• Knowledge, the curriculum, and democratic education: the curious case of school English

      Belas, Oliver (SAGE Publications, 2019-05-17)
      Debate over subject curricula is apt to descend into internecine squabbles over which (whose?) curriculum is best. Especially so with school English, because its domain(s) of knowledge have commonly been misunderstood, or, perhaps, misrepresented in the government’s programmes of study. After brief consideration of democratic education (problems of its form and meaning), I turn to issues of knowledge and disciplinarity, outlining two conceptions of knowledge – the one constitutive and phenomenological, the other stipulative and social-realist. Drawing on Michael Young and Johan Muller, I argue that, by social-realist standards of objectivity, school English in England -- as currently framed in national curriculum documents -- falls short of the standards of ‘powerful knowledge’ and of a democratic education conceived as social justice. Having considered knowledge and disciplinarity in broad terms, I consider the curricular case of school English, for it seems to me that the curious position of English in our national curriculum has resulted in a model that is either weakly, perhaps even un-, rooted in the network of academic disciplines that make up English studies.
    • Laying the foundations for physical literacy in Wales: the contribution of the Foundation Phase to the development of physical literacy

      Wainwright, Nalda; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Whitehead, Margaret; Williams, Andy; Kirk, David (Routledge, 2018-03-27)
      Background: The Foundation Phase in Wales is a play-based curriculum for pupils aged 3–7 years old. Children learn through more holistic areas of learning in place of traditional subjects. As such, the subject of physical education in its traditional form no longer exists for pupils under the age of 7 in Wales. In light of the role of physical education in developing physical literacy and in particular the importance of this age group for laying the foundations of movement for lifelong engagement in physical activity, the disappearance of physical education from the curriculum could be deemed to be a concern. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the Foundation Phase as a naturalistic intervention and examine its contribution to the development of physical literacy. Participants and setting: Participants included year 1 pupils (N = 49) aged 5 and 6 from two schools in contrasting locations. A smaller group within each class was selected through purposive sampling for the repeated measures assessments (N = 18). Research design and methods: A complementarity mixed-method design combined quantitative and qualitative methods to study the Foundation Phase as a naturalistic intervention. Quantitative data were generated with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 administered to the sample group of children from both schools as a quasi-repeated measure, the physical competence subscale of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance and the Leuven Involvement Scale for Young Children. Qualitative data were generated throughout the study from the analysis of video and field notes through participant observation. Data from the mixed methods were analysed through complementarity to give a rich insight into pupils’ progress and experiences in relation to physical literacy. Results: Overall analysis of the data from TGMD-2 showed significant improvements in the Gross Motor Quotient and Locomotor skills from T1 to T3, but no significant improvement in object control. Data from qualitative methods were analysed to explore processes that may account for these findings. Video and field notes complement the quantitative data highlighting that children were developing their locomotor skills in many aspects of their learning. Observations using the Leuven Involvement Scale indicated that children had high levels of involvement in their learning and apparent in video and field notes was pupils’ motivation for movement. Paired sample t-tests (N = 18) conducted on the Harter and Pike perceived physical competence six-item score subscales (T1 and T3) indicated a significant difference in the mean perceived physical competence scores on the six-item scale between T1and T3. Qualitative data explored pupils’ confidence for movement in many areas of learning. Conclusion: The combination of quantitative and qualitative data indicates that the Foundation Phase is an early childhood curriculum that lays the foundations of physical literacy with the exception of aspects of the physical competence, specifically object control skills. Although these skills only contribute to psychomotor aspects of physical literacy they are strongly associated with later engagement in physical activity. The development of specific physical skills such as object control skills may need more specialist input with early childhood pedagogy teachers trained in motor development to see significant improvements.
    • Leadership for race and social justice in higher education

      Maylor, Uvanney; University of Bedfordshire (Springer International Publishing, 2018-12-31)
      This chapter explores the goals of the Equality Act and educational leadership as dictated by government policy in relation to school leaders, and as part of this, considers the role of higher education institutions in promoting race equality in educational leadership in higher education. The chapter questions whether such a state is desirable and achievable in twenty-first century Britain particularly at a time when greater emphasis is given by universities to student (rather than staff) experience and NSS scores/league tables which promote student experience, and conducting race equality impact assessments are no longer a compulsory requirement. In examining the relevance of social justice in educational leadership, the chapter is less concerned with leadership styles or roles and focuses instead on White constructions/perceptions of who can occupy leadership positions. As such, the chapter explores the implications for universities in facilitating diverse but equitable leadership in higher education from a social justice perspective.
    • Learners and learning in the twenty first century: what do we know about students' attitudes towards and experiences of information and communication technologies that will help us design courses?

