Recent Submissions

  • Repetitive DNA restructuring across multiple Nicotiana allopolyploidisation events shows a lack of strong cytoplasmic bias in influencing repeat turnover

    Dodsworth, Steven; Guignard, Maite S.; Pérez-Escobar, Oscar A.; Struebig, Monika; Chase, Mark W.; Leitch, Andrew R.; ; University of Bedfordshire; Queen Mary University of London; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; et al. (MDPI, 2020-02-19)
    Allopolyploidy is acknowledged as an important force in plant evolution. Frequent allopolyploidy in Nicotiana across different timescales permits the evaluation of genome restructuring and repeat dynamics through time. Here we use a clustering approach on high-throughput sequence reads to identify the main classes of repetitive elements following three allotetraploid events, and how these are inherited from the closest extant relatives of the maternal and paternal subgenome donors. In all three cases, there was a lack of clear maternal, cytoplasmic bias in repeat evolution, i.e., lack of a predicted bias towards maternal subgenome-derived repeats, with roughly equal contributions from both parental subgenomes. Different overall repeat dynamics were found across timescales of <0.5 (N. rustica L.), 4 (N. repanda Willd.) and 6 (N. benthamiana Domin) Ma, with nearly additive, genome upsizing, and genome downsizing, respectively. Lower copy repeats were inherited in similar abundance to the parental subgenomes, whereas higher copy repeats contributed the most to genome size change in N. repanda and N. benthamiana. Genome downsizing post-polyploidisation may be a general long-term trend across angiosperms, but at more recent timescales there is species-specific variance as found in Nicotiana.
  • Modelling world natural gas production

    Wang, Jianliang; Bentley, Yongmei; ; China University of Petroleum; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2020-05-23)
    As the cleanest fossil fuel in terms of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, natural gas demand is expected to increase rapidly in future due to its important role in the transition of the world energy system. In this case, understanding potential limits to future production of the world’s natural gas resources becomes increasingly important. This paper uses a modified multi-cycle generalized Weng model to forecast the long-term production of natural gas by region, and also globally. Both conventional and unconventional gas production are considered. Our results show that world natural gas production is likely to peak in the range 3.7 to 6.1 trillion cubic meters per year (tcm/y) between 2019 and 2060 depending on assumptions made on the size of the global ultimately recoverable resource (URR) of natural gas. A comparison of this paper’s forecasts with those from the scientific literature and from major energy institutes shows that the projection in this paper’s ‘high scenario’ can be seen as a likely upper-bound on future global natural gas production. To turn this upper-bound projection into reality, great efforts will be needed from the gas industry to discover more conventional and unconventional gas resources, and to make these recoverable.
  • Factors motivating Indian manufacturing SME employers’ to adopt GSCM practices

    Khillon, M.; Bentley, Yongmei (Springer, 2020-05-06)
    The growth of manufacturing SMEs is vital, as their contribution towards the national economy is significant. In this era of globalisation, SMEs are compelled to ensure sustainable profitability through cost saving, while being environmentally conscious at the same time. It has been reported in the past empirical studies, that adoption of green supply chain management (GSCM) practices by SMEs could enable such enterprises to improve their performance and succeed in their operations. Hence, to gain and maintain competitive advantage and succeed, SMEs need to change their practices and adapt their strategies to the dynamic environment of today. The factors motivating adoption of GSCM among Indian SMEs have not been thoroughly explored in the past studies. This sets the motivation for the present research. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to explore the factors motivating Indian manufacturing SME employers in adopting GSCM practices in their firms and to develop a GSCM framework based on the literature review and the empirical findings of this study.
  • ‘Y el olor de la sangre manchaba el aire’: Tlatelolco 1521 and 1968 in José Emilio Pacheco’s ‘Lectura de los “Cantares Mexicanos”’

