• Edge intelligence case study on medical Internet of Things security

      Feng, Xiaohua (Elsevier, 2023-02-01)
      MIoT (Medical Internet of Things) systems produced many of sensing data in the world. Consequently, there is a demand of scientific research in this field. Edge intelligence fit in this trends, as one of the developing cutting-edge technology. A systematic approach had been applied on the health informatics edge intelligence devices’ investigation. The observing and recording action that occurs in the process of this research to date had been satisfed. This work had been reported here. The analyzing of the case study data was carried out. Eventually, some results have been summarized based on the investigation. Furthermore, a solution is proposed for the kind of medical edge intelligence device data cyber security problem-solving. Edge intelligence was defined as “the devices available at the edge layer have some limited amount of computing resource which can be utilized and incorporated with machine learning or AI (Artificial intelligence) algorithms to perform RT (real time) data analytics”. Studying more in the category of edge intelligence would influence MIoT system. This survey on edge intelligence had been carried out on investigated recent MIoT, Robot, Raspberry Pi and AV (autonomous vehicle) and so on as edge terminal - edge intelligence devices and the challenges they had encounter. In particular, AI application in edge intelligence device handle medical data security threat. AI face more challenges in edge intelligence computing. In this survey, through some case studies, some advantages and disadvantages had been studied. MIoT edge intelligence device challenges on big data security issues had been discussed.
    • Support for difficulties in learning, behaviour and disability in New Zealand's schools

      Wearmouth, Janice; Berryman, Mere (Taylor and Francis, 2022-09-27)
    • The association between social vulnerability and frailty in community dwelling older people: a systematic review

      Ayeni, Ayodele; Sharples, Adrienne; Hewson, David; ; University of Bedfordshire; Hertfordshire Partnership University National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust (MDPI, 2022-09-26)
      The aim of this systematic literature review was to determine whether social vulnerability is associated with frailty in older people. Databases were searched for literature from January 2001 to March 2022. Hand searches of reference lists of the selected articles were also used to identify other relevant studies. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were selected. Two independent reviewers assessed the methodological quality using an established tool. Eleven eligible studies from Canada, Europe, USA, Tanzania, Mexico, and China were selected. The level of social vulnerability measured by the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) from a meta-analysis was 0.300 (95% CI: 0.242, 0.358), with the highest SVI in Tanzania (0.49), while the lowest level of SVI was reported in China (0.15). The highest frailty level of 0.32 was observed in both Tanzania and Europe, with the lowest frailty reported in a USA study from Hawaii (0.15). In all studies, social vulnerability was a significant predictor of mortality for both sexes at subsequent data collection points. The association between SVI and frailty was high in Tanzania (r = 0.81), with other studies reporting stronger correlations for females compared to males, but at small to moderate levels. In one study, an increase of 1SD in SVI was linked to a 20% increase in frailty score at a subsequent evaluation. Additional study is warranted to determine a potential causality between social vulnerability and frailty.
    • Disparities in the timing of antenatal care initiation and associated factors in an ethnically dense maternal cohort with high levels of area deprivation

      Puthussery, Shuby; Tseng, Pei-Ching; Sharma, Esther; Harden, Angela; Griffiths, Malcolm; Bamfo, Jacqueline; Li, Leah; ; University of Bedfordshire; Luton and Dunstable University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust; et al. (MDPI, 2022-09-19)
      Late access to antenatal care is a contributor to excess mortality and morbidity among ethnic minority mothers compared to White British in the UK. While individual ethnicity and socioeconomic disadvantage are linked to late antenatal care initiation, studies have seldom explored patterns of late initiation and associated factors in ethnically dense socially disadvantaged settings. This study investigated disparities in the timing of antenatal care initiation, and associated factors in an ethnically dense socially disadvantaged maternal cohort.
    • Evaluating Palin Stammering Therapy for School Children (Palin STSC 8-14): protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled trial comparing Palin STSC(8-14) with usual treatment