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Open University (Routledge, 2005-01-01)
      This article reports on issues relevant for teachers and instructional designers anticipating using information and communication technologies (ICTs) in higher education, particularly those wishing to adopt a flexible learning approach aimed at improving the quality of the student experience. The data that are reported on span more than five years, and have been gathered from a range of large quantitative postal surveys and smaller qualitative surveys, with total respondents numbering around 80,000. The large-scale surveys cover annual course reviews, computer access, students? use of media, access to media technologies and ICT access and use. The smaller qualitative studies include students? use of CD-ROMs and online tuition. This article describes the students? backgrounds and how this can affect their studies. It discusses students? access to media technologies and what their perceptions of media are in the context of independent learning. The conclusion is that, although ICTs can enable new forms of teaching and learning to take place, they cannot ensure that effective and appropriate learning outcomes are achieved. It is not technologies, but educational purposes and pedagogy, that must provide the lead, with students understanding not only how to work with ICTs, but why it is of benefit for them to do so. Knowing about students? use of media as well as their attitudes and experiences can help teachers and instructional designers develop better courses.
    • Learning theories for everyday teaching

      Thompson, Carol; Spenceley, Lydia; University of Bedfordshire (Sage: Learning Matters, 2019-10-12)
      An essential tool for new teachers and trainees who want to use learning theories to develop their practice. The text explores key learning theories in a pragmatic way and encourages focused reflection to promote critical analysis of theories and their potential application to specific contexts. The authors highlight the practical benefits of using theory in planning, teaching and reflecting on practice. The text also encourages the use of a range of creative approaches to enhance learning. Each chapter explores a key aspect of the teacher's role (such as planning, motivation or assessment) and outlines theories relating to this theme - fully embedding the use of learning theories in practical every day teaching. It includes activities for reflection and a section encouraging readers to 'map' the theory to their own practice. Scenarios and case studies throughout illustrate learning and support readers link theory to practice.
    • Learning to teach physical education in the secondary school: a companion to school experience

      Capel, Susan; Whitehead, Margaret (Routledge, 2010-09-13)
      What skills are required of secondary student physical education teachers? What are the key areas that these student teachers need to understand? How can current challenges be addressed by these student teachers? Learning to Teach Physical Education in the Secondary School combines underpinning theory and knowledge with suggestions for practical application to support student physical education teachers in learning to teach. Based on research evidence, theory and knowledge relating to teaching and learning and written specifically with the student teacher in mind, the authors examine physical education in context. The book offers tasks and case studies designed to support student teachers in their school-based experiences and encourages reflection on practice and development. Masters level tasks and suggestions for further reading have been included throughout to support researching and writing about topics in more depth. This fully-updated third edition has been thoroughly revised to take into account changes in policy and practice within both initial teacher education and the National Curriculum for Physical Education. The book also contains a brand new chapter on the role of reflective teaching in developing expertise and improving the quality of pupil learning. Other key topics covered include; lesson planning, organisation and management; observation in physical education; developing and maintaining an effective learning environment; inclusive physical education; assessment; developing wider community links; using ICT to support teaching and learning in physical education. Learning to Teach Physical Education in the Secondary School is an invaluable resource for student physical education teachers.
    • Lecturers' vs. students' perceptions of the accessibility of instructional materials

      Price, Linda; Open University (Springer Netherlands, 2006-10-26)
      The goal of this study was to examine the differences between lecturers and students? perceptions of the accessibility of instructional materials. The perceptions of 12 mature computing distance education students and 12 computing lecturers were examined using the knowledge elicitation techniques of card sorting and laddering. The study showed that lecturers had pedagogical views while students tended to concentrate on surface attributes such as appearance. Students perceived instructional materials containing visual representations as most accessible. This has two implications for the professional development of computing lecturers designing instructional materials. First, lecturers need to appreciate the differences between expert and novice views of accessibility and how students will engage with the materials. Second, lecturers need to understand that learners perceive instructional materials containing visual representations as more accessible compared to ?text only? versions. Hence greater use of these may enable students to engage more readily in learning. Given that print is the ubiquitous teaching medium this is likely to have implications for students and lecturers in other disciplines.
    • The Levellers, political literacy and contemporary citizenship education in England