    Carpenter, Victoria; (Liverpool University Press, 2018-12-31)
    When Octavio Paz compared the Tlatelolco 1968 massacre to the conquest of the Aztec empire he created a foundation (and indeed, at times, the inspiration) for the view of the massacre as a symbol of a long-lasting internal conflict. This paper explores how the Tlatelolco 1968 poetry reflects (or appropriates) the 1521 texts. Are these texts used as extra metaphors of what happened in La Plaza de las Tres Culturas on 2 October, as links to the square’s infamous past, or is there a more enduring reason for the retelling of the story of the fall of Tenochtitlán? To answer these questions, I will examine four versions of José Emilio Pacheco’s poem ‘Lectura de los “Cantares Mexicanos”: Manuscrito de Tlatelolco (octubre 1968)’. The reading will be informed by the theory of habit (Bourdieu) and collective remembering and forgetting (Halbwachs and Bartlett).
  • A bridge between worlds: parallel universes and the observer in “The Celestial Plot” by Adolfo Bioy Casares

    Carpenter, Victoria; Halpern, Paul; University of Bedfordshire; University of the Sciences, Philadelphia (Brill Academic Publishers, 2019-09-24)
    Adolfo Bioy Casares’s story “The Celestial Plot” (1948) is among the best known examples of Latin American science fiction writing of the early twentieth century inspired by contemporary advances in quantum physics. Most readings of the story focus on the movements of its main protagonist, Captain Ireneo Morris, as he traverses realities while test-flying a plane. This approach overlooks the role of the story’s other protagonist, Dr. Carlos Servian, who, we argue, is the lynchpin upon which the multiple realities are dependent. We read the changes to Dr. Servian’s character from a variety of scientific and philosophical perspectives on parallel universes. By addressing variations in Servian’s character and language, and focusing on the disparate representations of the key objects in the story, we show how the story anticipates in some ways the Many Worlds notion which argues that reality bifurcates during quantum measurements, leading to near-identical copies of observers.
  • Recent advances in sensor fault diagnosis: a review

    Li, Daoliang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Jinxing; Wang, Cong; Duan, Yanqing; China Agricultural University; Shandong Agricultural University; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2020-05-11)
    As an essential component of data acquisition systems, sensors have been widely used, especially in industrial and agricultural sectors. However, sensors are also prone to faults due to their harsh working environment. Therefore, the early identification of sensor faults is critical for making corrective actions to mitigate the impact. This paper provides a comprehensive review on the contemporary fault diagnosis techniques and helps researchers and practitioners to understand the current state of the art development in this emerging field. The paper introduces the common fault types and causes in sensors, and different types’ methods for fault diagnosis used in industry and agriculture sectors. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these methods, highlights the current challenges, and offers recommendations for future research directions.
  • An oral history of health psychology in the UK

    Quinn, Francis; Chater, Angel M.; Morrison, Val (Wiley, 2020-04-20)
    Abstract Purpose An oral history of the development of health psychology in the United Kingdom. Methods Standard oral history methods produced interviews with 53 UK health psychologists, averaging 92 min in length. All interviewees entered the field from the 1970s to the 2000s, representing all four countries in the United Kingdom. A reconstructive mode of analysis, along with the few existing sources, was used to create a narrative of the history of health psychology in the United Kingdom. Audio recordings and transcripts will be archived for use by future researchers. Findings In the 1970s, medical schools in London recruited psychologists to teach, while also conducting pragmatic research on issues in healthcare. At the same time, some clinical psychologists began to work with physical health conditions in general hospitals. Partly influenced by developments in the United States and Europe, an identity of ‘health psychology’ developed and spread to researchers and practitioners doing work in psychology and health. In the 1980s, the field continued to attract researchers, including social psychologists working with health behaviours and outcomes, and clinical psychologists working in health care settings. During this time, it became formalized as a scientific field with the creation of the BPS Health Psychology Section, courses, and journals. In the 1990s, the field moved towards professional practice, which was controversial with other BPS divisions. However, it continued to grow and develop through the 2000s and 2010s. Conclusion Reflections on the development of UK health psychology represent the first historical narrative produced from oral testimony of those who were present at the time.
  • Safeguarding adult reviews: informing and enriching policy and practice on self-neglect

