• Handling difficulties in social, emotional and behaviour development

      Wearmouth, Janice; Cunningham, Laura; Cremin, Teresa; Burnett, Cathy; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2018-03-14)
      This chapter focuses on difficulties experienced by children who demonstrate features of social, emotional and behavioural problems in schools, and ways to minimise the incidence of problematic behaviour. Schools play a critical part in shaping a young child’s identity as a learner (Bruner, 1996). Use of the terms ‘emotional and behavioural difficulties’ (EBD) (Warnock, 1978), or ‘social, emotional and behavioural difficulties’ (SEBD), as a label for some students who behave inappropriately is not always helpful. Poulou and Norwich (2002: 112) conclude, from a review of international studies, that the more teachers think student behaviour stems from problems within those students, such the ‘child’s innate personality’, ‘the more [teachers] may experience feelings of “stress” and even “helplessness” ’, and the less they may feel able to cope with difficult behaviour. The new Teachers’ Standards for Qualified Teacher Status, introduced in England from September 2012 (DfE, 2013), require teachers to take responsibility for promoting good behaviour in classrooms and elsewhere, have high expectations and maintain good relationships with pupils. Teachers can minimise the possibility of poor behaviour in classrooms if they recognise that appropriate behaviour can be taught (Rogers, 2013). Children can learn to make conscious choices about behaviour, even where it is associated with a genetic or neurological condition (Wearmouth, Glynn and Berryman, 2005). The chapter aims to familiarise teachers-in-training with * frames of reference commonly used in schools to research and understand social, emotional and behavioural difficulties, and form the basis for effective responses; * a range of effective responses in relation to these frames of reference; * an understanding that learning environments that are designed to support children to engage with their learning will reduce the possibility of undesirable behaviour in the first place.
    • A holistic approach to supporting distance learning using the Internet: transformation, not translation

      Thomas, Pete; Carswell, Linda; Price, Blain; Petre, Marian; Open University (Wiley-Blackwell, 1998-01-01)
    • How can the skills of Early Years leaders support other leaders in a primary school setting?

      Mistry, Malini Tina; Sood, Krishan; University of Bedfordshire; Nottingham Trent University (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2017-07-31)
      This study investigated the leadership skills Early Years leaders demonstrated through their daily practice of teaching, assessing and teamwork within their setting. It explored how revealing the potential of Early Years leaders could have a positive impact on the leadership practice of other leaders in the same setting to improve pupil outcomes. A qualitative approach using interviews with Early Years leaders in 20 primary settings from the East Midlands and Bedfordshire areas was undertaken by two academics from two different UK based universities. Ethical guidelines ensuring anonymity and trustworthiness were followed. Using verbatim comments, data were analysed in themes against contemporary Early Years literature. Findings showed the skills of Early Years leaders could support pedagogy and practice but some of these skills were not utilized beyond this age phase. Our conclusion suggested that Early Years leaders had a range of leadership skills which were deemed specialist as they were unique to the success of the age phase, but needed to be exposed beyond Early Years for wider success and impact.
    • How do we measure student learning in higher education? Modelling factors

      Price, Linda; Kingston University (2012-01-01)
      This paper presents a heuristic model of student leaning as a means to understanding the scope of factors to be considered in making predictions about student learning. It is underpinned by a review of a wide body of literature. The model is drawn from Price and Richardson?s 4P model (2004) that considered factors in improving student learning and argues that the same issues apply to predicting student learning outcomes. It builds upon existing research into learning and teaching. It is an articulation and an extension of Dunkin and Biddle?s (1974) model, the Biggs (1985) original Presage-Process-Product model and research by Prosser and Trigwell (1999). The model has four main groups of factors: presage, perceptions, process and product. The presage group contains personological and situational factors such as context. Perceptions include how students conceive learning, how teachers conceive teaching, and the context. The process group of factors incorporates approaches to learning in students and teachers approaches to teaching. The model is presented as a basis for engaging in future research in a holistic manner that may bear further fruit in predicting student learning.
    • How scholarly is our approach to using technology in learning & teaching?

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian; Kingston University (2012-01-01)
    • How the vision of a clinician and an educator brought the MA Dental Law and Ethics course to life.

      Wassif, Hoda; D'Cruz, L.; University of Bedfordshire; Dental Protection (Springer Nature, 2017-09-22)
      This paper reflects on an educational development that is Dental Law and Ethics course as the course approaches its 5th anniversary. The authors outline their personal journey into developing and delivering this course as well share best practice in relation to teaching and learning dental postgraduate students who may approach the subject in different ways. It also highlights the vision behind this provision and how it is received by dental practitioners. The paper shares the learners’ perception of topics such as ethics in comparison to law, and it highlights the perspective of both authors in teaching and following the students’ journey in this course.
    • How trainee physical education teachers in England write, use and evaluate lesson plans

