Recent Submissions

  • The relationship between vertical stiffness during bilateral and unilateral hopping tests performed with different strategies and vertical jump performances

    Mohammadian, Mohammadamin; Sadeghi, Heydar; Khaleghi Tazji, Mehdi; Maloney, Sean J.; Kharazmi University; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2021-03-20)
    Vertical stiffness has been highlighted as a potential determinant of performance and may be estimated across a range of different performance tasks. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between vertical stiffness determined during 9 different hopping tests and performance of vertical jumps. Twenty healthy, active males performed vertical hopping tests with three different strategies (self-selected, maximal, and controlled) and three different limb configurations (bilateral, unilateral preferred, and unilateral non-preferred), resulting in nine different variations, during which vertical stiffness was determined. In addition, participants performed squat jump (SQJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) during which jump height, CMJ stiffness, and eccentric utilization ratio (EUR) were determined. Vertical stiffness in bilateral and unilateral preferred tasks performed with a self-selected and maximal, but not controlled, strategy was associated with stiffness in the CMJ (r = 0.61-0.64; p < 0.05). However, stiffness obtained during unilateral preferred and non-preferred hopping with self-selected strategy was negatively associated with performance in SQJ and CMJ tasks (r = -0.50 to -0.57; p < 0.05). These findings suggest that high levels of vertical stiffness may be disadvantageous to static vertical jumping performance. In addition, unilateral hopping with a self-selected strategy may be the most appropriate task variation if seeking to determine relationships with vertical jumping performance. HighlightsStiffness obtained during unilateral hopping with a preferred strategy was negatively associated with vertical jumping performancesStiffness obtained during hopping with preferred and maximal strategies was associated with stiffness obtained during a countermovement jumpIn this population, hopping stiffness may therefore be reflective of an individual's countermovement jump strategyHigh levels of stiffness may be disadvantageous to static-start vertical jumping.
  • Understanding physician behaviour in the 6-8 weeks hip check in primary care: a qualitative study using the COM-B

    Chater, Angel M.; Milton, Sarah; Green, Judith; Gilworth, Gill; Roposch, Andreas; ; University of Bedfordshire; King's College London; University College London; Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (BMJ Publishing Group, 2021-03-19)
    A compulsory hip check is performed on an infant at 6-8 weeks in primary care for the detection of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Missed diagnoses and infants incorrectly labelled with DDH remain an important problem. The nature of physician behaviour as a likely source of this problem has not been explored. The aims of this study were to make a behavioural diagnosis of general practitioners (GPs) who perform these hip checks, and identify potential behavioural change techniques that could make the hip checks more effective. Qualitative study with in-depth semistructured interviews of 6-8 weeks checks. We used the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation and Behaviour model in making a behavioural diagnosis and elicited factors that can be linked to improving the assessment. Primary care. 17 GPs (15 female) who had between 5 and 34 years of work experience were interviewed. Capability related to knowledge of evidence-based criteria and skill to identify DDH were important behavioural factors. Both physical (clinic time and space) and social (practice norms), opportunity were essential for optimal behaviour. Furthermore, motivation related to the importance of the 6-8 weeks check and confidence to perform the check and refer appropriately were identified in the behavioural diagnosis. Aspects of capability, opportunity and motivation affect GPs' diagnosis and referral behaviours in relation to DDH. The findings from this work extend current knowledge and will inform the development of an intervention aimed at improving the diagnosis of DDH.
  • Plastid phylogenomics resolves ambiguous relationships within the orchid family and provides a solid timeframe for biogeography and macroevolution