      Millard, S.K.; Murphy, Suzanne; Barton, G.; Leathersich, M.; Mills, G.; Rixon, L.; Shepstone, L.; Sims, E.; Joffe, Victoria; Michael Palin Centre for Stammering, Whittington Hospital NHS Trust; et al. (Springer Nature, 2022-09-16)
      Having a stammer can have a significant effect on a child's social, emotional and educational development. With approximately 66,000 children in the UK having a stammer, there is a need to establish an adequate evidence base to inform clinical practice. We describe a feasibility trial to explore the effectiveness of a new therapy programme for children aged 8-14: Palin Stammering Therapy for School Children (Palin STSC(8-14)). Preliminary data from the Michael Palin Centre, where the programme was developed, indicate that Palin STSC(8-14) is effective in reducing stammering frequency and impact for children, with beneficial effects for parents too. We will investigate the feasibility of the methods required for a definitive randomised controlled trial to investigate the application of this therapy by NHS speech and language therapists (SLTs), compared with 'treatment as usual' (TAU), beyond the specialist context in which it was developed. This is a two-arm feasibility cluster-randomised controlled trial of Palin STSC(8-14) with TAU control arm, and randomisation at the level of the SLT. Quantitative and qualitative data will be collected to examine the following: the recruitment and retention of therapists and families, the acceptability of the research processes and the therapeutic intervention and the appropriateness of the therapy outcome measures. Assessments will be completed by children and parents at baseline and 6 months later, including measures of stammering severity; the impact of child's stammering on both children and parents; child temperament, behaviour and peer relations, anxiety; quality of life; and economic outcomes. There will also be a qualitative process evaluation, including interviews with parents, children, SLTs and SLT managers to explore the acceptability of both the research and therapy methods. Treatment fidelity will be examined through analysis of therapy session records and recordings. The findings of this feasibility trial will inform the decision as to whether to progress to a full-scale randomised controlled trial to explore the effectiveness of Palin STSC(8-14) when compared to Treatment as Usual in NHS SLT services. There is a strong need for an evidence-based intervention for school age children who stammer. ISRCTN. ISRCTN17058884 . Registered on 18 December 2019.
    • Detoxification gene families at the genome-wide level of Rhus gall aphid Schlechtendalia chinensis

      He, Hongli; Crabbe, M. James C.; Ren, Zhumei; Shanxi University; Oxford University; University of Bedfordshire (MDPI, 2022-09-10)
      The Rhus gall aphid Schlechtendalia chinensis uses the species Rhus chinensis as its primary host plant, on which galls are produced. The galls have medicinal properties and can be used in various situations due to their high tannin content. Detoxification enzymes play significant roles in the insect lifecycle. In this study, we focused on five detoxification gene families, i.e., glutathione-Stransferase (GST), ABC transporter (ABC), Carboxylesterase (CCE), cyto-chrome P450 (CYP), and UDP-glycosyltransferase (UDP), and manually annotated 144 detoxification genes of S. chinensis using genome-wide techniques. The detoxification genes appeared mostly on chromosome 1, where a total of two pair genes were identified to show tandem duplications. There were 38 gene pairs between genomes of S. chinensis and Acyrthosiphon pisum in the detoxification gene families by collinear comparison. Ka/Ks ratios showed that detoxification genes of S. chinensis were mainly affected by purification selection during evolution. The gene expression numbers of P450s and ABCs by transcriptome sequencing data were greater, while gene expression of CCEs was the highest, suggesting they might be important in the detoxification process. Our study has firstly identified the genes of the different detoxification gene families in the S. chinensis genome, and then analyzed their general features and expression, demonstrating the importance of the detoxification genes in the aphid and providing new information for further research.
    • ‘I know how it sounds on paper’ : risk talk, the use of documents and epistemic justice in child protection assessment home visits