    Preston-Shoot, Michael; (Emerald, 2020-04-25)
    Purpose – One purpose is to update the core dataset of self-neglect safeguarding adult reviews and accompanying thematic analysis. A second purpose is to explore the degree to which safeguarding adult reviews draw upon available research and learning from other completed reviews. Design/methodology/approach – Further published reviews are added to the core dataset, mainly drawn from the web sites of Safeguarding Adults Boards. Thematic analysis is updated using the four domains employed previously. The four domains and the thematic analysis are rounded in the evidence-based model of good practice, reported in this journal previously. Multiple exclusion homelessness and alcohol misuse are prominent in this sample of reviews. Findings – Familiar findings emerge from the thematic analysis and reinforce the evidence-base of good practice with individuals who self-neglect and for policies and procedures with which to support those practitioners working with such cases. Multiple exclusion homelessness emerges as a subset within this sample, demonstrating that SABs are engaging in reviews of people who die on the streets or in temporary accommodation.   Research limitations/implications – The national database of reviews commissioned by SABs remains incomplete and does not contain many of the safeguarding adult reviews reported in this evolving dataset. The Care Act 2014 does not require publication of reports but only a summary of findings and recommendations in SAB annual reports. NHS Digital annual datasets do not enable identification of reviews by types of abuse and neglect. It is possible, therefore, that this dataset is also incomplete. Drawing together the findings from the reviews nonetheless builds on what is known about the components of effective practice, and effective policy and organisational arrangements for practice. Practical implications – Answering the question “why” remains a significant challenge for safeguarding adult reviews. The findings confirm the relevance of the evidence-base for effective practice but SARs are limited in their analysis of what enables and what obstructs the components of best practice. Greater explicit use of research and other published SARs might assist with answering the “why” question, drawing attention where appropriate to policies being pursued by central government that undermine any initiative to end rough sleeping. Originality/value – The paper extends the thematic analysis of available reviews that focus on work with adults who self-neglect, further reinforcing the evidence base for practice. The evidence-base also supports practice with individuals who experience multiple exclusion homelessness. Policy-makers and practitioners have an approach to follow in this complex, challenging and demanding area of practice.   Keywords: Safeguarding adult reviews, evidence, self-neglect, research, multiple exclusion homelessness, alcohol misuse
  • Capturing debriefing and enhancing reflection within simulated clinical learning environments

    Wareing, Mark; England, Jacqueline A.; Mathew, David; Ball, Carla; Willetts, Amanda; Kemp, Jane; Clifford, Kelly; Thompson, Andrea; Dove, Ian; Adams, Louise; et al. (National Association of Educators in Practice, 2020-05-05)
    This article presents findings from an evaluation of a new A3-size learner notes sheet designed for use by healthcare students engaging in clinical simulation and clinical skills sessions. The notes sheet consists of an adapted form of the SBAR (situation, background, assessment, response) tool, whilst capturing post-simulation oral debriefing provided by a facilitator. Additionally, the Driscoll (2007) model is used to provide students with an opportunity to reflect on their engagement in clinical simulation. Two cohorts of students, who engaged in separate simulation sessions, completed the A3 sheet. The study featured 33 midwifery and 21 operating department practitioner (ODP) students undertaking a simulation. Documentary analysis was undertaken to identify the depth of reflective writing of both groups of students. Midwifery student participants reflected on their experiences of simulation at a slightly deeper level than their ODP counterparts. All students adhered to the structure of the notes sheet when receiving their briefing from the facilitator and when asked to write their reflective accounts. This study has sought to explore an under-researched area of clinical simulation: the extent to which healthcare students can utilise reflection when engaging with a clinical scenario within a simulated learning environment.
  • Best practices in the cost engineering of through-life engineering services in Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and Design To Cost (DTC)