    Serna-Sánchez, Maria Alejandra; Pérez-Escobar, Oscar A.; Bogarín, Diego; Torres-Jimenez, María Fernanda; Alvarez-Yela, Astrid Catalina; Arcila-Galvis, Juliana E.; Hall, Climbie F.; de Barros, Fábio; Pinheiro, Fábio; Dodsworth, Steven; et al. (SpringerNature, 2021-03-25)
    Recent phylogenomic analyses based on the maternally inherited plastid organelle have enlightened evolutionary relationships between the subfamilies of Orchidaceae and most of the tribes. However, uncertainty remains within several subtribes and genera for which phylogenetic relationships have not ever been tested in a phylogenomic context. To address these knowledge-gaps, we here provide the most extensively sampled analysis of the orchid family to date, based on 78 plastid coding genes representing 264 species, 117 genera, 18 tribes and 28 subtribes. Divergence times are also provided as inferred from strict and relaxed molecular clocks and birth-death tree models. Our taxon sampling includes 51 newly sequenced plastid genomes produced by a genome skimming approach. We focus our sampling efforts on previously unplaced clades within tribes Cymbidieae and Epidendreae. Our results confirmed phylogenetic relationships in Orchidaceae as recovered in previous studies, most of which were recovered with maximum support (209 of the 262 tree branches). We provide for the first time a clear phylogenetic placement for Codonorchideae within subfamily Orchidoideae, and Podochilieae and Collabieae within subfamily Epidendroideae. We also identify relationships that have been persistently problematic across multiple studies, regardless of the different details of sampling and genomic datasets used for phylogenetic reconstructions. Our study provides an expanded, robust temporal phylogenomic framework of the Orchidaceae that paves the way for biogeographical and macroevolutionary studies.
  • Putting risk into perspective: lessons for children and youth services from a participatory advocacy project with survivors of sexual violence in Albania, Moldova and Serbia

    Bovarnick, Silvie; Cody, Claire; ; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2021-03-26)
    While engaging survivors of sexual violence in participatory advocacy may not be new to adult services, it is less common among children and youth services that commonly prioritise “protection” over “participation”. This paper draws on monitoring and evaluation data collected from a youth advocacy project with fifteen survivors of sexual violence in Albania, Moldova and Serbia. Secondary analysis, adopting a trauma-informed lens, was undertaken on data generated through shared learning events with project partners, focus groups with project staff and workshops with the young women involved. We argue that the identified gains for participants resonate with key elements of trauma-informed responses to sexual violence, namely establishing safety and trust, empowerment, and critical reflection. Although based on work with young women, our findings are relevant to children and youth services interested in engaging survivors in advocacy. Despite the significant ethical and practical challenges, we argue that it is important to put risk into perspective and not lose sight of the potential protective benefits of participatory work for participants.
  • Factors associated with the implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions for reducing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a systematic review

    Regmi, Krishna; Lwin, Cho Mar; University of Bedfordshire; University of Dundee; University of Medicine Mandalay (MDPI, 2021-04-17)
    There has been much discussion recently about the importance of implementing nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to protect the public from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) infection. Different governments across the world have adopted NPIs (e.g., social distancing, quarantine, isolation, lockdowns, curfews, travel restrictions, closures of schools and colleges). Two fundamental strategies, namely a strict containment strategy—also called suppression strategy— and a mitigation strategy have been adopted in different countries, mainly to reduce the reproduction number (R) to below one and hence to reduce case numbers to low levels or eliminate humanto-human transmission, as well as to use NPIs to interrupt transmission completely and to reduce the health impact of epidemics, respectively. However, the adoption of these NPI strategies is varied and the factors impacting NPI are inconsistent and unclear. This study, therefore, aimed to review the factors associated with the implementation of NPIs (social distancing, social isolation and quarantine) for reducing COVID-19. Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched for published and unpublished studies, undertaking a systematic search of: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine, COVID-19 Research, WHO database on COVID-19, and Google Scholar. Thirtythree studies were included in the study. Seven descriptive themes emerged on enablers and barriers to NPIs: the positive impact of NPIs, effective public health interventions, positive change in people’s behaviour and concerns about COVID-19, the role of mass media, physical and psychological impacts, and ethnicity/age associated with COVID-19. This study has highlighted that the effectiveness of NPIs in isolation is likely to be limited, therefore, a combination of multiple measures e.g., SD, isolation and quarantine, and workplace distancing appeared more effective in reducing COVID-19. Studies suggest that targeted approaches alongside social distancing might be the way forward, and more acceptable. Further research to promote country- and context-specific adoption of NPIs to deliver public health measures is needed. Studies comparing the effectiveness of interventions and strategies will help provide more evidence for future pandemics.
  • Improving support for breastfeeding mothers: a qualitative study on the experiences of breastfeeding among mothers who reside in a deprived and culturally diverse community