      Capel, Susan; Bassett, Sophy; Lawrence, Julia; Newton, Angela; Zwozdiak-Myers, Paula; Brunel University; University of Bedfordshire; University of Hull (SAGE, 2018-07-19)
      Traditionally, all physical education initial teacher training (PEITT) courses in England, and in many other countries, require trainee teachers to complete detailed lesson plans for each lesson they teach in their school-based practicum and then to evaluate those lessons. However, there has been a limited amount of research on lesson planning in PEITT generally or in England specifically. The purpose of this study therefore was to gain an initial insight into how trainee physical education teachers write, use and evaluate lesson plans. Two-hundred-and-eighty-nine physical education trainees in England completed a questionnaire about lesson planning after finishing a block school-based practicum. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for the limited-choice questions on the questionnaires and open-ended questions were analysed using thematic analysis. Results showed mixed responses, with no one method followed by all trainees. Some trainees stated they planned and/or evaluated lessons as taught. Some stated they completed the plan and/or evaluation proforma to ‘tick a box’. The highest percentage of trainees stated it took between half an hour and one-and-a-half hours to plan each lesson. Although most trainees stated they found the plan useful in the lesson, others stated they found it too detailed to use. Some stated they did not deviate from the plan in the lesson, whereas others adapted the plan. The majority of trainees stated that evaluation enabled them to see if objectives had been achieved. Results are discussed in relation to teaching trainees how to plan lessons in PEITT in England.
    • Identity formation among novice academic teachers–a longitudinal study

      McLean, Neil; Price, Linda (Routledge, 2017-12-03)
      This study reports findings from an in-depth, longitudinal investigation of the formation of 13 novice tutors’ professional identities as academic teachers. The study spanned tutors’ first two years in-service, while they were also participating in a teacher development course. Discourse was analysed across 65 time-series coursework texts, completed as part of the tutors’ reflection on their teaching practice. The analysis captured the use of explicit identity positioning cues by tutors across the texts. Four discreet identity positions were catalogued: academic insider, class teacher, teaching course participant and young academic. The study illustrates how these tutors developed more complex identity narratives with enriched coherence over time as they reported negotiating challenges and dissonance between initial expectations and actual teaching experiences. This finding offers explanatory support for previous research regarding the value of longer term teacher development programmes and illuminates existing theoretical models with practitioner perspectives.
    • Impacts of COVID-19 and social isolation on academic staff and students at universities: a cross-sectional study

      Filho, Walter Leal; Wall, Tony; Rayman-Bacchus, Lez; Mifsud, Mark; Pritchard, Diana J.; Lovren, Violeta; Farinha, Carla; Petrovic, Danijela S.; Balogun, Abdul-Lateef; Hamburg University of Applied Sciences; et al. (Biomed Central, 2021-06-24)
      The impacts of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the shutdown it triggered at universities across the world, led to a great degree of social isolation among university staff and students. The aim of this study was to identify the perceived consequences of this on staff and their work and on students and their studies at universities. The study used a variety of methods, which involved an on-line survey on the influences of social isolation using a non-probability sampling. More specifically, two techniques were used, namely a convenience sampling (i.e. involving members of the academic community, which are easy to reach by the study team), supported by a snow ball sampling (recruiting respondents among acquaintances of the participants). A total of 711 questionnaires from 41 countries were received. Descriptive statistics were deployed to analyse trends and to identify socio-demographic differences. Inferential statistics were used to assess significant differences among the geographical regions, work areas and other socio-demographic factors related to impacts of social isolation of university staff and students. The study reveals that 90% of the respondents have been affected by the shutdown and unable to perform normal work or studies at their institution for between 1 week to 2 months. While 70% of the respondents perceive negative impacts of COVID 19 on their work or studies, more than 60% of them value the additional time that they have had indoors with families and others. . While the majority of the respondents agree that they suffered from the lack of social interaction and communication during the social distancing/isolation, there were significant differences in the reactions to the lockdowns between academic staff and students. There are also differences in the degree of influence of some of the problems, when compared across geographical regions. In addition to policy actions that may be deployed, further research on innovative methods of teaching and communication with students is needed in order to allow staff and students to better cope with social isolation in cases of new or recurring pandemics.
    • Implementing reading interventions to support disadvantaged children in England: insights from a process evaluation

      Wood, Audrey B.; Price, Jayne; Salter, Emma; Woodhouse, Fiona; Zsargo, Liz (Taylor & Francis, 2021-01-28)
      In this paper we present insights from the qualitative data collected during a process evaluation of a reading intervention project carried out in primary and secondary schools in West Yorkshire, England. Commercially available reading interventions, financed by the Strategic School Improvement Fund, were delivered by school staff to disadvantaged pupils over a period of four half-terms, and a team of university-based researchers carried out qualitative interviews with members of school staff in order to discover factors that affect the sustainability of school-based reading interventions after the initial funding period, and identify good practice in planning for and meeting sustainability objectives. The data from the interviews enabled the researchers to compare and contrast the experiences of the staff following the different interventions. The findings presented in this paper have generated some helpful guidance about the process of implementing reading interventions in schools successfully, and factors such as staff training, fidelity of implementation and organisational context are discussed.
    • Implications for promoting physical literacy