      Hopkins, Neil; Coster, Will; University of Bedfordshire (Sage, 2018-09-24)
      This paper analyses the concept of political literacy (as introduced in the 1998 Crick Report) in relation to Citizenship in the English National Curriculum. It argues that political literacy has not been sufficiently emphasised or facilitated within this foundation subject and that the concept is particularly important for students at a time of considerable political and social conflict in England (and elsewhere). The authors state that engagement with the ideas and practices of the Levellers (a political group writing and agitating at the time of the Civil Wars) could enable students and teachers to explore political literacy (especially the implications of social media) by looking at a political group who utilised mass pamphlettering as a form of political communication. The paper will also investigate the context of Citizenship within the English National Curriculum and some of the philosophical concerns around Citizenship education. It contains a section placing the Levellers in their contemporary and historiographical contexts.
    • A lonely business…reflections on well-being and the morale of dental teams

      Hayer, Natasha; Wassif, Hoda; University of Bedfordshire (Nature Publishing, 2019-04-26)
      With the evolution of humanising patient-dentist interaction within healthcare has come an equal need to humanise staff interaction in order to optimise patient care. There is growing evidence to support the need to invest in enhancing team morale, given that its impact, when low, results in reduced quality of patient care. This paper endeavours to reflect on dental teams' wellbeing and morale and propose a strategy for change to enhance these aspects of team interactions. The theme throughout is to focus on staff wellbeing, in order to initiate a change in work ethic which should in turn initiate a positive work environment. The two strategies discussed are leadership changes conducive to a servant leadership style and a mentorship/buddy programme focusing on reducing stress among dental professionals. Both strategies have their merits and faults, but the purpose of the paper is to prompt food for thought as to how to raise team morale in dental practice. With the evolution of humanising patient-dentist interaction within healthcare has come an equal need to humanise staff interaction in order to optimise patient care. There is growing evidence to support the need to invest in enhancing team morale, given that its impact, when low, results in reduced quality of patient care. This paper endeavours to reflect on dental teams' wellbeing and morale and propose a strategy for change to enhance these aspects of team interactions. The theme throughout is to focus on staff wellbeing, in order to initiate a change in work ethic which should in turn initiate a positive work environment. The two strategies discussed are leadership changes conducive to a servant leadership style and a mentorship/buddy programme focusing on reducing stress among dental professionals. Both strategies have their merits and faults, but the purpose of the paper is to prompt food for thought as to how to raise team morale in dental practice.
    • A longitudinal study of the impact of reflective coursework writing on teacher development courses: a ‘legacy effect’ of iterative writing tasks

      McLean, Neil; Price, Linda (Springer Netherlands, 2018-09-16)
      Studies into the efficacy of teacher development courses for early career academics point to graduates conceiving of their teaching in increasingly complex and student-focussed ways. These studies have used pre- and post-testing of conceptions of teaching to identify this finding. However, these studies do not identify what aspects of these courses contributed to these changes. This exploratory case study investigates this phenomenon through a longitudinal study of 16 academic teachers’ reflective coursework writing. Discourse analysis was used to contrast causal reasoning statements in assignments completed during participants’ first 2 years in-service, while they were completing a UK-based teacher development course. This analysis identified how reasoning about teaching and learning became more complex over time. A key element was the integration of experiences and earlier learning into more nuanced and multi-factorial later reasoning about teaching choices and effects. This ‘legacy effect’ provides new evidence for the efficacy of academic teacher development courses.
    • The magic of mentoring: a democratic approach to mentoring trainee teachers in post-compulsory education

      Thompson, Carol; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2016-08-05)
      This paper explores the impact of subject-specific mentoring within post-compulsory education. Using questionnaires and semistructured interviews, it considers those factors considered ‘most useful’ to teachers in training. The findings suggest that, contrary to the views espoused by bodies such as the Office for Standards in Education, Children’s Services and Skills, mentors have a limited impact on the effectiveness of teacher education. Reasons for this are examined, including the context in which most trainees and mentors work as well as the restrictions created by initial teacher education frameworks. A more productive approach to supporting postcompulsory education trainees is explored through the development of a collaborative and democratic model of mentoring.
    • The magic of mentoring: developing others and yourself

      Thompson, Carol (Routledge, 2019-02-01)
      The Magic of Mentoring offers an introduction to the theory and practice of successful mentoring together with a unique focus on how mentors can reflect on the skills they bring to the role, and those they still need to develop. Through the use of scenarios, reflections and stories, the reader is encouraged to apply the content to a real context, demonstrating the importance of reflection for both parties and the benefits derived from this, especially those related to understanding ourselves and others.
    • Mapping research in the field of special education on the island of Ireland since 2000