    Cook, Erica Jane; Powell, Faye; Ali, Nasreen; Penn-Jones, Catrin Pedder; Ochieng, Bertha; Randhawa, Gurch; ; University of Bedfordshire; De Montfort University (BMC, 2021-04-06)
    The United Kingdom has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates in Europe, with the initiation and continuation of breastfeeding shown to be closely related to the mothers' age, ethnicity and social class. Whilst the barriers that influence a woman's decision to breastfeed are well documented, less is known how these barriers vary by the UK's diverse population. As such, this study aimed to explore mothers' experiences of breastfeeding and accessing breastfeeding services offered locally amongst a deprived and culturally diverse community. A qualitative interpretive study comprising of 63 mothers (white British n = 8, Pakistani n = 13, Bangladeshi n = 10, black African n = 15 and Polish n = 17) who took part in single-sex focus groups, conducted in local community centres across the most deprived and ethnically diverse wards in Luton, UK. The focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically using Framework Analysis. The most common barriers to breastfeeding irrespective of ethnicity were perceptions surrounding pain and lack of milk. Confidence and motivation were found to be crucial facilitators of breastfeeding; whereby mothers felt that interventions should seek to reassure and support mothers not only during the early stages but throughout the breastfeeding journey. Mothers particularly valued the practical support provided by health care professions particularly surrounding positioning and attachment techniques. However, many mothers felt that the support from health care professionals was not always followed through. The findings presented inform important recommendations for the design and implementation of future programs and interventions targeted at reducing breastfeeding inequalities. Interventions should focus on providing mothers practical support and reassurance not only during the early stages but throughout their breastfeeding journey. The findings also highlight the need for tailoring services to support diverse communities which acknowledge different traditional and familial practices.
  • The impact of COVID-19 on health behaviour, well-being, and long-term physical health.

    McBride, Emily; Arden, Madelynne A.; Chater, Angel M.; Chilcot, Joseph; ; University College London; Sheffield Hallam University; University of Bedfordshire; King's College London (Wiley, 2021-03-31)
    Editorial
  • Overcoming hurdles to intervention studies with autistic children with profound communication difficulties and their families

    McKinney, Ailbhe; Weisblatt, Emma J.L.; Hotson, Kathryn L.; Ahmed, Zahra Bilal; Dias, Claudia; BenShalom, Dorit; Foster, Juliet; Murphy, Suzanne; Villar, Sofia S.; Belmonte, Matthew K.; et al. (Sage, 2021-04-07)
    Autistic children and adults who are non-verbal/minimally verbal or have an intellectual disability have often been excluded from Autism Spectrum Disorder research. Historical, practical and theoretical reasons for this exclusion continue to deter some researchers from work with this underserved population. We discuss why these reasons are neither convincing nor ethical, and provide strategies for dealing with practical issues. As part of a randomised controlled trial of an intervention for children with profound autism, we reflected as a multi-disciplinary team on what we had learnt from these children, their families and each other. We provide 10 strategies to overcome what appeared initially to be barriers to collecting data with this population. These hurdles and our solutions are organised by theme: interacting physically with children, how to play and test, navigating difficult behaviours, selecting suitable outcome measures, relating with parents, managing siblings, involving stakeholders, timing interactions, the clinician’s role in managing expectations, and recruitment. The aim of this article is to provide researchers with the tools to feel motivated to conduct research with children with profound autism and their families, a difficult but worthwhile endeavour. Many of these lessons also apply to conducting research with non-autistic children with intellectual disabilities.
  • Retail analytics: store segmentation using rule-based purchasing behaviors analysis

