• Face-to-face versus online tutoring support in distance education

      Price, Linda; Richardson, John T.E.; Jelfs, Anne; Open University (Routledge, 2007-02-14)
      The experiences of students taking the same course by distance learning were compared when tutorial support was provided conventionally (using limited face-to-face sessions with some contact by telephone and email) or online (using a combination of computer-mediated conferencing and email). Study 1 was a quantitative survey using an adapted version of the Course Experience Questionnaire and the Revised Approaches to Studying Inventory. Study 2 was another quantitative survey using the Academic Engagement Form. Study 3 was an interview-based examination of the students? conceptions of tutoring and tuition. In all three studies, the students receiving online tuition reported poorer experiences than those receiving face-to-face tuition. Study 3 showed that tutoring was seen not only as an academic activity but also as a highly valued pastoral activity. To make online tuition successful both tutors and students need training in how to communicate online in the absence of paralinguistic cues.
    • Facilitating agency: the change laboratory as an intervention for collaborative sustainable development in higher education

      Englund, Claire; Price, Linda (Routledge, 2018-06-06)
      To cope with the rapidly changing higher education climate, teachers need agency to act proactively in initiating and steering changes in practice. This paper describes an academic development activity in the form of a Change Laboratory, an intervention method based on Cultural-Historical Activity Theory, to facilitate agency among teachers. The results of the study indicate that transformative agency emerges when teachers are given the opportunity to analyse, envision, and redesign their practice collaboratively. This has implications for academic development, suggesting that activities facilitating discussion, analysis, and criticism of current practices are needed to support the development of agency.
    • Finding the glass slipper: the impact of leadership on innovation in further education

      Thompson, Carol; Further Education Trust For Leadership (FETL, 2018-06-11)
      The rise of commercialisation within education (Courtney 2015) brought with it a number of systems and processes which have had a significant impact on how professional roles are enacted.  In particular the increase in the scrutiny of Teacher activity has been viewed as leading to a reduction in professionalism (Ball 2003, Ball et al. 2012).  In Further Education, this has led to the development of a more defined, potentially formulaic and less autonomous approach to teaching (Avis 2003). In addition, the codification of 'good' teaching and learning embedded through teacher education, the Professional Standards (Education and Training Foundation 2014) and bodies such as Ofsted has provided very distinct guidelines to direct teachers' activities in the classroom. This research forms part of a Fellowship awarded by the Further Education Trust for Leadership (FETL).  The main aim was to explore how leadership within Further Education (FE) impacts on teaching and learning, specifically on the autonomy Teachers have to construct their work in creative ways. The project investigated how professionals are constrained or empowered to develop methods which allow them to innovate rather than replicate in the classroom; ultimately creating an environment which inspires and challenges learners.   Semi-structured interviews with Teachers, Managers and Leaders were used to explore factors which both enabled and constrained innovation in the classroom. Findings outlined a range of similarities for all groups in relation to specific 'enablers' to creativity and some distinct differences in those factors considered to be constraints.  One significant difference was the perceptions of Teacher agency which influenced attitudes to whether or not Teachers were willing to move away from more prescriptive approaches in order to explore alternative methods.  A stark contrast was found between the views of Teachers and Leaders in relation to the constraints, or freedom to be found in the teaching role suggesting miscommunication or misconception by one or both parties.
    • "First meetings": constructive first encounters between pre-service teachers and their mentors

      Connolly, Steve M.; Bates, Gareth; Shea, James (Emerald, 2020-07-30)
      Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the findings from an action research project in which the researchers sought to develop a set of questions for use by mentors (experienced teachers) and mentees (pre-service teachers) on a course of initial teacher education (ITE) when they first met – the “initial encounter”. Design Methodology/Approach: The researchers used an action research approach to address the lower retention rate of pre-service teachers from different backgrounds, such as Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME), and the issues around mentoring which may exacerbate this problem. Discussions between the course team and participating mentors and mentees suggested that the initial encounter between mentor and mentee was significant, and an action research methodology would allow for developing questions that might structure such encounters. Findings: The researchers found that a useful and effective set of questions could be developed and used by mentors and mentees. Additionally, this process gave researchers insights into the nature of the first encounters between mentors and mentees on an ITE course and how both groups see their roles. In several cycles of action research, the participants produced a number of iterations of such questions, which were refined across a two-year period. Research Limitations/Implications: While it is too early to tell if the issues leading to the lower retention rate of pre-service teachers that prompted the project have been reduced in any significant way, the researchers suggest that thinking about these initial encounters can impact the way a mentor and mentee goes on to build a relationship. Originality/Value: The authors found very little research in the field of teacher education which looks at initial encounters between mentors and mentees and thus make an original contribution to the mentoring literature.
    • Freedom as non-domination, standards and the negotiated curriculum

