• Visual SLAM Algorithms and Their Application for AR, Mapping, Localization and Wayfinding

      Theodorou, Charalambos; Velisavljevic, Vladan; Dyo, Vladimir; Nonyelu, Fredi; ; University of Bedfordshire; Briteyellow (Elsevier, 2022-08-03)
      Visual simultaneous localization and mapping (vSLAM) algorithms use device camera to estimate agent’s position and reconstruct structures in an unknown environment. As an essential part of augmented reality (AR) experience, vSLAM enhances the real-world environment through the addition of virtual objects, based on localization (location) and environment structure (mapping). From both technical and historical perspectives, this paper categorizes and summarizes some of the most recent visual SLAM algorithms proposed in research communities, while also discussing their applications in augmented reality, mapping, navigation, and localization.
    • Review of Machine Learning Based Fault Detection for Centrifugal Pump Induction Motors

      Sunal, Cem Ekin; Dyo, Vladimir; Velisavljevic, Vladan; ; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE, 2022-07-01)
      Centrifugal pumps are an integral part of many industrial processes and are used extensively in water supply, sewage, heating and cooling systems. While there are several review papers on machine learning-based fault diagnosis on induction motors, its application to centrifugal pumps has received relatively little attention. This work attempts to summarize and review recent research and development in machine learning-based pump condition monitoring and fault diagnosis. The paper starts with a brief explanation of pump operation including common pump faults and the main principles of the motor current signature analysis (MCSA) method. This is followed by a detailed explanation of various machine learning-based methods including the types of detected faults, experimental details and reported accuracies. The performances of different approaches are then presented systematically in a unified table. Finally, the authors discuss practical aspects and challenges related to data collection, storage and real-world implementation.
    • A-REST (Activity to Reduce Excessive Sitting Time): a feasibility trial to reduce prolonged sitting in police staff

      Brierley, Marsha Lynn; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Chater, Angel M.; Bailey, Daniel Paul; University of Bedfordshire; Brunel University; University College London (MDPI, 2022-07-27)
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of a theory-derived sedentary workplace intervention for police office staff. Twenty-four staff participated in an 8-week intervention (single arm, pre-post design) incorporating an education session, team competition with quick response (QR) codes, team trophy, weekly leaderboard newsletters, a self-monitoring phone app, and electronic prompt tools. The intervention supported participants to reduce and break up their sitting time with three minutes of incidental movement every 30 min at work. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed using mixed methods via the RE-AIM QuEST and PRECIS-2 frameworks. The intervention was highly pragmatic in terms of eligibility, organisation, adherence, outcome, and analysis. It was slightly less pragmatic on recruitment and setting. Delivery and follow-up were more explanatory. Reach and adoption indicators demonstrated feasibility among police staff, across a range of departments, who were demographically similar to participants in previous office-based multi-component interventions. The intervention was delivered mostly as planned with minor deviations from protocol (implementation fidelity). Participants perceived the intervention components as highly acceptable. Results showed improvements in workplace sitting and standing, as well as small improvements in weight and positive affect. Evaluation of the intervention in a fully powered randomised controlled trial to assess behaviour and health outcomes is recommended.
    • Can non-invasive biomarkers lead to an earlier diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease?

      Bature, Fidelia; Pappas, Yannis; Pang, Dong; Guinn, Barbara-Ann; (Bentham Science, 2021-12-31)
      A lack of consensus on the diagnostic criteria used in the clinical setting limits the early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and increases the backlog of undiagnosed cases. While AD has no cure, the current aim is to diagnose the disease at the pre-symptomatic stage - the key to successful intervention, better understanding, and enabling the admission of improved therapeutic and nonpharmacological interventions. The major issues include the number of people affected, ignorance of the early signs and symptoms by patients, their families and healthcare staff, all of which are exacerbated by the vagueness and variety of symptoms
    • Integrated writing and its correlates: a meta-analysis

