• The magic of mentoring: a democratic approach to mentoring trainee teachers in post-compulsory education

      Thompson, Carol; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2016-08-05)
      This paper explores the impact of subject-specific mentoring within post-compulsory education. Using questionnaires and semistructured interviews, it considers those factors considered ‘most useful’ to teachers in training. The findings suggest that, contrary to the views espoused by bodies such as the Office for Standards in Education, Children’s Services and Skills, mentors have a limited impact on the effectiveness of teacher education. Reasons for this are examined, including the context in which most trainees and mentors work as well as the restrictions created by initial teacher education frameworks. A more productive approach to supporting postcompulsory education trainees is explored through the development of a collaborative and democratic model of mentoring.
    • The magic of mentoring: developing others and yourself

      Thompson, Carol (Routledge, 2019-02-01)
      The Magic of Mentoring offers an introduction to the theory and practice of successful mentoring together with a unique focus on how mentors can reflect on the skills they bring to the role, and those they still need to develop. Through the use of scenarios, reflections and stories, the reader is encouraged to apply the content to a real context, demonstrating the importance of reflection for both parties and the benefits derived from this, especially those related to understanding ourselves and others.
    • Mapping research in the field of special education on the island of Ireland since 2000

      Travers, Joseph; Savage, Rosie; Butler, Cathal; O'Donnell, Margaret; Dublin City University; University of Bedfordshire (Wiley, 2017-06-12)
    • Media literacy education in primary years: carrying on regardless

      Connolly, Steve M.; Parry, Rebecca; University of Bedfordshire; University of Sheffield (National Telemedia Council, 2018-10-18)
      This think- piece shares emerging ideas about media education, which the authors permit themselves to explore despite the current ‘strangulation’ of media studies in England. By ‘carrying on regardless’ we refer to an aspiration we have to continue to develop our pedagogical and theoretical approaches to media education, rather than having to expend energy always defending the subject and reformulating it to suit the discourses of populist politics. As such we reflect back on the Developing Media Literacy research project and consider our interpretations of the data in the light of recent thinking about cognition, constructivism and curriculum (more Cs!) in learning and pedagogy. We suggest that there is still important work to be done in terms of developing pedagogy which enables complex concepts to be understood, operationalized and questioned by children. We do so with the assumption implicit (as it is in most other subjects) that this work is important for the individual, the community and society (and that we do not need to spend our word count reinventing that particular wheel).
    • Media literacy, curriculum and the rights of the child

      Cannon, Michelle; Connolly, Steve M.; Parry, Rebecca (Routledge, 2020-10-09)
      Engaging with digital media is part of everyday living for the majority of children, yet opportunities to learn about, through and with media are denied many pupils in compulsory schooling. Whilst Media Studies in the UK is internationally reputed to be well established, changes made to the primary and secondary national curriculum in 2014 included removal of existing media study elements. We demonstrate what is lost by these actions in relation to the United Nations Rights of the Child and, in particular, the right of the child to express identity. We demonstrate how media literacy had previously been included in curriculum, enabling opportunities to address children’s rights, and propose that the absence of media education is part of an overall trend of the non-prioritisation of children’s rights in England and Northern Ireland. The paper calls for media literacy to be reintroduced into primary and secondary curriculum
    • The methodology used for the Times Higher Education World University Rankings’ citations metric can distort benchmarking

      Natt, Avtar; University of Bedfordshire (2017-10-31)
      LSE Impact Blog The Times Higher Education World University Rankings can influence an institution’s reputation and even its future revenues. However, Avtar Natt argues that the methodology used to calculate its citation metrics can have the effect of distorting benchmarking exercises. The fractional counting approach applied to only a select number of papers with high author numbers has led to a situation whereby the methodologists have unintentionally discriminated against certain types of big science paper. This raises questions about the benchmarking and also reiterates the importance of such rankings maintaining transparency in their data and methods.
    • Mind the gap: the chasm between research and practice in teaching and learning with technology

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian; Richardson, John T.E.; Case, Jennifer M.; Huisman, Jeroen; Open University; University of Cape Town; Ghent University (Routledge, 2016-01-01)
    • Missing: evidence of a scholarly approach to teaching and learning with technology in higher education

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Open University (Routledge, 2013-05-22)
      As technology is increasingly being used for teaching and learning in higher education, it is important to scrutinise what tangible educational gains are being attained. Are claims about technology transforming learning and teaching in higher education borne out by actual practices? This paper draws upon a critical analysis of recent research literature concerning Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL). It argues that few published accounts of TEL practices show evidence of a scholarly approach to university teaching. Frequently, TEL interventions appear to be technology-led rather than responding to identified teaching and learning issues. The crucial role of teachers? differing conceptions of teaching and of the purpose of professional development activities is often ignored. We argue that developing a more scholarly approach among university teachers is more essential than providing technical training if practices are to be improved to maximise the effectiveness of TEL.
    • Modeling an institutional approach to developing Technology Enabled Learning : closing the gap between research and practice