      Bostock, Lisa; Koprowska, Juliet; ; University of Bedfordshire; University of York (SAGE, 2022-09-06)
      Social workers carry much of the frontline authority to define risk to children and discuss it with families. Assessment reports and other institutional documents record professional views about family information, and also have the potential to convey the ‘voice’ of the family to institutions. Social workers have responsibility for sharing these documents with families, yet little is known about how they do this. This paper focuses on episodes when social workers introduce institutional documents in home visits, and on the family responses elicited. These are high-stakes encounters which, when they go seriously wrong, emerge in the press as tragedies and scandals. For families, these documents carry an emotional depth-charge as intimate, potentially shaming, and sometimes inaccurate details of their lives are inscribed in them by and for others. Latour’s (1996) concept of interobjectivity sheds light on the use of documents, while concepts of epistemic authority (Heritage and Raymond, 2005) and epistemic injustice (Fricker, 2007) are employed to examine how social workers respond to parental testimony about themselves and their children. Learning how to present institutional documentation in ways that reduce the risk of emotional reactivity and treating family perspectives with epistemic justice may enhance social work practice. At a policy level, the design of documents warrants review, so that they facilitate rather than obstruct social workers’ efforts to build what are already fragile relationships with families.
    • ‘It’s like a much deeper understanding and you kind of believe them more…’: the value of peer support for young people affected by sexual violence

      Cody, Claire; Bovarnick, Silvie; Peace, Delphine; University of Bedfordshire (Wiley, 2022-09-05)
      Research demonstrates that relationships are key when working to support young people affected by sexual violence. Within these relationships young people show a preference for non-judgemental, flexible, consistent and informal support. Peer support - defined here as support provided by those with similar experiences - is however an uncharted area for assisting young people affected by sexual violence. This paper draws on interviews with 25 respondents with knowledge and experience of setting up, supervising and/or participating in peer support initiatives for young people impacted by different forms of sexual violence in Europe and North America. The article highlights how one form of peer support, peer or ‘survivor’ mentoring, can provide emotional and social support; create space for ‘normality’; and give choices to young people. It outlines three unique dimensions to the support provided by peers more generally; relatability, credibility and translatability. The discussion reflects on what this might mean for traditional support provided by professionals. It also draws attention to the significance of recognising both the variety of experience and identity of young survivors of sexual trauma and the impact this may have on promoting relatability within relationships.
    • Investigation into antiepileptic effect of ganoderic acid A and its mechanism in seizure rats induced by pentylenetetrazole

      Pang, Wei; Lu, Shuqing; Zheng, Rong; Li, Xin; Yang, Shunbo; Feng, Yuxia; Wang, Shuqiu; Guo, Jin; Zhou, Shaobo; ; et al. (Hindawi, 2022-09-01)
      Ganoderic acid A (GAA) exhibited neuron protection in in vitro epilepsy study, but no study has been done in vivo. Rats were administered (i.p.) pentylenetetrazole daily for 28 days to induce seizure. Rats with grade II or above of epileptic score were divided into three groups and given placebo, sodium valproate, or GAA treatment, respectively, for 7 days. The electrical signals of brain were monitored with electroencephalography (EGG); epileptic behavior was assessed using the Racine scale; morphological changes and apoptosis rate of cortical neurons were assessed with H&E staining and TUNEL staining, respectively. Protein expression of calcium-sensing receptor, p-ERK, p-JNK, and p-p38 in hippocampal tissue and Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3, and Bax in cortical tissues was observed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry assay, respectively. After GAA treatment, apparent seizure-like EEG with significant arrhythmic disorder and spike waves was reduced or disappeared, and wave amplitude of EEG was reduced significantly. GAA showed similar effect with sodium valproate treatments on epilepsy. There were an apparent improvement of the epileptic behavior and a significant increase in the epileptic latency and shortening of the epileptic duration in the treatment group compared to control. GAA treatment ameliorated the nuclear pyknosis of neurons which appeared seriously in the epilepsy group. GAA treatment significantly reduced the cortical neuron apoptosis of epilepsy and the expression of calcium-sensing receptor, p-P38, p-JNK, cleaved caspase-3, and Bax but increased the expression of both p-ERK and Bcl-2. In conclusion, GAA treatment showed strong antiepileptic effect by decreasing apoptosis in cortical neuron and the expression of calcium-sensing receptor and stimulating the MAPK pathway.
    • Spirituality and the quality of life of individuals with intellectual disability