      Hopkins, Neil; University of Bedfordshire (Wiley Blackwell, 2015-03-18)
      This article investigates the application of Philip Pettit's concept of freedom as non-domination to the issues of educational standards and the negotiated curriculum. The article will argue that freedom as non-domination (and the connected concept of debating contestations as part of a legitimate democratic state) shines a critical light on governmental practice in England over the past two decades. Joshua Cohen's proposal of an ideal deliberative procedure is offered as a potential mechanism for the facilitation of debating contestations between stakeholders over the curriculum. Cohen places particular importance on the participants being ‘formally and substantively equal’ in the proceedings and being able to ‘recognize one another as having deliberative capacities’. It will be argued that formal and substantive equality between children and responsible adults is highly problematic due to the ‘considerable interference’ (Pettit) teachers and adults have to make in children's lives. However, the article does offer examples of children's deliberative capacities on the issue of the curriculum (in response to Cohen).
    • From the creation of a concept to the globalisation of physical literacy

      Whitehead, Margaret; Maude, Patricia (Taylor and Francis, 2016-10-10)
      The growth of ‘physical literacy’ from the insights gained from a PhD study to an internationally recognised concept is a remarkable journey. Advocacy developed from a small group of UK-based professionals, mainly in the field of physical education, to a larger group of colleagues in Europe, Canada and Australia. Physical literacy is now known in very many countries and is generating a re-examination of the goal of physical activity throughout the lifecourse. Interest has also spread to other professionals in related fields such as those in coaching and the leisure industry. That physical literacy has blossomed into a world-wide topic of interest would seem to indicate that the concept is making a timely contribution to the thinking in this area. Throughout this process Margaret Talbot has been unerringly supportive and her national and international advocacy has been highly significant throughout the course of this development. The chapter is divided into three Parts. Part one, ‘The beginnings’, will outline briefly the research which formed the foundation of physical literacy and this will be put into context by setting out what was perceived as the general attitude to physical education and physical activity at the turn of the century. Also included will be mention of some of the projects and programmes that were created at this time, in many ways mirroring the developments concerning physical literacy. Part two is entitled ‘Developmental milestones since 2009’. In the main this will be presented in a series of sections showing the range of activity that developed from the initial interest in the work, namely publications, conferences and the establishment of the International Physical Literacy Association (IPLA). An example of research into an aspect of physical literacy is also outlined here, as well as a diagram setting out examples of Margaret Talbot’s advocacy in her various positions of responsibility. The final Part, ‘Current challenges and future plans’, looks at the challenges facing the International Physical Literacy Association and a sample of future plans.
    • Funding the future: attitudes of year 10 pupils in England and Wales to higher education 2003

      Watson, Judith; Church, Andrew (National Union of Students, 2003-01-01)
    • Gender differences and similarities in online courses: challenging stereotypical views of women

      Price, Linda; Open University (Wiley-Blackwell, 2006-09-05)
      This paper considers gender differences in online contexts and examines current trends in women's performance, access and experience of online courses. It uses supportive case study examples and specific research into student' academic engagement, conceptions and perceptions of learning support in online environments. The analysis shows that women studying online are confident independent learners who may outperform their male counterparts. They do not have reduced computer and Internet access compared with men, nor are they disinclined to enrol on online courses. They attach greater value to the pastoral aspect of tutoring and have different interaction styles from men, which may have implications for online tutoring support. The gender debate needs to move on from access and performance to the differences and similarities in the degree of importance that men and women place on different interaction and tutoring styles online.
    • ‘Give ‘em the old razzle dazzle’: surviving the lesson observation process in further education