      Price, Linda; Casanova, Diogo; Orwell, Suzan; Kingston University (2017-01-01)
      This paper presents our approach to closing the gap between research and practice when delivering technology enabled learning. We illustrate our model that uses research to underpin how we have shaped a whole institutional roll out of our new VLE, Canvas. The model is built around our Learning Design principles based on current research in the field and key institutional priorities. The model addresses how we lever the implementation of our new VLE as a catalyst for changing the institutional pedagogical paradigm. Our experience shows that by adopting such an approach we are able to positively impact on institutional teaching practices and influence policy to support innovative VLE pedagogy.
    • Modelling factors for predicting student learning outcomes in higher education

      Price, Linda; Gijbels, David; Donche, Vincent; Richardson, John T.E.; Vermunt, Jan D.; Open University; University of Antwerp; University of Cambridge (Routledge, 2014-01-01)
      This chapter presents a heuristic model of student leaning as a means to understanding the scope of factors to be considered in making predictions about student learning. It is underpinned by a review of a wide body of literature. The model is drawn from Price and Richardson's 4P model (2004) that considered factors in improving student learning and argues that the same issues apply to predicting student learning outcomes. It builds upon existing research into learning and teaching. It is an articulation and an extension of Dunkin and Biddle?s (1974) model, the Biggs (1985) original Presage-Process-Product model and research by Prosser and Trigwell (1999). The model has four main groups of factors: presage, perceptions, process and product. The presage group contains personological and situational factors such as context. Perceptions include how students conceive learning, how teachers conceive teaching, and the context. The process group of factors incorporates approaches to learning in students and teachers approaches to teaching. The model is presented as a basis for engaging in future research in a holistic manner that may bear further fruit in predicting student learning.
    • Moving towards sustainable policy and practice – a five level framework for online learning sustainability / Progresser vers des politiques et des pratiques durables: un cadre à cinq niveaux pour un apprentissage en ligne durable

      Casanova, Diogo; Price, Linda; University of West London; University of Bedfordshire (Canadian Network for Innovation in Education (CNIE), 2018-12-31)
      This paper addresses the issue of sustainability in online learning in higher education. It introduces and discusses a five-level framework for helping higher education institutions to make the transition from enterprise to sustainable policy and practice in online learning. In particular, it responds to evidence in the literature regarding the lack of sustainability in online learning in higher education. Influenced by Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, this framework is characterized by three different clusters: basic needs, institutional motivation, and stakeholders’ motivations. It is presented hierarchically within five different levels. Examples are provided for each of the levels and suggestions are given to how institutions should respond to each level.
    • Networks of knowledge, students as producers, and politicised inquiry

      Carmichael, Patrick; Tracy, Frances; Dohn, Nina Bonderup; Jandrić, Petar; Ryberg,Thomas; de Laat, Maarten; University of Bedfordshire; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Southern Denmark; Zagreb University of Applied Sciences; et al. (Springer, 2020-03-22)
      This chapter explores the potential for the development of new learning opportunities in higher education, through students being conceptualised not as consumers, recipients or commodities, but rather as co-researchers and co-producers of knowledge. It discusses the implications of new forms of networked knowledge enabled by the emergence of semantic web and linked data technologies, and the reconceptualisation of the Internet as a ‘global data space’. These approaches have the potential to allow students to engage critically with existing data and data practices, generate new data and, perhaps more significantly, to participate in local or global knowledge networks. These activities involve not only the development of specific techno-literacies, but also broader critical digital literacies of which we offer examples and propose a number of dimensions. A critical digital literacies perspective, particularly when combined with the idea of students as co-researchers and co-producers, provides a basis for student to undertake critical and politicised inquiry as part of a broader reframing of the purposes of higher education.
    • Newbolt to now: an interpretation of the history of the school subject of English in England

      Goodwyn, Andrew; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2020-06-04)
      2021 marks the 100th anniversary of The Newbolt Report, the first official report about English, in spirit a liberal document, arguing for an emancipatory English. Since 1870 The School Subject of English [SSE] has experienced several historical phases. One phase [1980-92] is presented as a period of ‘harmonious practice’, arguing that it offers a positive view of a future in which SSE and its teachers are at one. SSE is a democratic and emancipatory project, its boundaries constantly expanding to reflect societal change, the needs of its students and a belief in social justice. In the current ‘panopticon’ phase this emancipatory ambition is performatively diminished. The current dominance of ‘The English Literary Heritage’ and terminal examinations are stultifying teachers. This overview seeks to trace historical developments, considering ways to recapture the spirit of Newbolt but in a 21st century model of English, we are ready for a new phase.
    • No more superheroes … only avatars? survival role play in English post compulsory education

