large polyprotein which is cleaved to yield polypeptides of approximately 15 kDa which fall into 2 distinct classes, types A and B. The polyprotein possibly comprises only 10 units. The aba-1 gene of A. lumbricoides is polymorphic, and the majority of substitutions observed occur in or near predicted loop regions in the encoded proteins. mRNA for ABA-1 is present in infective larvae within the egg, and in all parasitic stages, but was not detectable in unembryonated eggs. ABA-1 mRNA was confined to the gut of adult parasites, and not in body wall or reproductive tissues. Recombinant protein representing a single A-type unit for the A. lumbricoides aba-1 gene was produced and found to bind retinol (Vitamin A) and a range of fatty acids, including the pharmacologically active lipids lysophosphatidic acid, lysoplatelet activating factor, and there was also evidence of binding to leukotrienes. It failed to bind to any of the anthelmintics screened. Differential Scanning Calorimetry showed that the recombinant protein was highly stable, and unfolded in a single transition at 90.4 degrees C. Analysis of the transition indicated that the protein occurs as a dimer and that the dimer dissociates simultaneously with the unfolding of the monomer units.
    • Absence of association between behavior problems in childhood and hypertension in midlife

      Saad, Sadiq M.; Randhawa, Gurch; Pang, Dong; University of Bedfordshire (Public Library of Science, 2016-12-09)
      Background It is known that behavior in childhood is associated with certain physical and mental health problems in midlife. However, there is limited evidence on the role of childhood behavior problems in the development of hypertension in adulthood. The present study aimed to examine whether behavior problems in childhood influenced the risk of hypertension in midlife in the United Kingdom 1958 birth cohort. Methods The 1958 British birth cohort comprised 17,638 individuals born in the first week of March 1958 in the United Kingdom. Behavior problems were assessed at 7, 11, and 16 years of age by parents and teachers. At age 45, blood pressure was measured and hypertension was recorded if blood pressure was ≥140/90 mm Hg or if the participants were informed by their health professionals that they had high blood pressure. Behavioral information was reported according to the Rutter Children's Behaviour Questionnaire (RCBQ) and the Bristol Social Adjustment Guide (BSAG). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to examine behavior problems in childhood in relation to hypertension at 45 years of age according to logistic regression analysis, with adjustment for sex, social class in childhood and adulthood, childhood cognition, birth weight, gestational age at birth, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Results Behavior problems reported by parents at 7, 11, and 16 years were not associated with hypertension in midlife (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.81, 1.07; OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.81, 1.11; OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.85, 1.12, respectively). Similarly, teacher-reported behavior problems at 7, 11, and 16 years were not associated with hypertension in midlife (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.72, 1.18; OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.84, 1.02; OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.92, 1.15, respectively). Further separate analyses showed similar results for males and females. Conclusion There is no association between behavior problems in childhood and hypertension in midlife.
    • Abuse through sexual image sharing in schools: response and responsibility

      Lloyd, Jenny (Taylor & Francis, 2018-08-16)
      The question of how to tackle abuse through adolescent sexual image sharing is an increasing concern for schools, yet little is known about how they should respond. In this article, I review school responses to this phenomenon. The findings presented are taken from a mixed-methods study into harmful sexual behaviour carried out in seven educational settings across four local authorities in England. Using data from focus groups, observations, case reviews and reviews of policies and procedures I present findings on abuse through image sharing including suggestions for safer school environments. I argue that responses to adolescent sexting must move beyond risk aversion and challenge the very socio-cultural systems that enable abuse through sexual image sharing. Achieving this requires responses that recognise developing adolescent sexuality within a digital age and understanding what works in practice for schools and young people. Concurrently, schools have responsibility to challenge socio-cultural norms underlying harmful sexual practices between young people. 
    • Abused women's perceptions of professionals' responses: valued support, or collusion with perpetrator?

      Neale, Jo (Policy Press, 2018-10-19)
      Domestic violence and abuse (DVA) is recognised as a serious public health issue that detrimentally affects the lives of victims during, and after exiting, the relationship. For staff in overstretched criminal justice, health and social care agencies, high prevalence rates of DVA place a significant strain on the financial and emotional resources available to them. Drawing on Angie Ash’s (2013) concept of ‘cognitive masks’, and using data collected as part of a larger study, I examine the responses from agencies that frustrated women’s attempts to leave an abusive male partner. Fourteen women, recruited via three specialist support agencies in two English counties and my own personal networks, participated in semi-structured narrative style interviews. Findings suggest that practitioners sometimes ignore significant aspects of the case, thus rendering the situation more manageable – for themselves. For women, however, this can frustrate their attempts to exit the relationship and remain abuse-free.
    • Academic speaking: does the construct exist, and if so, how do we test it?