      Thompson, Carol; Wolstencroft, Peter; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2014-07-07)
      This paper examines the key role that graded lesson observations have within the measurement of quality in the post-compulsory education sector. Using semi-structured interviews, it looks at their impact on participants and also their execution in light of their stated purpose to ‘improve teaching and learning’. The sample selected included teachers, quality managers and initial teacher educators and covers a geographical spread from the north Midlands to London. The findings suggest that the lessons observed bore scant resemblance to the day-to-day teaching of participants. Instead teachers talked of the need to ‘put on a show’ and how they treated the annual observation with a mixture of trepidation and cynicism. The realisation that observations failed to measure what they were designed to measure was shared by other participants with quality managers, ostensibly the people who were employed to raise standards, also acknowledging the limitations of the process. The observation process was designed to reward outstanding practitioners, however, teachers talked about their reluctance to strive for outstanding grades due to the perceived onerous duties associated with achieving a top grade. Instead teachers talked about the way in which they aimed for a grade two in order to maintain a low profile. Despite the widespread cynicism amongst all participants, there was a universal belief that some form of measurement was needed to ensure that standards were maintained.
    • Gypsy and traveller education: engaging families - a research report

      Fensham-Smith, Amber; Welsh Government (Welsh Government Social Research, 2014-11-25)
      The research aimed to identify what works in engaging Gypsy and Traveller families in education with a specific focus on attainment, attendance, transition and retention. The research provides an account of good practice by drawing on the experiences of Traveller Education Service (TES) workers. It draws upon literature, a survey of Local Authorities and in-depth interviews with staff working in Traveller Education Services. It also offers a deeper insight into the complexities of engaging with families to inform other providers, practitioners and policy makers.
    • Handling difficulties in social, emotional and behaviour development

      Wearmouth, Janice; Cunningham, Laura; Cremin, Teresa; Burnett, Cathy; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2018-03-14)
      This chapter focuses on difficulties experienced by children who demonstrate features of social, emotional and behavioural problems in schools, and ways to minimise the incidence of problematic behaviour. Schools play a critical part in shaping a young child’s identity as a learner (Bruner, 1996). Use of the terms ‘emotional and behavioural difficulties’ (EBD) (Warnock, 1978), or ‘social, emotional and behavioural difficulties’ (SEBD), as a label for some students who behave inappropriately is not always helpful. Poulou and Norwich (2002: 112) conclude, from a review of international studies, that the more teachers think student behaviour stems from problems within those students, such the ‘child’s innate personality’, ‘the more [teachers] may experience feelings of “stress” and even “helplessness” ’, and the less they may feel able to cope with difficult behaviour. The new Teachers’ Standards for Qualified Teacher Status, introduced in England from September 2012 (DfE, 2013), require teachers to take responsibility for promoting good behaviour in classrooms and elsewhere, have high expectations and maintain good relationships with pupils. Teachers can minimise the possibility of poor behaviour in classrooms if they recognise that appropriate behaviour can be taught (Rogers, 2013). Children can learn to make conscious choices about behaviour, even where it is associated with a genetic or neurological condition (Wearmouth, Glynn and Berryman, 2005). The chapter aims to familiarise teachers-in-training with * frames of reference commonly used in schools to research and understand social, emotional and behavioural difficulties, and form the basis for effective responses; * a range of effective responses in relation to these frames of reference; * an understanding that learning environments that are designed to support children to engage with their learning will reduce the possibility of undesirable behaviour in the first place.
    • A holistic approach to supporting distance learning using the Internet: transformation, not translation

      Thomas, Pete; Carswell, Linda; Price, Blain; Petre, Marian; Open University (Wiley-Blackwell, 1998-01-01)
    • How can the skills of Early Years leaders support other leaders in a primary school setting?

      Mistry, Malini Tina; Sood, Krishan; University of Bedfordshire; Nottingham Trent University (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2017-07-31)
      This study investigated the leadership skills Early Years leaders demonstrated through their daily practice of teaching, assessing and teamwork within their setting. It explored how revealing the potential of Early Years leaders could have a positive impact on the leadership practice of other leaders in the same setting to improve pupil outcomes. A qualitative approach using interviews with Early Years leaders in 20 primary settings from the East Midlands and Bedfordshire areas was undertaken by two academics from two different UK based universities. Ethical guidelines ensuring anonymity and trustworthiness were followed. Using verbatim comments, data were analysed in themes against contemporary Early Years literature. Findings showed the skills of Early Years leaders could support pedagogy and practice but some of these skills were not utilized beyond this age phase. Our conclusion suggested that Early Years leaders had a range of leadership skills which were deemed specialist as they were unique to the success of the age phase, but needed to be exposed beyond Early Years for wider success and impact.
    • How do we measure student learning in higher education? Modelling factors