      Thompson, Carol; Wolstencroft, Peter (Brill/Sense, 2018-09-11)
      Developments such as the incorporation of colleges in England and Wales in 1993 had a fundamental influence on the post-compulsory education (PCE) sector by creating a dramatic transformation in culture, ethos and style of management. Prior to this, both managers and tutors had a high degree of autonomy and were given significant freedom in the way they organised their working lives. However, the introduction of data driven efficiency measures and the increased surveillance of professional activity triggered a significant change in both professional role and professional identity and has been referred to as the terrors of performativity (Ball, 2003).Within the whirlwind of change, many organisations were in a state of flux. They had to contend with new funding mechanisms and subsequent cuts to their budget, as well as prepare for influential judgements on their performance by organisations such as the government’s inspectorate of education, commonly known as Ofsted. This presented a range of new challenges which were ‘supported’ by a plethora of new guidelines, systems and processes and the result was described by Coffield as:A sector where the government had to establish a Bureaucracy Reduction Group to deal with the effects of its own hyperactivity in spawning so many new policies, initiatives, qualifications, institutions, partnerships, targets, priorities, ambitions and aspirations that those trying to enact their proposals became overwhelmed with the paperwork. (Coffield, 2008, p. 43)For a new tutor entering the profession, this presented a somewhat muddled picture of the professional role and identity; on the one hand, there were clear guidelines relating to processes and the ‘technical’ aspects of the role on the other, somewhat conflicting information from experienced colleagues who contested the imposed changes.For teachers, one significant outcome of the changes was the value placed on the skill or craft of teaching above other aspects of the role. This focus created a much narrower professional identity and neglected the wider aspects of the role, potentially leading to a more defined perception of the types of professional development which were considered relevant.According to the European Commission (2013), a teacher’s role should include both teaching and teacher competencies. The former being those things associated with the craft of teaching and the latter encompassing the need to reflect, evaluate and work collaboratively in the wider professional community, recognising this as a body of knowledge which exists beyond the place of work. This view acknowledged teaching as a multifaceted career and provided a systemic view of teacher professionalism which could be likened to the notion of democratic professionalism (Sachs, 2001).Despite the most significant of these changes having taken place over 20 years ago, there still remains some confusion around the purpose and extent of the PCE tutor’s role and this is mirrored in the roles undertaken by middle managers (Thompson & Wolstencroft, 2013). Indeed, there is evidence to suggest that such confusion has led to a sense of conflict between initial perceptions of a particular role and actual practice and has resulted in both tutors and managers leaving the sector or even the profession itself (Chambers & Roper, 2000; Thompson & Wolstencroft, 2013). This illuminates what has been described as the ‘disjuncture between official rhetoric of lifelong learning and the experiences of those working and studying in English Further Education’ (Avis & Bathmaker, 2005, p. 61).Although a number of the problems associated with entering the PCE teaching profession and undertaking management roles within it have been documented (Thompson & Wolstencroft, 2012, 2013; Spenceley, 1997; Avis & Bathmaker, 2007), this is not the complete picture. There are many new tutors and managers who had not only survived the process of change but enjoyed the challenge and found specific strategies to overcome the difficulties they were presented with (Thompson & Wolstencroft, 2012, 2013).Within this chapter, we will explore the challenges and professional identities of new tutors and managers within PCE as well as the strategies they employ to cope with the individual demands of their jobs.
    • Not just about gadgets: habit, innovation and change in the design of learning technologies

      Carmichael, Patrick (SAGE Publications, 2015-02-26)
      While elements of Deleuze’s theory, notably the ‘geophilosophical’ concepts of ‘rhizomes’, ‘smoothness’ and ‘striation’ have been applied to educational technologies, his work on time has, to date, been comparatively neglected by educational theorists. This article explores prac- tices and outcomes of educational technology design in terms of Deleuze’s dimensions of time in which habitual practices, trajectories of change and concerns about identities in flux are synthe- sised into a ‘present-becoming’. The article draws on empirical work carried out during a large, funded research project during which teachers, students, technologists and researchers were able to work together for extended periods in order to explore the potential of emerging ‘semantic web’ and ‘linked data’ technologies and approaches in higher educational settings (Ensemble: Semantic Technologies for the Enhancement of Case Based Learning). Doing learning technology design and development in a way informed by ‘Deleuzian’ syntheses of time involves conversations not just about creating a technology-rich educational utopia or constantly specifying new ‘gadgets’, but the troubling of existing pedagogical practices and the multiplication of perspectives and subjectivities. By going beyond notions of ‘feature sets’, ‘use cases’ and ‘affordances’ it provides a richer conceptual framework that helps us understand why some educational technologies are adopted and abandoned, some are creatively appropriated and used in unexpected ways, and others sink without trace. The article concludes with suggestions as to how current conditions in higher education, rather than constraining the development of educational technologies, might provide opportunities for these broader explorations to be initiated. 
    • Older and wiser? first year BDS graduate entry students and their views on using social media and professional practice