      Chan, Sathena Hiu Chong; Yamashita, J. (Elsevier, 2022-07-26)
      Integrated tasks are increasing in popularity, either replacing or complementing writing- only independent tasks in writing assessments. This shift has generated many research interests to investigate the underlying construct and features of integrated writing (IW) performances. However, due to the complexity of the IW construct, there are conflicting findings about whether and the extent to which various language skills and IW text features correlate to IW scores. To understand the construct of IW, we conducted a meta-analysis to synthesize correlation coefficients between scores of IW performances and (1) other language skills and (2) text quality features of IW. We also examined factors that may moderate the correlation of IW scores with these two groups of correlates. Consequently, (1)reading and writing skills showed stronger correlations than listening to IW scores; and (2) text length had a strongest correlation, followed by source integration, organization and syntactic complexity, with a smallest correlation of lexical complexity. Several IW task features affected the magnitude of correlations. The results supported the view that IW is an independent construct, albeit related, from other language skills and IW task features may affect the construct of IW.
    • NRF2-ARE signaling is responsive to haloacetonitrile-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes

      Xue, Peng; Wang, Huihui; Yang, Lili; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Li, Hongliang; Liu, Qinxin; Zhang, Qiang; Andersen, Melvin E.; Crabbe, M. James C.; Hao, Lipeng; et al. (Elsevier, 2022-07-14)
      Humans are exposed to disinfection by-products through oral, inhalation, and dermal routes, during bathing and swimming, potentially causing skin lesions, asthma, and bladder cancer. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a master regulator of the adaptive antioxidant response via the antioxidant reaction elements (ARE) orchestrating the transcription of a large group of antioxidant and detoxification genes. Here we used an immortalized human keratinocyte model HaCaT cells to investigate NRF2-ARE as a responder and protector in the acute cytotoxicity of seven haloacetonitriles (HANs), including chloroacetonitrile (CAN), bromoacetonitrile (BAN), iodoacetonitrile (IAN), bromochloroacetonitrile (BCAN), dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN), and trichloroacetonitrile (TCAN) found in drinking water and swimming pools. The rank order of cytotoxicity among the HANs tested was IAN ≈ BAN ˃ DBAN ˃ BCAN ˃ CAN ˃ TCAN ˃ DCAN based on their LC50. The HANs induced intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation and activated cellular antioxidant responses in concentration- and time-dependent fashions, showing elevated NRF2 protein levels and ARE activity, induction of antioxidant genes, and increased glutathione levels. Additionally, knockdown of NRF2 by lentiviral shRNAs sensitized the HaCaT cells to HANs-induced cytotoxicity, emphasizing a protective role of NRF2 against the cytotoxicity of HANs. These results indicate that HANs cause oxidative stress and activate NRF2-ARE-mediated antioxidant response, which in turn protects the cells from HANs-induced cytotoxicity, highlighting that NRF2-ARE activity could be a sensitive indicator to identify and characterize the oxidative stress induced by HANs and other environmental pollutants.
    • Influences on nurses’ engagement in antimicrobial stewardship behaviours: a multi-country survey using the Theoretical Domains Framework