    Bilgic, Emrah; Cakir, Ozgur; Kantardzic, Mehmed; Duan, Yanqing; Cao, Guangming; Iskenderun Technical University; Marmara University; University of Louisville; University of Bedfordshire; Ajman University (Taylor and Francis, 2021-04-09)
    Retailers are facing challenges in making sense of the significant amount of data for better understanding of their customers. While retail analytics plays an increasingly important role in successful retailing management, comprehensive store segmentation based on a Data Mining-based Retail Analytics is still an under-researched area. This study seeks to address this gap by developing a novel approach to segment the stores of retail chains based on “purchasing behavior of customers” and applying it in a case study. The applicability and benefits of using Data Mining techniques to examine purchasing behavior and identify store segments are demonstrated in a case study of a global retail chain in Istanbul, Turkey. Over 600K transaction data of a global grocery retailer are analyzed and 175 stores in İstanbul are successfully segmented into five segments. The results suggest that the proposed new retail analytics approach enables the retail chain to identify clusters of stores in different regions using all transaction data and advances our understanding of store segmentation at the store level. The proposed approach will provide the retail chain the opportunity to manage store clusters by making data-driven decisions in marketing, customer relationship management, supply chain management, inventory management and demand forecasting.
  • A randomised-controlled feasibility study of the REgulate your SItting Time (RESIT) intervention for reducing sitting time in individuals with type 2 diabetes: study protocol

    Bailey, Daniel Paul; Edwardson, Charlotte L.; Pappas, Yannis; Dong, Feng; Hewson, David; Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Brierley, Marsha L.; Chater, Angel M. (BMC, 2021-03-19)
    People with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) generally spend a large amount of time sitting. This increases their risk of cardiovascular disease, premature mortality, diabetes-related complications and mental health problems. There is a paucity of research that has evaluated interventions aimed at reducing and breaking up sitting in people with T2DM. The primary aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of delivering and evaluating a tailored intervention to reduce and break up sitting in ambulatory adults with T2DM.
  • Green credit policy and maturity mismatch risk in polluting and non-polluting companies

    Cao, Yaowei; Zhang, Youtang; Yang, Liu; Li, Rita Yi Man; Crabbe, M. James C.; University of Bedfordshire; Wuhan University of Technology; Hong Kong Shue Yan University; Oxford University; Shanxi University (MDPI, 2021-03-24)
    A major issue is whether the implementation of China’s green credit policy will affect the coordinated development of corporate sustainable operations and environmental protection. This paper used a propensity score matching—difference-in-differences (PSM-DID) model to analyse the impact of China’s green credit policy implemented in 2012 on the maturity mismatch risk between investment and financing in polluting and non-polluting companies. We found that: (1) green credit policies can help reduce the risk of maturity mismatch between investment and financing for polluting companies; (2) the reduction of short-term bank credit is the main way to curb the risk of maturity mismatch risk between investment and financing; (3) the green credit policy has no obvious mitigation effect on the risk of maturity mismatch between investment and financing among polluting companies with environmental protection investment; (4) the mitigation effect of the green credit policy on the maturity mismatch risk is more significant in state-owned polluting companies and polluting companies in areas with a lower level of financial development. The empirical results show that China’s green credit policy helps stimulate the environmental protection behaviour of companies, as well as helping alleviate the capital chain risk caused by the maturity mismatch between investment and financing. In addition, despite the effect of heterogeneity, it can solve the contradiction between environmental protection and economic development.
  • Cognitive impairment and treatment outcomes among people attending an alcohol intervention service for those aged 50+

    Seddon, Jennifer L.; Wadd, Sarah; Madoc-Jones, Iolo; Elliot, L.; University of Bedfordshire; Glasgow Caledonian University; Wrexham Glyndwr University (Emerald, 2021-03-22)
    Purpose: No studies have evaluated the relationship between cognitive impairment and alcohol treatment outcomes among older drinkers. This study sought to explore the extent of cognitive impairment among older adults seeking alcohol treatment, and examine the relationship between cognitive impairment, treatment retention and alcohol use following treatment. Design/ methodology/ approach: The study used data from the Drink Wise Age Well programme; an alcohol intervention service for older adults (aged 50+). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was used to screen for cognitive impairment; alcohol use was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Findings: 531 participants completed assessment at treatment entry. Over half the sample were male (57%), with a mean age of 60 years (SD: 7.09). Almost half (48.4%) had cognitive impairment at entry to treatment: 51.6% had normal cognitive function, 41.4% had mild cognitive impairment, 5.8% had moderate cognitive impairment and 1.1% had severe cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment was not associated with increased treatment drop-out and was not predictive of alcohol use following treatment. Alcohol treatment was associated with a significant improvement in cognitive functioning. Originality/ value: This study suggests there may be a significant amount of unidentified cognitive impairment among older adults attending alcohol treatment. Assessment and routine screening for cognitive impairment in drug and alcohol services may help in care planning and setting treatment goals; in the absence of routine screening opportunities for treatment planning and intervention may be missed.
  • Addressing the needs of older adults receiving alcohol treatment during the Covid-19 pandemic: a qualitative study