    Baguley, Paul (Springer, 2020-04-30)
    This chapter defines a number of Cost Engineering challenges from industry and their potential best practice solutions as industry case studies and industry practices surveys completed during the previous 5 years. In particular Life Cycle Costing in the context of upgrade and revamp in the process industry and also an example of design for full life cycle target cost for the manufacturing industry. Life Cycle Costing of complex long life cycle facilities is exemplified by identification and development of a life cycle costing of oil refineries through a survey of 15 companies and full life cycle experts and a review of the literature. Life cycle costing practices and a standardised life cycle cost breakdown structure are identified. Design to full life cycle target cost practices have been identified in the development of a full life cycle cost estimating tool for marine radar systems. In particular a survey of 17 companies and a case study with a marine radar systems company has identified specific practices useful in developing products to full life cycle target cost. In planning for future Through Life Engineering Services it is proposed that the collection of cost data and the understanding of Cost Engineering practices is a potential competitive advantage.
  • Acute effects of breaking up prolonged sedentary time on cardiovascular disease risk markers in adults with paraplegia

    Bailey, Daniel Paul; Withers, Thomas M.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.; Dunstan, David W.; Leicht, Christof A.; Champion, Rachael B.; Charlett, Opie P.; Ferrandino, Louise; (John Wiley and Sons, 2020-04-03)
    Elevated levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers are highly prevalent in people with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Breaking up prolonged sedentary time with short, regular bouts of physical activity can reduce postprandial glucose and lipid levels in able-bodied individuals. The effects in people with paraplegia are unknown. The study aims were to examine the acute postprandial glucose (primary aim), lipid, blood pressure, and psychological responses (secondary aims) to breaking up prolonged sedentary time in individuals with paraplegia. This was a randomized crossover design trial. Fourteen participants with paraplegia (age 51 +- 9 years, trunk fat mass 44.3 +- 7.7%) took part in the following two, 5.5-hour conditions: (1) uninterrupted sedentary time (SED), and (2) sedentary time interrupted with 2 minutes of moderate-intensity arm crank ergometer physical activity every 20 minutes (SEDACT). Standardized breakfast and lunch test meals were consumed during each condition. The outcomes were compared between conditions using linear mixed models. Glucose area under the curve (AUC) was significantly lower during the lunch postprandial period in SED-ACT vs SED (incremental AUC 1.9 [95% CI 1.0, 2.7) and 3.0 [2.1, 3.9] mmol/L∙2.5 hour, respectively, P = .015, f = 0.34). There were no differences between conditions for the breakfast or total 5.5 hours postprandial periods (P > .05). Positive affect was higher in SED-ACT than SED (P = .001). Breaking up prolonged sedentary time acutely attenuates lunch postprandial glucose and improves positive affect in people with paraplegia. This may have clinical relevance for reducing CVD risk and improving psychological well-being in this population.
  • Two roads, one destination: community and organisational mechanisms for contextualising child abuse prevention in Australia and the UK

    Firmin, Carlene Emma; Rayment-McHugh, S.; (Springer, 2020-05-04)
    Calls for a contextual approach to abuse prevention highlight a need to better understand how contextual frameworks may be operationalized.  Using a dual-case study design, this research compares two contrasting pilot projects underpinned by contextual theories of abuse prevention.  One was implemented in a small remote Indigenous community in Australia, and aimed to reduce the extent of youth-perpetrated sexual abuse.  The other occurred in a densely populated urban area in London (United Kingdom) and involved the co-creation and testing of a contextual child protection response to peer-to-peer abuse.  Despite their divergent approaches to developing contextual practice, a comparison of the two projects identified shared features of implementation. Both involved: context-specific community buy-in and ownership of a response to peer-to-peer abuse; solutions that were co-created between professionals and communities, and; the enhancement of community guardianship, pro-social use of space and changes to the physical design of areas to increase safety. Consequentially both projects demanded a radical transformation in the way health and social care professionals viewed the target of their interventions – the what- and the approach to achieving change – the how. Comparing these two case studies provides a unique opportunity to extend knowledge on the practical application of contextual theoretical approaches to abuse prevention. 
  • Child sexual exploitation: why theory matters