      Durden-Myers, Elizabeth; Green, Nigel R.; Whitehead, Margaret; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Bedfordshire (Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., 2018-12-31)
      This study considers the implications for teachers of physical education of adopting physical literacy as the focus of their work. These implications arise from the philosophical underpinning of the concept, from the definition of physical literacy and are in line with the mission of the International Physical Literacy Association. In the first section of this study, recommendations stemming from the philosophical roots of the concept will be outlined in brief. The other three sections will demonstrate how this philosophical basis and the definition of physical literacy should inform, first, lesson and unit content; second, teaching approaches; and, finally, curriculum planning. Unpacking the implications and what physical literacy looks like in practice is essential if teachers are to begin to incorporate physical literacy within their practice.
    • Improving quality and validity in research and evaluation studies of learning technologies

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda (IATED Academy, 2014-01-01)
      A critical reading of research literature relating to teaching and learning with technology in higher education reveals a number of shortcomings in how investigations are conceptualised, conducted and reported. Projects often lack clarity about the nature of the enhancement that technology is intended to bring about. Frequently there is no explicit discussion of assumptions and beliefs that underpin research studies and the approaches used to investigate the educational impact of technologies. This presentation summarises a number of the weaknesses identified in published studies and considers the implications. Some ways in which these limitations could be avoided through a more rigorous approach to undertaking research and evaluation studies are then outlined and discussed.
    • Inclusion and democracy in England and Finland

      Butler, Cathal; Naukkarinen, Aimo (Routledge, 2016-09-29)
    • Individual differences in learning: cognitive control, cognitive style and learning style

      Price, Linda; Open University (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2004-01-01)
      This paper assesses the value of three learning style tests when used to examine the design of educational materials for teaching computer science at a distance. The paper presents three studies where three different learning styles were used to discriminate preference and performance in different contexts. The studies indicate that the Learning Style Questionnaire and the Group Embedded Figures Test are of little value. However the Cognitive Style Analysis proved useful in discriminating performance on imagery-rich materials in a simulated learning context. The paper argues that it may be necessary to match the theoretical basis of learning style with the context in which it is used in order to gain useful information. On the whole the studies showed that the value of learning style tests may be limited.
    • The influence of sociocultural and structural contexts in academic change and development in higher education

      Englund, Claire; Olofsson, Anders D.; Price, Linda (Springer, 2018-03-10)
      Teaching quality improvements frequently focus upon the ‘development’ of individual academics in higher education. However, research also shows that the academics’ context has considerable influence upon their practices. This study examines the working environments of teachers on an online pharmacy programme, investigating contextual conditions that facilitate or impede academic change and development. Interview data and institutional policy documents are examined within a Cultural-Historical Activity Theory framework. Distinct differences in the teachers’ sociocultural context were identified as influencing change and development. Departmental teaching cultures and patterns of communication influenced practice both positively, by offering collegial support, and negatively by impeding change. The findings have significance for academic development strategies. They suggest that departmental-level support should include communicative pathways that promote reflection upon and development of conceptions of teaching and learning.
    • The influence upon design of differing conceptions of teaching and learning with technology

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Olofsson, Anders D.; Lindberg, J. Ola; Open University (IGI Global, 2012-01-01)
      This chapter considers some of the theoretical foundations of teaching and learning in higher education and how these are reflected in practice. We consider how varying conceptions of teaching and learning with technology have an impact upon how teachers design teaching and learning. This chapter reviews why these variations are important and how they can affect the design of the curriculum and ultimately what and how students learn. We conclude that promoting increased use of technology does little, if anything, to improve student learning. It is only by attending to higher education teachers? conceptions of teaching and learning with technology and supporting change in this area that significant progress will be achieved. In this chapter we advocate that informed design in the use of technology is underpinned by beliefs about (conceptions of) teaching and learning with technology. To this end the chapter explores some of the theoretical underpinnings of these conceptions and argues that they are fundamental to driving well-informed practice in the use of technology to support student learning.
    • Informed design of educational technology for teaching and learning? Towards an evidence-informed model of good practice

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian; Open University (Routledge, 2014-08-11)
      The aim of this paper is to model evidence-informed design based on a selective critical analysis of research articles. We draw upon findings from an investigation into practitioners? use of educational technologies to synthesise and model what informs their designs. We found that practitioners? designs were often driven by implicit assumptions about learning. These shaped both the design of interventions and the methods sought to derive evaluations and interpret the findings. We argue that interventions need to be grounded in better and explicit conceptualisations of what constitutes learning in order to have well-informed designs that focus on improving the quality of student learning.
    • Innovations in large-scale supported distance teaching: transformation for the Internet, not just translation

      Petre, Marian; Carswell, Linda; Price, Blain; Thomas, Pete; Eisenstadt, Marc; Vincent, Tom; Open University (Kogan Page, 1998-01-01)