    Seddon, Jennifer L.; Trevena, Paulina; Wadd, Sarah; Elliott, Lawrie; Dutton, Maureen; McCann, Michelle; Willmott, Sarah; University of Bedfordshire; Glasgow Caledonian University (Taylor and Francis, 2021-03-22)
    Background: The Covid-19 global pandemic resulted in major changes to the provision of alcohol treatment in the UK, these changes coincided with increases in the use of alcohol. This study sought to understand the impact of the pandemic on older adults in alcohol treatment, and to explore how changes in the provision of alcohol treatment were experienced. Method: Semi-structured interviews were completed with older adults (aged 55+) in alcohol treatment, as well as alcohol practitioners providing support to older adults. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Alcohol use was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – Consumption (AUDIT-C). Results: Thirty older adults in alcohol treatment and fifteen alcohol practitioners were recruited. The Covid-19 pandemic was found to result in both increases and decreases in alcohol use; changes in alcohol use depended on a number of factors, such as living arrangements, family support, physical and mental health. Many alcohol treatment services moved to a model of remote support during the pandemic. However, face-to-face service provision was considered to be essential by both older adults in alcohol treatment and alcohol practitioners. Engagement with online support was low, with older adults facing barriers in using online technology. Conclusion: The study highlights the importance of face-to-face treatment and intervention for older adults in alcohol treatment. Addiction services may see increased demand for treatment as a result of the pandemic; it is important that services consider the needs of older adults, many of whom may be marginalised by a remote model of service provision.
  • Book review: Paul Crosthwaite, The market logics of contemporary fiction, Cambridge studies in twenty-first century literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019. xi 306pp ISBN 978-1-108-49956-9 (Hbk)

    Weedon, Alexis (2021-03-15)
    New Economic Criticism has worked across the disciplinary boundaries of literary and cultural history and postmodern economics. Crosthwaite cites as a starting point of this book Pierre Bourdieu’s criticism of neoliberalism as a programme aimed at removing all structures which get in the way of market logics – that is the commercial forces which drive sales. He sets this against Modernist aesthetic isolationism and pitches Frederic Jameson’s argument that the independent cultural sphere preserved by Modernism was over thrown by the invasive commercialism which pervades Postmodernism. His argument is that the literary sphere has been invaded by financialisation and fiduciary exchangeability which leads us to trust imaginary things from paper money to hedge funds and suspend out disbelief. From this position he presents his reading of the economic storylines in fiction, and the book trades’ constructs of price-points, genres, formats, agreements, prizes, and the performative stances of authors who interrogate the market economics of their fiction.
  • ‘A foreigner’s apprehension of a country at its most critical time’: Hugh Walpole in Russia in World War 1