      Sango, Precious Nonye; Forrester-Jones, Rachel; ; University of Bedfordshire; Western University (LSE Press, 2022-08-30)
      Context: Spirituality seems to form part of person-centred care planning and needs assessment of persons with intellectual disability. Yet, the role of spiritually in relation to their quality of life (QoL) has scarcely been investigated. Objective: This paper reports on an exploration of the extent to which spiritual belief and practice was linked to individuals’ perception of quality of life in two types of care services – one a faith-based provider, the other a non-faith based service. Method: A mixed-methods approach utilising the Quality Of Life Questionnaire (QOLQ) and the a brief spiritual beliefs inventory for use in quality of life research (Systems of Belief Inventory -15R) was used to interview people with intellectual disabilities (or, if they lacked capacity, their formal carers) who lived in their respective service for a long time. Findings: Participants living in the faith-based care service recorded higher mean and median scores on the QOLQ compared to their colleagues who resided in the non-faith based care service. Further analysis indicated significant correlations between the spirituality measure and most of the QOLQ domains. Limitations: The study sample of 36 makes generalisations difficult and our initial intention to include a range of faith traditions were unsuccessful. Implications: Further academic studies exploring spiritual issues for people with intellectual disabilities are needed, as well as clearer policy and practice guidelines and a willingness on the part of services to support this aspect of life.
    • Why does systemic supervision support practitioners’ practice more effectively with children and families?

      Bostock, Lisa; Patrizo, Louis; Godfrey, Tessa; Forrester, Donald; ; University of Bedfordshire; Frontline; University of Cardiff (ELSEVIER, 2022-08-30)
      The importance of supervision for social work practice is widely accepted. This paper focuses on one specific type of supervision: systemic group supervision or “systemic supervision”. Systemic social work practice is a group-based, multi-disciplinary model of service delivery that aims to work therapeutically with the whole family. Central to this model is the use of systemically-informed group supervision. This has been shown to impact positively on the quality of direct practice with families, but what is it about this type of supervision that supports frontline practitioners to practice more skillfully? This paper is based on interviews with 49 frontline staff across five children’s services departments in the UK. It identifies the key features of systemic supervision and explores why workers think that developing collective, group-based understandings of risk to children supports them to intervene more effectively with families in contact with children’s services. These findings contribute to a growing body of knowledge about the practice shaping function of supervision within child and family social work.
    • A scoping review of empirical literature on people with intellectual disability in Nigeria

      Sango, Precious Nonye; Deveau, Roy; ; University of Bedfordshire; University of Kent (MDPI, 2022-08-19)
      Intellectual disability (ID) is an emerging field of research in Nigeria. This review seeks to identify what has been published in order to describe the evidence and to identify the major gaps in knowledge and practice. A systematic search of five databases and an African disability journal yielded 15 papers that reported on empirical studies related to people with ID in Nigeria. Fifteen studies across the databases and journal searched met the inclusion criteria. The participants included adults and children with ID and their families. Twelve of the papers employed quantitative methods, two were qualitative and one was a mixed methods study. There is a paucity of empirical research on people with ID in Nigeria, thus emphasising the need for more primary research about people with ID living in Nigeria. Nigeria is estimated to have the largest population of people with disabilities in Africa; however, this review found limited empirical work regarding their lives, prevalence and care. This limited evidence hinders the understanding of the challenges people with an intellectual disability face and potentially inhibit the creation of policy-oriented solutions to their plights in a globalised world.
    • Biomarkers associated with lower limb muscle function in individuals with sarcopenia: a systematic review