      Chater, Angel M.; Family, Hannah; Abraao, Ligia Maria; Burnett, Emma; Castro-Sanchez, Enrique; Du Toit, Briëtte; Gallagher, Rose; Gotterson, Fiona; Manias, Elizabeth; Mcewen, Jo; et al. (Healthcare Infection Society, 2022-07-14)
      Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is significantly affected by inappropriate antibiotic use, and is one of the greatest threats to human health. Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) is a programme of actions promoting responsible antimicrobial use, and is essential for limiting AMR. Nurses have an important role to play in this context. Aim: This study investigated the determinants of nurse AMS behaviours and the impact of past training. Method A cross-sectional multi-country survey design with mixed methods was employed. Participants were 262 nurses (223 female; mean age = 44.45; SD = 10.77 years) from ten nationalities, with individual survey links sent via professional networks in 5 countries, alongside Twitter. Nine AMS behaviours and 14 behavioural determinants were quantitatively assessed using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), and mapped to the COM-B (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation – Behaviour) model. Analysis identified differences between nurses with and without AMS training. The influence of COVID-19 on AMS behaviour was qualitatively investigated using free text data. Findings Nurses performed all nine AMS behaviours, which were significantly higher (t(238) = -4.14, p < .001), by those who had training (M = 53.15; SD = 7.40) compared to those who had not (M = 48.30; SD = 10.75). Those with AMS training scored significantly higher in all of the TDF domains. The TDF was able to explain 27% of the variance in behaviour, with ‘Skills’ and ‘Behavioural Regulation’ (e.g. ability to self-monitor and plan), shown to be the most predictive of AMS actions. Both of these domains are situated in the Capability construct of COM-B, which can be enhanced with the intervention strategies of education and training. An increase in AMS behaviours was reported since COVID-19, regardless of previous training. Six core themes were linked to AMS: 1) Infection prevention and control, 2) Antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance, 3) The diagnosis of infection and the use of antibiotics, 4) Antimicrobial prescribing practice, 5) Person-centred care, and 6) Interprofessional collaborative practice. Conclusion This research, has identified the significant benefit of nurse training on AMS behaviour, and its determinants. Those who had training, scored higher in all TDF determinants of behaviour, compared to those who had had no training, resulting in higher Capability, Opportunity and Motivation to perform AMS behaviours. AMS education and training should be offered to nurses to enhance these factors. Future research should consider the optimal level of training to optimise AMS behaviour, with a focus on developing skills and behavioural regulation.
    • Ethics as a moral duty: proposing an integrated ethics framework for migration research

      Opfermann, Lena S. (Oxford University Press, 2022-07-19)
      This article interrogates the assumptions and moral values underlying social research ethics frameworks and practices applicable to migration studies. Based on a review of forced migration literature and on empirical observations I identify three tiers of research ethics that generally guide ethical conduct in this field: Procedural, relational and reciprocal ethics. I suggest that these tiers are traditionally conceptualised as a hierarchy in which certain ethical demands are considered morally superior to others. Looking at each of the three tiers the article shows that procedural and relational ethics demands are often based on unclear moral values and problematic notions of migrants’ vulnerability. To address this shortcoming, I draw on deontological ethics and on Levinas’ notion of unconditional responsibility to argue that our duty as researchers is based on our particular relationship with our research subjects rather than on their status as migrants. Moving away from a hierarchical understanding of research ethics I then propose an integrated ethics framework that allows researchers to conceptualise and address the various ethical demands in an interconnected and holistic way. This framework presents an original contribution to research ethics discourses and practice in migration studies and other fields of social inquiry with a political and moral ambition such as human rights, social work and childhood studies.
    • A transformative learning approach to child protection with applied social studies undergraduates at a university in England

      Allnock, Debra; University of Bedfordshire (ISETL, 2018-12-31)
      Learning child protection requires more of students than simply understanding ‘what to do’ in legislative and policy terms. Students must reflect on their implicit belief systems to effectively respond to child protection concerns as future professionals. This is an instructional article describing a scenario-based survey methodology to increase students’ awareness of the ways in which they understand child abuse concerns. First, the important role of universities in readying students to work in the human services is acknowledged, along with a comment on the state of published literature in this area. Second, I set out the theoretical framework informing the approach, drawing on Worldview concept and Mezirow’s Transformational Learning Theory, which underpins a social justice approach to education. Third, the instructional methodology is detailed. Finally, the outcome of the session is presented in a series of thematic reflections. The paper concludes that the methodology adopted is effective and powerful in supporting students to increase their awareness of their own worldviews and how they relate to broader national child protection policies and practices. Adequate preparation of students, planning for student incivility, and, importantly, self-reflection on the part of the lecturer are key tools that should be considered if lecturers plan to adopt this method.
    • Management and outcomes of the small pupil in cataract surgery: iris hooks, Malyugin ring or phenylephrine?