    Poesio, Giannandrea; Weedon, Alexis; University of Bedfordshire (Hugh Walpole Society, 2021-02-19)
    Hugh Walpole travelled to the Eastern front as a volunteer for the Russian Red Cross. He stopped in Petrograd before joining his Otriad on a tour of duty near Lviv in the Ukraine in May 1915. After six months he returned to the UK to raise support for a British initiative to counteract German propaganda and in 1916 he went back to found the Anglo-Russian Bureau in Petrograd. During this time he kept a journal and wrote two novels about his Russian experience. Looking back, he reflected, ‘they are not bad books because as records of a foreigner’s apprehension of a country at its most critical time, they are true.’ (Walpole, 'The Crystal Box', The Bookman Feb. 1923 p. 688). From 1912 to 1916 he listed books he read on the verso pages of his journal and on the recto he listed the plays and operas with location and performers. It is a detailed record of an eclectic reader and theatre-goer. Later he published fragments of autobiography where he described how he fleetingly met Lenin and his official report on the early months of the revolution contains his eye-witness account of the demonstrations and the shots fired at him on the office balcony. From these sources we can see how his time in Russia influenced his taste and how closely he intertwined his experience of the theatre with his recall of the war.
  • The impact of neurological disability and sensory loss on mindfulness practice

    Finlay, K. A.; Chater, Angel M.; Hearn, J.; University of Reading; University of Bedfordshire; Manchester Metropolitan University (Taylor and Francis, 2021-02-23)
    Objectives Mindfulness-based approaches are increasingly recommended in the management of medical conditions associated with sensory loss and absence, such as Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Functional Neurological Disorder (FND). Yet the implications of undertaking practices such as body scanning when living with sensory loss have not been considered. This study aimed to explore the impact of sensory loss on the practice and experience of mindfulness in qualified mindfulness teachers with SCI/FND/MS. Methods Eight mindfulness teachers (5 females, 3 males) with SCI/FND/MS, sensory loss and wheelchair use were recruited from mindfulness teacher databases. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were undertaken, lasting between 50 and 93 min. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Idiographic analyses for descriptive, linguistic and conceptual themes were completed before cross-case analyses. Results Analyses resulted in two superordinate themes: (1) Adopting your Body; and (2) Sensation without Loss. These themes reflected the challenge of overcoming initial resistance to areas of the body with sensory disruption, building a relationship with the whole body, such that sensory awareness could be visualised and experienced without proprioception. Conclusions Mindfulness offers a unique approach to accepting and working with the body after paralysis or sensory loss. Fundamental to the use of mindfulness with such populations, is the prioritisation of inclusive sensory language and exploring sensory absence as well as sensory presence. The cognitive and emotional outcomes of body scanning may be uniquely elevated in populations with neurophysiological disorders, highlighting the benefits of mindfulness for adaptive and protective self-management.
  • Extensive plastid-nuclear discordance in a recent radiation of Nicotiana section Suaveolentes (Solanaceae)

    Dodsworth, Steven; Christenhusz, Maarten J.M.; Conran, John G.; Guignard, Maite S.; Knapp, Sandra; Struebig, Monika; Leitch, Andrew R.; Chase, Mark W. (Oxford University Press, 2020-05-24)
    Nicotiana section Suaveolentes is the largest section of Nicotiana and is a monophyletic group of allotetraploid species. Most of the species are endemic to Australia, but three species occur on islands in the South Pacific as far east as French Polynesia and one species is native to Namibia. Here, we present phylogenetic results based on genome skimming, with near-complete taxon sampling and multiple accessions sampled for several species. These represent the first phylogenetic results for the section that include most recognized taxa, using wild-sourced material wherever possible. Despite known chromosome number and genome size changes in the section, there is little divergence in the ribosomal DNA operon (26S, 18.S and 5.8S plus associated spacers) and plastid genomes, with little to no taxonomic signal in plastome phylogenetic results and clear plastid-nuclear discordance. These results contrast with strong morphological differentiation (both floral and vegetative) between most of the core Australian taxa and obvious differences in ecological preferences. Together, these initial results portray Nicotiana section Suaveolentes as experiencing recent and ongoing radiation in the arid zone of Australia.
  • A numerical study of the effects of oxy-fuel combustion under homogeneous charge compression ignition regime