      Jones, Rebecca Louise; Paul, Lorna; Steultjens, Martijn P.M.; Smith, Stephanie Louise; University of Bedfordshire; University of Lincoln; Glasgow Caledonian University; University of Nottingham (Wiley, 2022-08-17)
      Lower limb muscle dysfunction is a key driver for impaired physical capacity and frailty status, both characteristics of sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is the key pathway between frailty and disability. Identifying biological markers for early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention may be key to early intervention and prevention of disability particularly mobility issues. To identify biological markers associated with lower limb muscle (dys)function in adults with sarcopenia, a systematic literature search was conducted in AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science databases from inception to 17 November 2021. Title, abstract, and full-text screening, data extraction, and methodological quality assessment were performed by two reviewers independently and verified by a third reviewer. Depending on available data, associations are reported as either Pearson's correlations, regression R2 or partial R2 , P value, and sample size (n). Twenty eligible studies including 3306 participants were included (females: 79%, males: 15%, unreported: 6%; mean age ranged from 53 to 92 years) with 36% in a distinct sarcopenic subgroup (females: 73%, males: 19%, unreported: 8%; mean age range 55-92 years). A total of 119 biomarkers were reported, categorized into: genetic and microRNAs (n = 64), oxidative stress (n = 10), energy metabolism (n = 18), inflammation (n = 7), enzyme (n = 4), hormone (n = 7), bone (n = 3), vitamin (n = 2), and cytokine (n = 4) markers) and seven lower limb muscle measures predominately focused on strength. Seven studies reported associations between lower limb muscle measures including (e.g. power, force, and torque) and biomarkers. In individuals with sarcopenia, muscle strength was positively associated with free testosterone (r = 0.40, P = 0.01; n = 46). In analysis with combined sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic individuals, muscle strength was positively associated with combined genetic and methylation score (partial R2 = 0.122, P = 0.03; n = 48) and negatively associated with sarcopenia-driven methylation score (partial R2 = 0.401, P < 0.01; n = 48). Biomarkers related to genetics (R2 = 0.001-0.014, partial R2 = 0.013-0.122, P > 0.05; n = 48), oxidative stress (r = 0.061, P > 0.05; n ≥ 77), hormone (r = 0.01, ρ = 0.052 p > 0.05, n ≥ 46) and combined protein, oxidative stress, muscle performance, and hormones (R2 = 22.0, P > 0.05; n ≥ 82) did not report significant associations with lower limb muscle strength. Several biomarkers demonstrated associations with lower limb muscle dysfunction. The current literature remains difficult to draw clear conclusions on the relationship between biomarkers and lower limb muscle dysfunction in adults with sarcopenia. Heterogeneity of biomarkers and lower limb muscle function precluded direct comparison. Use of international classification of sarcopenia and a set of core standardized outcome measures should be adopted to aid future investigation and recommendations to be made.
    • Exploring the role and lived experiences of people with disabilities working in the agricultural sector in northern Nigeria