      Balal, Shafi; Jbari, Ahmed Said; Cook, Erica Jane; Akhtar, Wasim Akhtar; Din, Nizar; Sharma, Anant; Nitiahpapand, Rynda; Moorfields Eye Clinic at Bedford Hospital; Royal Free NHS Foundation Trust; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Springer Nature, 2021-11-12)
      Purpose To investigate outcomes for small versus large pupils in cataract surgery using different pupil expansion techniques. Methods Retrospective case-series reviewing 20,175 patients’ cataract surgery electronic medical records at Moorfields Eye Clinic in Bedford Hospital NHS Trust from January 2010 to April 2020. Outcomes such as visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure, intraoperative, post-operative complications were recorded and small pupil expansion device outcome. Results One thousand, four hundred twenty-six patients were identified as having small pupil (SP). Of these, 1110 patients (77.8%) had interventions to expand the pupil including 447 (31.3%) with intracameral phenylephrine (IC PE) alone, 194 (13.6%) with iris hooks and 469 (32.9%) with a Malyugin ring. The large pupil (LP) group had a statistically significant greater gain in VA than the SP group (p < 0.05). SPs had a significantly higher rate of intraocular complications including posterior capsular rupture (PCR) with vitreous loss (OR 2.75, p < 0.001). There was also a significantly higher rate of post-operative complications such as corneal oedema (OR 2.64, p < 0.001) and anterior uveitis (OR 2.11, p < 0.001) in the SP group. However, VA improvement and complications between the different pupil expansion groups showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) except for a greater rate of iris tears in the Malyugin group (p < 0.05). Conclusion To date, this is the largest reported case-series comparing Malyugin rings and iris hooks with other pupil expansion techniques. The various techniques to expand pupil size appear to be safe and equally effective in improving VA with a similar rate of complications except for a greater rate of iris tears with Malyugin ring.
    • EPPR: blockchain for educational record sharing and recommendation using the Ethereum platform

      Alkouz, Akram; HajYasien, Ahmed; Alarabeyyat, Abdulsalam; Samara, Khalid; Al-Saleh, Mohammed; Higher Colleges of Technology; Al-Balqa' Applied University; Jordan University of Science and Technology (Inderscience, 2021-09-24)
      There has been a great deal of discussion of the challenges on privacy of Educational Professional Personal Record (EPPR). Therefore, it is required to reassess the current models, in which various parties generate, exchange and observe a huge amount of personal data with regard to EPPR. Ethereum blockchain has shown that trusted, auditable transactions are detectible using a decentralised network of nodes. In this paper, we propose a novel decentralised framework to manage EPPR using Ethereum blockchain. The framework provides the owner of the EPPR a comprehensive immutable log and accessibility to their educational records across the educational record editors and consumers. Furthermore, it provides a recommender engine to endorse skills and competencies to the education record owners and similar candidates for educational records editors and consumers. The aim of the proposed framework is to enable educational stakeholders to participate in the network as blockchain miners rewarded by pseudonymised data.
    • Micro-foundations as a grounding for readiness-for change in knowledge sharing initiatives

      Samara, Khalid; Al Serhan, Omar (Inderscience, 2021-11-17)
      While many organisations are often engaged in conventional change practices that usually involve top-down strategies for creating change, knowledge sharing initiatives differ where most of the complex processes are handled at the human-level. Therefore, knowledge sharing initiatives present a unique type of conundrum where there is a need to closely interconnect human behaviours and the person's readiness to identify the most effective approaches to achieve change. This paper investigates the individual level readiness-for change by studying organisational knowledge sharing initiatives from a micro-foundational perspective. These issues have been largely missing in the knowledge sharing literature which is integral to understanding of how to manage individuals at the micro-level who are experiencing a behavioural change as result of knowledge sharing initiatives. In this study an inductive grounded theory approach is being used to analyse the individuals' level experiences and origins of various influential factors supporting or inhibiting their readiness during knowledge sharing initiatives. The results indicate that asymmetries in communication and lack of awareness to knowledge sharing initiatives are fundamentally constructs akin to micro-level behaviours that have obvious effects on the individuals' readiness-for change.
    • Impact of tablet-PCs on learning outcomes in classroom environment