    Pearce, Jenny J. (Policy Press, 2019-11-30)
    This book explores the contribution that different theoretical perspectives make to our understanding of child sexual exploitation (CSE). It addresses the ways that these theories can influence our practice with children and young people affected by CSE and offers scope to identify when and why particular approaches are adopted.  Each chapter identifies a particular theoretical approach, explains its meaning and then offers an understanding of how this can enhance our practice. Covering topics such as how structuration theory offers us  a way to move beyond simplistic binary oppositions such as ‘victim’ and ‘perpetrator’;  how discourse  analysis can illustrate how and why our understanding of CSE as a form of abuse has changed over time; how contextual safeguarding helps us to explore the importance of relationships, places and spaces outside of the home environment; how laisse-faire approaches to internet providers impact on their engagement with managing abuse on line; how lifespan development theories place adolescence in context with emotional maturation and  brain development; how psychodynamic understandings and trauma informed understandings help us to address the impact of abuse; how we can enhance ‘empathy’ through understanding its relationship with ecology and social support structures;  and how our understanding of the impact of racism, gender and disability can help understand situations faced by children affected by CSE  as well as our role in advocating for change. This work aims to ‘bring theory home’ into our everyday practice and encourages individuals, teams and agencies to consider how their work with children affected by CSE is informed and developed.
  • Towards an epistemology of media education: confronting the problems of knowledge presented by Social Realism

    Connolly, Steve M.; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2020-04-29)
    Recent debates about the status of knowledge in the school curriculum have seen the emergence of attempts to connect curriculum reform to the ideas about "powerful knowledge" articulated by Michael Young and other sociologists. This article argues that for the case of media education, and specifically its application in secondary schools - in the form of Media Studies - these ideas are not adequate to explain the epistemological principles upon which the project of media education is built. The paper takes a threefold approach to developing an epistemology of media education; firstly, by outlining existing work on the nature of knowledge in media education; secondly, by examining social realist arguments about the way that knowledge is manifested in things like school subjects and canonical knowledge and arguing that media education does not fit these manifestations; and finally by offering some alternative ideas upon which an epistemology of media education may be built
  • SOLACE: a psychosocial stigma protection intervention to improve the mental health of parents of autistic children: a feasibility randomised controlled trial

    Lodder, Annemarie; Papadopoulos, Chris; Randhawa, Gurch (Springer, 2020-04-23)
    This study presents findings from a feasibility trial, testing an 8-week psychosocial stigma protection intervention (SOLACE) designed to improve the mental health of parents of autistic children. Seventeen parents were stratified then randomly assigned to either SOLACE (n = 9) or control group (n = 8). Retention and adherence rates were excellent with minimal missing data suggesting SOLACE had good acceptability and feasibility. Quantitative analysis revealed that mental health scores had significantly improved for those who took part in SOLACE compared to no significant changes for control group participants. In addition, changes in secondary outcome measures (e.g. stigma, self-esteem and self-compassion) were in favour of SOLACE. Focus group interviews revealed that SOLACE was acceptable to parents. Results suggest that a full randomised controlled trial is warranted.
  • Uncertainty of Net Present Value calculations and the impact on applying integrated maintenance approaches to the UK rail industry