      Sango, Precious Nonye; Bello, Mohammed; Deveau, Roy; Gager, Kevin; Boateng, Belinda; Ahmed, Hauwa K.; Azam, Mohammed N.; ; University of Bedfordshire; African Centre for Innovative Research and Development; et al. (Aosis, 2022-08-16)
      Background: It is estimated that over 75.0% of households in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in agriculture, and the majority of the poor in rural areas rely on agriculture for their livelihoods. One billion people living with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries are argued to make up the poorest of the poor, yet to our knowledge, no literature has captured the livelihood of people living with disabilities in the context of farming in Nigeria, specifically northern Nigeria where most of the households are involved in agriculture and related activities. Objectives: This article reports on findings from a study that sought to understand disability in the context of northern Nigerian farming, with a particular focus on the role and lived experiences of people living with disabilities working in the agricultural sector. Method: A survey questionnaire was developed and captured the experiences of 1067 people living with disabilities working in the agricultural sector across five states (Adamawa, Bauchi, Jigawa, Kaduna and Yobe) in northern Nigeria. Results: Findings indicate that people with disabilities are actively participating in agricultural activities for several reasons, which specifically included ‘forced to and for survival’. When participants reported needing care, this was predominantly provided by family members. Findings also showed that participants with disabilities experienced several economic and sociocultural challenges because of their impairments. Conclusion: This study adds to the very limited literature on farmers living with disabilities in sub-Saharan Africa and so highlights the need for more research to be conducted with farmers living with disabilities in Nigeria, particularly female farmers living with disabilities. These will provide more evidence pertaining to the experiences of farmers living with disabilities in order to provide effective disability- and gender-inclusive agricultural and entrepreneurship programmes in Nigeria. Contribution: The results of this research reveal important insights relating to the experiences of farmers living with disabilities in northern Nigeria, which can contribute to informing future developmental projects to achieve effective inclusion and actively benefit people living with disabilities.
    • Postprandial glucose responses to standardised meals consumed after moderate- and high-intensity exercise bouts across standard school days in healthy adolescents

      Afeef, Sahar M.O.; Barrett, Laura A.; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Tolfrey, Keith; Loughborough University; King Abdulaziz University; University of Bedfordshire (Lidsen Publishing, 2022-08-15)
      Exercise-induced moderation of postprandial glycaemia in adolescents is unclear and has not been examined under free-living conditions. We assessed the effect of moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) bouts on subsequent postprandial glycaemic responses across three standard school days. Fourteen healthy adolescents (13 ± 1 years) completed three conditions in the following order across consecutive days: MIE, 30-min continuous brisk walking; CON, no-exercise control; HIIE, 30- min of 10 × 30-s sprints interspersed with 2.5-min brisk walking bouts. Participants consumed three standardised meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) at standardised times. Interstitial glucose, energy intake, sedentary time and physical activity were assessed under free-living conditions. Linear mixed models compared glucose outcomes between conditions, and Cohen’s d effect sizes were calculated. Although non-significant, the reduction in postbreakfast glucose iAUC was moderate for MIE (-0.24 mmol·L -1 ; P = 0.59; d = 0.77) and large for HIIE (-0.26 mmol·L -1 ; P = 0.44; d = 0.86) compared with CON. Non-significant, moderate (0.37 mmol·L -1 ; P = 0.22; d = 0.70) and large (0.42 mmol·L -1 ; P = 0.20; d = 0.81) increases in postlunch glucose iAUC were observed for MIE and HIIE compared with CON. Nevertheless, the 24-h mean glucose was stable at ~5.4 mmol·L -1 across conditions. The glycaemic variability indices calculated over 24-h after the onset of exercise for each condition including standard deviation (P = 0.59) and mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion (P = 0.82) were not different between conditions. Thirty-minute bouts of MIE and HIIE did not change postprandial glycaemia or 24-h glycaemic variability significantly in the small sample of healthy adolescents. However, the moderate and large effect sizes suggest both MIE and HIIE reduced breakfast glucose iAUC compared with CON, yet led to increases in post-lunch iAUC in the two exercise conditions. The mismatch between the probability values and effect sizes was a consequence of our COVID-reduced sample. The ramifications of these exercise effects are unclear and need to be confirmed in a larger sample of adolescents.
    • Social justice knowledge construction among physical education teacher educators: the value of personal, professional, and educational experiences