      Javed, Yasir; Samara, Khalid (Inderscience, 2019-07-01)
      It is evident that information and communication technology (ICT) plays a vital role in educational settings. However, it is also important to determine how learners use ICT in different settings. Currently, ICT is mostly used as a supporting tool for the existing learning process, however, it is still unable to revolutionise the learning and teaching process. The reason for this can be its failure to unleash its original potential and capabilities. This study adopted a quasi-experimental method to measure the impact of using tablet PCs on the learning outcomes of 255 children inside classrooms. Data was collected from both types of classroom, i.e., classrooms using and not using mobile tablets for learning and the difference-in-differences technique has been coupled with a t-test to make the comparison. The results show that children using tablet-PCs in the classroom have better learning outcomes.
    • A novel integrated framework for securing online instructor-student communication

      Salem, Maher; Samara, Khalid; AlDaheri, Mohammed Saeed (Inderscience, 2019-01-08)
      Academic advising is a time-consuming effort in educational institutions. Advising and consulting students are critical, which can cause latency and additional overhead for both the instructor and student. This paper proposes an effective and secured online framework to enrich the advising experience between the instructor and student and enhance time management. It provides two main services: reserved time slots for each student and common discussion between students and instructors. Reserving a time slot means that the student can communicate with the advisor anywhere. It can start an embedded web-based virtual machine to interact with the instructor in real time. The second service is to share a general post with all students and instructors to come up with a generic solution. Security plays a dominant role in the framework. It uses a strong authentication mechanism and encrypts the entire traffic to keep the data confidential.
    • Readiness as a microfoundational approach to knowledge-management

      Samara, Khalid; London South Bank University (2013-03-31)
      Over the years, many theories have noted that the core factor that acts as a barrier to successful knowledge management (KM) initiatives is attributable, in part, to the individual’s lack of readiness to change. However, a significant gap in the literature is the lack of empirical and conceptual support to the idea that KM is inherently a change effort affecting issues of how to enact change in individuals. More recent work, have highlighted that one of the reasons for this gap in the knowledge literature, is that majority of studies as a whole are usually pre-occupied with macro-level constructs stemming from forces at the organizational level. The study argues that readiness-for change is an important step towards understanding the micro processes of individual actions and interactions, because research in this area examines how change occurs from the individual’s perspective. Based on the literature, the paper presents a model to help us explore the micro processes of organizational KM initiatives. The study also builds on previous work of Foss (2007) explanation of microfoundations and integrates it with insights of Armenakis and Harris (2002) theory of readiness for individual change. A discussion is presented demonstrating future directions towards a microfoundational approach to KM.
    • Inferring causal interpretations of change-readiness using causal-models:a knowledge-based perspective

      Patel, Shushma; Samara, Khalid; Patel, Dilip (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011-03-01)
      The ability to understand the conditions in which humans make causal judgements continues to arouse debate from cognitive science, philosophy, and even the domain of computer science. While for most organisations, change is a necessary impetus to sustainability, it is difficult to directly infer cause and affect relationships on human readiness without understanding how humans arrive causal inferences during a complex change situation. To explore the causal interpretations of human readiness-for change the research applies the systems thinking approach, utilising causal models to analyse the cause and effect of human readiness. The research contributes to a knowledge-based perspective examining the various factors effecting readiness-feedback, and how readiness-for change knowledge is received, and processed. The paper demonstrates the application of causal models to interpret the role of human readiness through a case study on the infectious outbreak of Clostridium Difficile (C. difficile). Then we propose a theory of readiness-for change through the lenses of Systems Thinking into a Knowledge Based Reasoning Framework.
    • Review of knowledge sharing: conceptual foundations for microlevel sharing and readiness for change related behaviours