    Mobasheri, Raouf; Aitouche, Abdel; Peng, Zhijun; Li, Xiang; Centre de Recherche en Informatique Signal et Automatique de Lille; Junia; University of Bedfordshire (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2021-02-16)
    The European Union (EU) has recently adopted new directives to reduce the level of pollutant emissions from non-road mobile machinery engines. The main scope of project RIVER for which this study is relating is to develop possible solutions to achieve nitrogen-free combustion and zero-carbon emissions in diesel engines. RIVER aims to apply oxy-fuel combustion with Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to eliminate NOx emissions and to capture and store carbon emissions. As part of this project, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis has been performed to investigate the effects of oxy-fuel combustion on combustion characteristics and engine operating conditions in a diesel engine under Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. A reduced chemical n-heptane-n-butanol-PAH mechanism which consists of 76 species and 349 reactions has been applied for oxy-fuel HCCI combustion modeling. Different diluent strategies based on the volume fraction of oxygen and a diluent gas has been considered over a wide range of air-fuel equivalence ratios. Variation in the diluent ratio has been achieved by adding different percentages of carbon dioxide for a range from 77 to 83 vol.% in the intake charge. Results show that indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) has reduced from 32.7% to 20.9% as the CO2 concentration has increased from 77% to 83% at low engine loads while it doesn’t bring any remarkable change at high engine loads. It has also found that this technology has brought CO and PM emissions to a very ultra-low level (near zero) while NOx emissions have been completely eliminated.
  • Transitional safeguarding: presenting the case for developing Making Safeguarding Personal for young people in England

    Cocker, Christine; Cooper, Adi; Holmes, Dez; Bateman, Fiona; University of East Anglia; University of Bedfordshire; Research in Practice for Adults (Emerald Group Holdings Ltd., 2021-01-25)
    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to set out the similarities and differences between the legal frameworks for safeguarding children and adults. It presents the case for developing a Transitional Safeguarding approach to create an integrated paradigm for safeguarding young people that better meets their developmental needs and better reflects the nature of harms young people face. Design/methodology/approach: This paper draws on the key principles of the Children Act 1989 and the Care Act 2014 and discusses their similarities and differences. It then introduces two approaches to safeguarding: Making Safeguarding Personal (MSP); and transitional safeguarding; that can inform safeguarding work with young people. Other legal frameworks that influence safeguarding practices, such as the Mental Capacity Act 2005 and the Human Rights Act 1998, are also discussed. Findings: Safeguarding practice still operates within a child/adult binary; neither safeguarding system adequately meets the needs of young people. Transitional Safeguarding advocates an approach to working with young people that is relational, developmental and contextual. MSP focuses on the wishes of the person at risk from abuse or neglect and their desired outcomes. This is also central to a Transitional Safeguarding approach, which is participative, evidence informed and promotes equalities, diversity and inclusion. Practical implications: Building a case for developing MSP for young people means that local partnerships could create the type of service that best meets local needs, whilst ensuring their services are participative and responsive to the specific safeguarding needs of individual young people. Originality/value: This paper promotes applying the principles of MSP to safeguarding practice with young people. It argues that the differences between the children and adult legislative frameworks are not so great that they would inhibit this approach to safeguarding young people.
  • Response of bEnd.3 cells to growing behavior on the graphene oxide film with 2-D grating structure by two-beam laser interference

    Yan, Jin; Cao, Liang; Wang, Lu; Xie, Chengcheng; Liu, Yan; Song, Zhengxun; Xu, Hongmei; Weng, Zhankun; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Li (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2021-02-22)
    Graphene (G) and its derivatives are important nanomaterials with potential medical applications for biosensors and implanting biomaterials. The hydrophobicity and surface microstructures of substrates have great influences on the biological and physical properties of the surface-bound cells. In this work, we used the two-beam laser interference (TBLI) technique to prepare a two-dimensional (2-D) grating structure on the surface of graphene oxide (GO) film. We investigated the effect of GO and the GO film with the 2-D grating structure substrates on the growth behavior of rat brain microvascular endothelial (bEnd.3) cells. The results demonstrated that the cell spreading area and the number of surface-bound cells were closely related to the hydrophobicity of the substrate and the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups (OCGs). Due to the interaction of laser and GO, the GO in the interference area was transformed into reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The grating-structured GO film significantly affected the direction of cell spreading and morphology. It has a good application prospect as a scaffold in tissue engineering, and promising applications in the fields that require highly directional growth of cells, such as nerve injury repair, tendon repair and regeneration.

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