      Hill, Joanne; Walton-Fisette, Jennifer L.; Flemons, Michelle; Philpot, Rod; Sutherland, Sue; Phillips, Sharon; Flory, Sara B.; Ovens, Alan; ; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Taylor and Francis, 2022-08-08)
      Background: The imperative for social justice in education means that pre-service teachers should learn how to teach for and about social justice, including pedagogical and content knowledge. Understanding of how physical education pre-service teachers and teacher educators construct and develop their knowledge of social justice pedagogies and critical content, intertwined with values based on social justice and equity, is needed to best support future teachers. Purpose: The focus of this paper is how physical education teacher educators and physical education and sport pedagogy university faculty have developed their knowledge of teaching for and about social justice: where their knowledge came from and how they draw upon it in their teaching and programme design. Method: Seventy-two faculty from seven countries engaged in an in-depth interview about their conceptualisation of social justice, their knowledge, practices, institutions, and policy contexts; and completed a demographic survey on their social identity and professional experiences. Using a social justice pedagogical and content knowledge model, thematic analysis generated formal educational study, workplace experience, and personal or social identity bases of social justice knowledge. Findings: Many of those who expressed a commitment to teaching about and for social justice had personal and professional experiences that had provided ‘eye-opening’ moments. For instance, some had encountered marginalisation and discrimination based on their identity. If social justice issues were not a part of a participant’s lived experience, but they had professional experience in the field, they were struck by what they did not know and subsequently sought out postgraduate or professional development. Professional experiences in the field were much more likely than formal education experiences to provide recognition that participants needed to learn more about social justice. Social justice is both knowledge and an ideological stance, so learning about social justice is as much about values and disposition as about content. Social justice must be important enough for teacher educators to embed in their belief system so that it becomes part of their pedagogical practice. Conclusion: This study prompts consideration of the professional development needs of teacher educators concerning social justice, that goes beyond acknowledging the existence of sociocultural issues by moving towards changes in pedagogical practices in PETE and PESP programmes. We advocate collaborative and reflective professional development for educators if social justice pedagogical and content knowledge is to be woven throughout teacher education programmes and not just incumbent on educators with personal experience of social justice issues.
    • The pioneer transcription factor Foxa2 modulates T helper differentiation to reduce mouse allergic airway disease

      Yánez, Diana C.; Lau, Ching-In; Papaioannou, Eleftheria; Chawda, Mira Manilal; Rowell, Jasmine; Ross, Susan; Furmanski, Anna L.; Crompton, Tessa; ; UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health; et al. (Frontiers, 2022-08-08)
      Foxa2, a member of the Forkhead box (Fox) family of transcription factors, plays an important role in the regulation of lung function and lung tissue homeostasis. FOXA2 expression is reduced in the lung and airways epithelium of asthmatic patients and in mice absence of Foxa2 from the lung epithelium contributes to airway inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia. Here we demonstrate a novel role for Foxa2 in the regulation of T helper differentiation and investigate its impact on lung inflammation. Conditional deletion of Foxa2 from T-cells led to increased Th2 cytokine secretion and differentiation, but decreased Th1 differentiation and IFN-γ expression in vitro. Induction of mouse allergic airway inflammation resulted in more severe disease in the conditional Foxa2 knockout than in control mice, with increased cellular infiltration to the lung, characterized by the recruitment of eosinophils and basophils, increased mucus production and increased production of Th2 cytokines and serum IgE. Thus, these experiments suggest that Foxa2 expression in T-cells is required to protect against the Th2 inflammatory response in allergic airway inflammation and that Foxa2 is important in T-cells to maintain the balance of effector cell differentiation and function in the lung.
    • Outcome evaluation of Active Herts: a community-based physical activity programme for inactive adults at risk of cardiovascular disease and/or low mental wellbeing