      Travers, Joseph; Savage, Rosie; Butler, Cathal; O'Donnell, Margaret; Dublin City University; University of Bedfordshire (Wiley, 2017-06-12)
    • Media literacy education in primary years: carrying on regardless

      Connolly, Steve M.; Parry, Rebecca; University of Bedfordshire; University of Sheffield (National Telemedia Council, 2018-10-18)
      This think- piece shares emerging ideas about media education, which the authors permit themselves to explore despite the current ‘strangulation’ of media studies in England. By ‘carrying on regardless’ we refer to an aspiration we have to continue to develop our pedagogical and theoretical approaches to media education, rather than having to expend energy always defending the subject and reformulating it to suit the discourses of populist politics. As such we reflect back on the Developing Media Literacy research project and consider our interpretations of the data in the light of recent thinking about cognition, constructivism and curriculum (more Cs!) in learning and pedagogy. We suggest that there is still important work to be done in terms of developing pedagogy which enables complex concepts to be understood, operationalized and questioned by children. We do so with the assumption implicit (as it is in most other subjects) that this work is important for the individual, the community and society (and that we do not need to spend our word count reinventing that particular wheel).
    • Media literacy, curriculum and the rights of the child

      Cannon, Michelle; Connolly, Steve M.; Parry, Rebecca (Routledge, 2020-10-09)
      Engaging with digital media is part of everyday living for the majority of children, yet opportunities to learn about, through and with media are denied many pupils in compulsory schooling. Whilst Media Studies in the UK is internationally reputed to be well established, changes made to the primary and secondary national curriculum in 2014 included removal of existing media study elements. We demonstrate what is lost by these actions in relation to the United Nations Rights of the Child and, in particular, the right of the child to express identity. We demonstrate how media literacy had previously been included in curriculum, enabling opportunities to address children’s rights, and propose that the absence of media education is part of an overall trend of the non-prioritisation of children’s rights in England and Northern Ireland. The paper calls for media literacy to be reintroduced into primary and secondary curriculum
    • The methodology used for the Times Higher Education World University Rankings’ citations metric can distort benchmarking

      Natt, Avtar; University of Bedfordshire (2017-10-31)
      LSE Impact Blog The Times Higher Education World University Rankings can influence an institution’s reputation and even its future revenues. However, Avtar Natt argues that the methodology used to calculate its citation metrics can have the effect of distorting benchmarking exercises. The fractional counting approach applied to only a select number of papers with high author numbers has led to a situation whereby the methodologists have unintentionally discriminated against certain types of big science paper. This raises questions about the benchmarking and also reiterates the importance of such rankings maintaining transparency in their data and methods.
    • Mind the gap: the chasm between research and practice in teaching and learning with technology

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian; Richardson, John T.E.; Case, Jennifer M.; Huisman, Jeroen; Open University; University of Cape Town; Ghent University (Routledge, 2016-01-01)
    • Missing: evidence of a scholarly approach to teaching and learning with technology in higher education

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Open University (Routledge, 2013-05-22)
      As technology is increasingly being used for teaching and learning in higher education, it is important to scrutinise what tangible educational gains are being attained. Are claims about technology transforming learning and teaching in higher education borne out by actual practices? This paper draws upon a critical analysis of recent research literature concerning Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL). It argues that few published accounts of TEL practices show evidence of a scholarly approach to university teaching. Frequently, TEL interventions appear to be technology-led rather than responding to identified teaching and learning issues. The crucial role of teachers? differing conceptions of teaching and of the purpose of professional development activities is often ignored. We argue that developing a more scholarly approach among university teachers is more essential than providing technical training if practices are to be improved to maximise the effectiveness of TEL.
    • Modeling an institutional approach to developing Technology Enabled Learning : closing the gap between research and practice

      Price, Linda; Casanova, Diogo; Orwell, Suzan; Kingston University (2017-01-01)
      This paper presents our approach to closing the gap between research and practice when delivering technology enabled learning. We illustrate our model that uses research to underpin how we have shaped a whole institutional roll out of our new VLE, Canvas. The model is built around our Learning Design principles based on current research in the field and key institutional priorities. The model addresses how we lever the implementation of our new VLE as a catalyst for changing the institutional pedagogical paradigm. Our experience shows that by adopting such an approach we are able to positively impact on institutional teaching practices and influence policy to support innovative VLE pedagogy.