    Kirkwood, Leigh; Shehab, Essam; Baguley, Paul; Starr, Andrew; Cranfield University (Elsevier, 2015-10-27)
    The Public performance indicator (PPI) is an important Key Performance Indicator for Network Rail and monitored carefully by the organisation and their external stakeholders. Condition monitoring is of increasing interest within network rail as a suitable method for increasing asset reliability and improving the PPI metric. As condition monitoring methods are identified each will need assessment to establish the cost and benefit. Benefit can be measured in cost savings as poor PPI performance results in fines. Within many industries Net Present Value (NPV) calculations are used to determine how quickly investments will break-even. Cost-risk is a term that is used to describe the financial impact of an unexpected event (a risk). This paper outlines a more detailed approach to calculating NPV which considers the cost-risk effect of changes of the denial of service charging rate. NPV prediction is of importance when assessing when to deploy different fault detection strategies to maintenance issues, and therefore the cost-risk of the NPV calculation should be used to support asset management decisions.
  • Performance of supply chain collaboration - a simulation study

    Ramanathan, Usha; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2013-07-16)
    In the past few decades several supply chain management initiatives such as Vendor Managed Inventory, Continuous Replenishment and Collaborative Planning Forecasting and Replenishment (CPFR) have been proposed in literature to improve the performance of supply chains. But, identifying the benefits of collaboration is still a big challenge for many supply chains. Confusion around the optimum number of partners, investment in collaboration and duration of partnership are some of the barriers of healthy collaborative arrangements. To evolve competitive supply chain collaboration (SCC), all SC processes need to be assessed from time to time for evaluating the performance. In a growing field, performance measurement is highly indispensable in order to make continuous improvement; in a new field, it is equally important to check the performance to test conduciveness of SCC. In this research, collaborative performance measurement will act as a testing tool to identify conducive environment to collaborate, by the way of pinpointing areas requiring improvements before initializing collaboration. We use actual industrial data and simulation to help managerial decision-making on the number of collaborating partners, the level of investments and the involvement in supply chain processes. This approach will help the supply chains to obtain maximum benefit of collaborative relationships. The use of simulation for understanding the performance of SCC is relatively a new approach and this can be used by companies that are interested in collaboration without having to invest a huge sum of money in establishing the actual collaboration. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Child protection and contexts of recognition

    Firmin, Carlene Emma; (Wiley, 2020-04-06)
    The papers in this edition of Child Abuse Review cover a broad range of topics relevant to the protection of children and the prevention of abuse. From child safety in sporting contexts, the identification of children with early adverse experiences, and supporting young children within foster care settings; through to routes for disclosing child sexual abuse (CSA) and the educational experiences of young people living in domestic abuse refuges – the papers selected cover a diverse ground. Yet collectively they tell a shared story about the contexts of child abuse – and importantly the contexts in which child abuse can be recognised, and thereby prevented or disrupted.
  • Is there a shared social work signature pedagogy cross-nationally? Using a case study methodology to explore signature pedagogy in England, Israel, Finland, Spain and Sweden

    Thomas, Roma; Wallengren Lynch, Michael; Chen, Henglien Lisa; Muurinen, Heidi; Segev, Einav; Carrasco, Marta Blanco; Hollertz, Katarina; Bengtsson, Anna Ryan; University of Sussex; Sapir College, Israel; et al. (Taylor and Francis, 2020-04-24)
    While there is an international definition of social work as a profession, little is known about whether there is also a shared pedagogy in social work cross-nationally. To our knowledge, this paper is the first empirical study which aims to fill this gap by applying the concept of signature pedagogy in social work education to explore the commonality of social work pedagogy across countries. The study uses a multi-site case study (six universities in five European countries) through applying a ‘critical teacher-researcher’ approach in generating the data, followed by a two-phased thematic analysis. The study evidenced a shared principle of social work pedagogy which nurtures social work student to think and perform like a social worker and develop the professional self through developing relationships and dialogue, professional practice, group work, self-reflection and critical thinking. It is argued from, this exploratory study, that even between countries which have different welfare ideology as well as social work history and education systems, there is some common ground in social work pedagogy where one can learn from another through the use of ‘teacher as researcher’ methodologically.

View more