      Chater, Angel M.; Schulz, Joerg; Jones, Andy; Burke, Amanda; Carr, Shelby; Kukucska, Dora; Troop, Nicholas A.; Trivedi, Daksha; Howlett, Neil; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Frontiers, 2022-08-07)
      Background: A high proportion of UK adults are inactive, which can lead to a range of physical and mental health concerns. Active Herts is a community-based physical activity programme for inactive adults at risk of cardiovascular disease and/or low mental wellbeing. This paper provides a pragmatic evaluation of this programme. Method: This longitudinal study observed 717 adults (68% female, mean age = 56.9 years) from the ‘Active Herts’ programme. Programme users were provided with a 45-minute consultation with a ‘Get Active Specialist’, who talked them through an Active Herts self-help booklet and then signposted them to free or subsidised local exercise sessions. Programme users were followed up with a booster call two weeks later. The Get Active Specialist was a registered exercise professional (REPS Level 3), with additional training from the study team in motivational interviewing, health coaching, COM-B behavioural diagnosis and delivery of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) in practice. The Active Herts booklet contained theoretically-driven and evidence-based BCTs to translate behavioural science into public health practice. Physical activity (Metabolic Equivalent Time [METs], measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), perceived health (EQ-5D-5L) and mental wellbeing (Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale: WEMWBS) were measured at baseline, three, six and twelve months. Results: At the end of the 12-month programme, users showed sustained improvements in physical activity (by +1331 METS), exceeding weekly recommendations. Sitting (reducing by over an hour per day), sporting participation, and perceptions of health were also improved, with improvements in mental wellbeing in the first three months. Conclusion: Designing and delivering a community-based physical activity programme that is theoretically-driven and evidence-based with frequent behaviour change training and supervision can yield a significant increase in self-reported physical activity, reduction in sitting behaviour and improvements to perceived health and mental wellbeing. Future research should extend this approach, utilising a real-world, pragmatic evaluation. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03153098
    • Placing care: the impact of the physical environment on experiences of providing and utilizing palliative care

      Agom, David; Sixsmith, Judith; Ominyi, Jude; Onyeka, Tonia; Agom, Joy C.; University of Bedfordshire; University of Dundee; University of Nigeria; Regent College, London (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2022-08-05)
      Environmental design in palliative and end-of-life care is known to improve care outcomes, service-user satisfaction, and the continuation of service uptake. No study in the literature has investigated the influence of the environment on palliative and end-of-life care in Nigeria or other African contexts. This study was designed to explore the impact of the physical environment (i.e., place and people) on staff and service users and how these influence the experiences of providing and using palliative and end-of-life care in a Nigerian hospital context. Ethnographic methodology was employed because this approach facilitates understanding of environmental realities. This study is part of a larger ethnographic research project developed to uncover aspects of organizational complexities related to the provision and use of palliative and end-of-life care in the Nigerian context. Three hundred fifty hours of participant observation was achieved, and semistructured interviews were used to gather data from 26 participants, including 10 patients, 11 members of a palliative care team, and five hospital managers. Informal chats and photographic capture were additional methods used in data collection. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify and analyze patterns within the collected data. Physical space, equipment, and placing staff were the three primary themes identified. The physical environment was untidy, and the ward layout prevented privacy, dignity, or comfort for patients and families. The equipment was old and inadequate, and the context of care was worsened by insufficient staffing and neglect of the environmental needs of the staff. Hospital design for palliative and end-of-life care in Nigeria is "autoinhibitory" (a negative feedback mechanism whereby hospital design detracts rather than promote quality of care), and a physical environment that supports the provision and utilization of care must be implemented to promote palliative and end-of-life care success. Urgent policy action is needed to improve environmental and staffing conditions to advance palliative and end-of-life care in Nigeria.
    • Visual SLAM algorithms and their application for AR, mapping, localization and wayfinding

      Theodorou, Charalambos; Velisavljevic, Vladan; Dyo, Vladimir; Nonyelu, Fredi; ; University of Bedfordshire; Briteyellow (Elsevier, 2022-08-03)
      Visual simultaneous localization and mapping (vSLAM) algorithms use device camera to estimate agent’s position and reconstruct structures in an unknown environment. As an essential part of augmented reality (AR) experience, vSLAM enhances the real-world environment through the addition of virtual objects, based on localization (location) and environment structure (mapping). From both technical and historical perspectives, this paper categorizes and summarizes some of the most recent visual SLAM algorithms proposed in research communities, while also discussing their applications in augmented reality, mapping, navigation, and localization.