      Knott, PN; Wassif, Hoda; University of Bedfordshire; University of Central Lancashire (Springer Nature, 2018-08-31)
      The use of social media sites (SMS) has increased exponentially since their creation and introduction in the early 2000s. The number of regular users of SMS is estimated at over two billion people worldwide. Ethical and legal guidelines exert an additional responsibility on the behaviour of both graduate and undergraduate dentists when compared to members of the general public with some assumption that life experience can offer some insight into attitudes about online use of social media in relation to professional practice. Aim We set out to explore the views of the first year graduate entry programme students at the University of Central Lancashire and their use of SMS together with their opinions on what they consider to be professional online behaviour. Methods A mixed-methods approach was adopted with a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews which were designed to elicit the students’ opinions. Results For this group of students, 100% were using social media sites and some were aware of some of their limitations and possible impact on their careers. There was some rather superficial knowledge of what is and is not professional to post via social media, however, students were not fully aware about the legal and ethical guidelines in place in relation to the topic. Conclusion Results from this study present an opportunity and a challenge for educators to incorporate additional details not only about professionalism and ethical and legal aspects within the undergraduate curriculum but more specific emphasis on the use of social media as part of the undergraduate BDS course.
    • On tacit knowledge for philosophy of education

      Belas, Oliver (Springer, 2017-11-17)
      This article offers a detailed reading Gascoigne and Thornton’s book Tacit Knowledge (2013), which aims to account for the tacitness of tacit knowledge (TK) while preserving its status as knowledge proper. I take issue with their characterization and rejection of the existential-phenomenological Background—which they presuppose even as they dismiss—and their claim that TK can be articulated “from within”—which betrays a residual Cartesianism, the result of their elision of conceptuality and propositionality. Knowledgeable acts instantiate capacities which we might know we have and of which we can be aware, but which are not propositionally structured at their “core”. Nevertheless, propositionality is necessary to what Robert Brandom calls, in Making It Explicit (1994) and Articulating Reasons (2000), “explicitation”, which notion also presupposes a tacit dimension, which is, simply, the embodied person (the knower), without which no conception of knowledge can get any purchase. On my view, there is no knowledgeable act that can be understood as such separately from the notion of skilled corporeal performance. The account I offer cannot make sense of so-called “knowledge-based” education, as opposed to systems and styles which supposedly privilege “contentless” skills over and above “knowledge”, because on the phenomenological and inferentialist lines I endorse, neither the concepts “knowledge” nor “skill” has any purchase or meaning without the other.
    • Ontology-based e-assessment for accounting education

      Litherland, Kate; Carmichael, Patrick; Martinez-Garcia, Agustina; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2013-11-01)
      This summary reports on a pilot of a novel, ontology-based e-assessment system in accounting. The system, OeLe, uses emerging semantic technologies to offer an online assessment environment capable of marking students' free text answers to questions of a conceptual nature. It does this by matching their response with a ‘concept map’ or ‘ontology’ of domain knowledge expressed by subject specialists. This article describes the potential affordances and demands of ontology-based assessment and offers suggestions for future development of such an approach.
    • Ontology-based e-assessment for accounting: outcomes of a pilot study and future prospects

      Litherland, Kate; Carmichael, Patrick; Martinez-Garcia, Agustina; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2013-04-23)
      This article reports on a pilot of a novel ontology-based e-assess- ment system in accounting that draws on the potential of emerging semantic technologies to produce an online assessment environ- ment capable of marking students’ free-text answers to questions of a conceptual nature. It does this by matching their response with a ‘‘concept map’’ or ‘‘ontology’’ of domain knowledge expressed by subject specialists. The system used, OeLe, allows not only for marking, but also for feedback to individual students and teachers about student strengths and weaknesses, as well as to whole cohorts, thus providing both a formative and a summative assess- ment function. This article reports on the results of a ‘‘proof of con- cept’’ trial of OeLe, in which the system was implemented and evaluated outside its original development environment (an online course in education being used instead in an undergraduate course in financial accounting. It describes the potential affordances and demands of implementing ontology-based assessment in account- ing, together with suggestions of what needs to be done if such approaches are to be more widely implemented.