      Inoue, Chihiro; Nakatsuhara, Fumiyo; Lam, Daniel M. K.; Taylor, Lynda; University of Bedfordshire (2018-03-14)
    • Accelerometery and heart rate responses of professional fast-medium bowlers in one-day and multi-day cricket

      Johnstone, James A.; Hughes, Gerwyn T.G.; Mitchell, Andrew C.S.; Ford, Paul A.; Watson, Tim; Duffield, Rob; Gordon, Dan; Roberts, Justin D.; Garrett, Andrew T.; Anglia Ruskin University; et al. (JOURNAL SPORTS SCIENCE & MEDICINE, 2017-08-08)
      The physical demands of fast-medium bowling are increasingly being recognised, yet comparative exploration of the differing demands between competitive formats (i.e. one-day [OD] versus multi-day [MD] matches) remain minimal. The aim of this study was to describe in-match physiological profiles of professional fast-medium bowlers from England across different versions of competitive matches using a multivariable wearable monitoring device. Seven professional cricket fast-medium bowlers wore the Bioharness (TM) monitoring device during matches, over three seasons (>80 hours in-match). Heart Rate (HR) and Acceleromety (ACC) was compared across match types (OD, MD) and different in-match activity states (Bowling, Between over bowling, Fielding). Peak acceleration during OD bowling was significantly higher in comparison to MD cricket ([OD vs. MD] 234.1 +/- 57.9 vs 226.6 +/- 32.9 ct.episode(-1), p < 0.05, ES = 0.11-0.30). Data for ACC were also higher during OD than MD fielding activities (p < 0.01, ES = 0.11-.30). OD bowling stimulated higher mean HR responses (143 +/- 14 vs 137 +/- 16 beats.min(-1), p < 0.05, ES = 0.21) when compared to MD matches. This increase in OD cricket was evident for both between over (129 +/- 9 vs 120 +/- 13 beats.min(-1), p < 0.01, ES = 0.11-0.50) and during fielding (115 +/- 12 vs 106 +/- 12 beats.min(-1), p < 0.01, ES = 0.36) activity. The increased HR and ACC evident in OD matches suggest greater acute physical loads than MD formats. Therefore, use of wearable technology and the findings provided give a valuable appreciation of the differences in match loads, and thus required physiological preparation and recovery in fast-medium bowlers.
    • Access and utilisation of primary health care services comparing urban and rural areas of Riyadh Providence, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

      Alfaqeeh, Ghadah Ahmad; Cook, Erica Jane; Randhawa, Gurch; Ali, Nasreen (BioMed Central, 2017-02-02)
      The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has seen an increase in chronic diseases. International evidence suggests that early intervention is the best approach to reduce the burden of chronic disease. However, the limited research available suggests that health care access remains unequal, with rural populations having the poorest access to and utilisation of primary health care centres and, consequently, the poorest health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the factors influencing the access to and utilisation of primary health care centres in urban and rural areas of Riyadh province of the KSA.
    • Access, inclusion and excellence : evaluating Stopgap Dance Company's IRIS programme

      Aujla, Imogen; Needham-Beck, Sarah; Stopgap Dance Company; University of Bedfordshire (Stopgap Dance Company, 2018-12-01)
      Among the numerous barriers to dance for disabled people, one of the key challenges in the UK has been the lack of progressive training routes for diabled dancers who wish to develop their talents.  Stopgap Dance Company sought to address this barrier by creating an inclusive talent development programme called IRIS.  Consisiting of four levels of increasing complexity, IRIS seeks to provide parity with mainstream training routes to help students progress their skills and confidence in dance. The aim of this research project was to evaluate IRIS in its first two years, while it was piloted with five groups.  The evaluation took into consideration the participants' experiences and outcomes of the programme using a longitudinal, mixed methods research design.
    • Accessibility and suitability of residential alcohol treatment for older adults

      Wadd, Sarah; Dutton, Maureen; Alcohol Research UK; University of Bedfordshire (Alcohol Research UK, 2017-11-20)
      This study sought to find out:- 1.       To what extent do residential alcohol rehabs have upper age thresholds? 2.       Are the needs of older adults different from those of younger adults in alcohol rehab? 3.       What are older adults’ experiences of alcohol rehab?
    • Accessibility and suitability of residential alcohol treatment for older adults: a mixed method study

      Wadd, Sarah; Dutton, Maureen; University of Bedfordshire (BMC, 2018-12-13)
      Background Whilst alcohol misuse is decreasing amongst younger adults in many countries, it is increasing in older adults. Residential rehabilitation (rehab) is a vital component of the alcohol treatment system, particularly for those with relatively complex needs and entrenched alcohol problems. In this study, we sought to find out to what extent rehabs in England have upper age limits that exclude older adults, whether rehabs are responsive to older adults’ age-related needs and how older adults experience these services. Method This is a mixed method study. A search was carried out of Public Health England’s online directory of rehabs to identify upper age thresholds. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with 16 individuals who had attended one of five residential rehabs in England and Wales since their 50th birthday. A researcher with experience of a later life alcohol problem conducted the interviews. Results Of the 118 services listed on Public Health England’s online directory of rehabs, 75% stated that they had an upper age limit that would exclude older adults. Perceived differences in values, attitudes and behaviour between younger and older residents had an impact on older residents’ experience of rehab. Activities organised by the rehabs were often based on physical activity that some older adults found it difficult to take part in and this could create a sense of isolation. Some older adults felt unsafe in rehab and were bullied, intimidated and subjected to ageist language and attitudes. Conclusion This study identified direct and indirect age discrimination in rehabs contrary to the law. Further research is required to find out if age discrimination exists in rehabs in other countries. Rehabs should remove arbitrary age limits and ensure that they are responsive to the needs of older adults.
    • Accessing pathways to training for young disabled dancers