      Patel, Dilip; Samara, Khalid; Patel, Shushma (Springer, 2011-12-31)
      In the organisational change and knowledge sharing literature, recognition of high failures of change efforts is said to be associated to the organisations lack of understanding of how to manage readiness for change. In this paper, the case for change readiness is invoked by a need for further explanation of micro level foundations. A survey of 105 scholarly academic journals in the area of knowledge sharing research from 1994 to 2009 with keywords salient to knowledge sharing studies was conducted to explore current thinking about organisational change issues. The findings reveal that there is yet no well-established method or clear conceptual definition to exploring the phenomena of change for knowledge sharing on both individual and organisational levels. Based on the literature survey a model is proposed to integrate the relevant themes that influence knowledge readiness. A discussion is presented, demonstrating future directions towards knowledge sharing for micro-level knowledge sharing and readiness for change related behaviours.
    • EPPR: using blockchain for sharing educational records

      Alkouz, Akram; HaiYasien, Ahmed; Alarabeyyat, Abdulsalam; Samara, Khalid; Al-Saleh, Mohammed; Higher Colleges of Technology; Al-Balqa’ Applied University (IEEE Xplore, 2020-04-23)
      There have been recent, marked increases in the challenges of privacy, data interoperability and quality of Educational Professional Personal Record (EPPR). This calls into question the current model, in which different parties generate, exchange and monitor massive amounts of personal data related to EPPR. Ethereum blockchain has demonstrated that trusted, auditable transactions is visible using a decentralized network of nodes accompanied by a general ledger. Thus, the rapid development of educational and professional data generators such as online universities and distance learning, learners need to engage in detail into their EPPR as well as the educational and professional data generators. In this paper, we propose a novel decentralized approach to manage EPPR using Ethereum blockchain technology. The decentralized approach provides the owner of the EPPR a comprehensive immutable log and ease of access to their educational records across the educational record editors and consumers. Utilizing Ethereum blockchain features, can provide solutions with the main concerns of exchanging data between parties such as privacy, accountability and data interoperability. The aim of this approach is to also facilitate educational stakeholders (universities and employing agencies) to participate in the network as blockchain miners rewarded by pseudonymized data in compliance with General Data Protection Rules (GDPR) in United Arab Emirates (UAE).
    • Outgoing data filtration for detecting spyware on personal computers

      Afzulpurkar, Aishwarya; Alshemaili, Mouza; Samara, Khalid (Springer, Cham, 2019-02-06)
      One of the most critical issues emerging from the Internet is the diverse number of spyware and bots. When a spyware is installed in your PC then it will be difficult to detect, mainly because it deploys covert channels to communicate with outbound data transmissions. These attacks are usually sent from PCs infected with a bot that communicates with malicious controllers over an encrypted channel. However, the available pattern-based intrusion detection system (IDS) and antivirus systems (AVs) are unable to detect the infected PC. This paper presents a Monitoring and Filtering method (SMF) for outgoing packets based on machine learning and behavioral-based methods that can help in the protection of PCs. In addition, this paper presents recent research contributions and emerging tools in the field of spyware detection and identifies existing gaps in the literature. The paper then presents a High-level Architecture to inspect the outgoing packet from the hardware and the software installed in PCs as a solution.
    • Optimisation of perfect preventive maintenance and component replacement schedules (PPMCRS) using SPEA2

      Ikechukwu, Anthony O.; Nggada, Shawulu H.; Quenum, Jose G.; Samara, Khalid; Namibia University of Science and Technology; Higher Colleges of Technology (IEEE Xplore, 2020-04-23)
      As the proliferation in processes and technological options increases, the complexity of designing safety-critical systems may pose challenges to meeting the requirements to ensure that these systems are dependable. The number of the failures occurring can be minimized through preventive maintenance and replacement (PMR). Although different components have different PM times (aT), each preventive maintenance (PM) interval T, reduces the effective age of a component of the system. The degree of age reduction is hinged upon the effectiveness of PM and the coefficient of maintenance interval (CoMI). The Perfect Preventive Maintenance (PPM) policy renews the component being maintained is adopted in this paper. This paper investigates the effects of component replacement on component and system level reliability, and optimising PPM schedules taking into account component replacement as an improvement parameter on system's unavailability.