      Aujla, Imogen; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire/Imperial Society of Teachers of Dancing, 2019-03-19)
      The aim of this project was to investigate means of translating Imperial Society of Teachers of Dancing (ISTD) syllabi for young disabled dancers. There are numerous barriers to dance for disabled people but one which has received increasing attention in recent years is the lack of systematic training available. Many non-disabled young people join private dance studios which provide an established progression route using staged syllabi and assessments in a range of dance genres. The ISTD recognised that this progression route should be more accessible for disabled young people, and that it could play a key role in opening pathways to dance. The organisation recruited a number of teachers and specialists, and commissioned a researcher from the University of Bedfordshire, to explore how this could be done.
    • Accompany: Acceptable robotiCs COMPanions for AgeiNg Years : multidimensional aspects of human-system interactions

      Amirabdollahian, Farshid; Op den Akker, Rieks; Bedaf, Sandra; Bormann, Richard; Draper, Heather; Evers, Vanessa; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; Ruiz, Carolina Gutierrez; Hewson, David; Hu, Ninghang; et al. (IEEE, 2013-12-31)
      With changes in life expectancy across the world, technologies enhancing well-being of individuals, specifically for older people, are subject to a new stream of research and development. In this paper we present the ACCOMPANY project, a pan-European project which focuses on home companion technologies. The projects aims to progress beyond the state of the art in multiple areas such as empathic and social human-robot interaction, robot learning and memory visualisation, monitoring persons and chores at home, and technological integration of these multiple approaches on an existing robotic platform, Care-O-Bot®3 and in the context of a smart-home environment utilising a multitude of sensor arrays. The resulting prototype from integrating these developments undergoes multiple formative cycles and a summative evaluation cycle towards identifying acceptable behaviours and roles for the robot for example role as a butler or a trainer. Furthermore, the evaluation activities will use an evaluation grid in order to assess achievement of the identified user requirements, formulated in form of distinct scenarios. Finally, the project considers ethical concerns and by highlighting principles such as autonomy, independence, enablement, safety and privacy, it embarks on providing a discussion medium where user views on these principles and the existing tension between some of these principles for example tension between privacy and autonomy over safety, can be captured and considered in design cycles and throughout project developments.
    • Accuracy across proficiency levels: A learner corpus approach. Jennifer Thewissen. Presses Universitaires de Louvain, Lougain-la-Neuve, Belgium (2015). 342pp.

      Inoue, Chihiro; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2017-09-04)
      A review of the book based on Thewissen’s PhD thesis, which used the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE) (Granger et al., 2009) for two main purposes. The first purpose was to capture the development of linguistic accuracy of the argumentative essays written by learners of English at intermediate to advanced levels, namely B1 to C2 in the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) (Council of Europe, 2001). The second purpose was to create a set of L1-specific CEFR descriptors related to the linguistic accuracy by building on the results from the essays written by learners who have French as their L1.  
    • Accuracy of online health information about controlling childhood fever during the H1N1 influenza pandemic

      Kulendran, Lavenia; Atherton, Helen; Pappas, Yannis; Car, Josip (BCS, 2009-09-16)
    • Acetaminophen (paracetamol) induces hypothermia during acute cold stress

      Foster, Josh; Mauger, Alexis R.; Govus, Andrew; Hewson, David; Taylor, Lee; University of Bedfordshire; Loughborough University; University of Kent; Mid Sweden University; Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital (Springer, 2017-08-01)
      Acetaminophen is an over-the-counter drug used to treat pain and fever, but it has also been shown to reduce core temperature (Tc) in the absence of fever. However, this side effect is not well examined in humans, and it is unknown if the hypothermic response to acetaminophen is exacerbated with cold exposure.
    • Achieving improved quality and validity: reframing research and evaluation of learning technologies

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda (European Distance and E Learning Network, 2015-01-01)
      A critical reading of research literature relating to teaching and learning with technology for open, distance and blended education reveals a number of shortcomings in how investigations are conceptualised, conducted and reported. Projects often lack clarity about the nature of the enhancement that technology is intended to bring about. Frequently there is no explicit discussion of assumptions and beliefs that underpin research studies and the approaches used to investigate the educational impact of technologies. This presentation summarises a number of the weaknesses identified in published studies and considers the implications. Some ways in which these limitations could be avoided through a more rigorous approach to undertaking research and evaluation studies are then outlined and discussed.