      Price, Linda; Kingston University (2012-01-01)
      This paper presents a heuristic model of student leaning as a means to understanding the scope of factors to be considered in making predictions about student learning. It is underpinned by a review of a wide body of literature. The model is drawn from Price and Richardson?s 4P model (2004) that considered factors in improving student learning and argues that the same issues apply to predicting student learning outcomes. It builds upon existing research into learning and teaching. It is an articulation and an extension of Dunkin and Biddle?s (1974) model, the Biggs (1985) original Presage-Process-Product model and research by Prosser and Trigwell (1999). The model has four main groups of factors: presage, perceptions, process and product. The presage group contains personological and situational factors such as context. Perceptions include how students conceive learning, how teachers conceive teaching, and the context. The process group of factors incorporates approaches to learning in students and teachers approaches to teaching. The model is presented as a basis for engaging in future research in a holistic manner that may bear further fruit in predicting student learning.
    • How scholarly is our approach to using technology in learning & teaching?

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian; Kingston University (2012-01-01)
    • How the vision of a clinician and an educator brought the MA Dental Law and Ethics course to life.

      Wassif, Hoda; D'Cruz, L.; University of Bedfordshire; Dental Protection (Springer Nature, 2017-09-22)
      This paper reflects on an educational development that is Dental Law and Ethics course as the course approaches its 5th anniversary. The authors outline their personal journey into developing and delivering this course as well share best practice in relation to teaching and learning dental postgraduate students who may approach the subject in different ways. It also highlights the vision behind this provision and how it is received by dental practitioners. The paper shares the learners’ perception of topics such as ethics in comparison to law, and it highlights the perspective of both authors in teaching and following the students’ journey in this course.
    • How trainee physical education teachers in England write, use and evaluate lesson plans

      Capel, Susan; Bassett, Sophy; Lawrence, Julia; Newton, Angela; Zwozdiak-Myers, Paula; Brunel University; University of Bedfordshire; University of Hull (SAGE, 2018-07-19)
      Traditionally, all physical education initial teacher training (PEITT) courses in England, and in many other countries, require trainee teachers to complete detailed lesson plans for each lesson they teach in their school-based practicum and then to evaluate those lessons. However, there has been a limited amount of research on lesson planning in PEITT generally or in England specifically. The purpose of this study therefore was to gain an initial insight into how trainee physical education teachers write, use and evaluate lesson plans. Two-hundred-and-eighty-nine physical education trainees in England completed a questionnaire about lesson planning after finishing a block school-based practicum. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for the limited-choice questions on the questionnaires and open-ended questions were analysed using thematic analysis. Results showed mixed responses, with no one method followed by all trainees. Some trainees stated they planned and/or evaluated lessons as taught. Some stated they completed the plan and/or evaluation proforma to ‘tick a box’. The highest percentage of trainees stated it took between half an hour and one-and-a-half hours to plan each lesson. Although most trainees stated they found the plan useful in the lesson, others stated they found it too detailed to use. Some stated they did not deviate from the plan in the lesson, whereas others adapted the plan. The majority of trainees stated that evaluation enabled them to see if objectives had been achieved. Results are discussed in relation to teaching trainees how to plan lessons in PEITT in England.
    • Identity formation among novice academic teachers–a longitudinal study

      McLean, Neil; Price, Linda (Routledge, 2017-12-03)
      This study reports findings from an in-depth, longitudinal investigation of the formation of 13 novice tutors’ professional identities as academic teachers. The study spanned tutors’ first two years in-service, while they were also participating in a teacher development course. Discourse was analysed across 65 time-series coursework texts, completed as part of the tutors’ reflection on their teaching practice. The analysis captured the use of explicit identity positioning cues by tutors across the texts. Four discreet identity positions were catalogued: academic insider, class teacher, teaching course participant and young academic. The study illustrates how these tutors developed more complex identity narratives with enriched coherence over time as they reported negotiating challenges and dissonance between initial expectations and actual teaching experiences. This finding offers explanatory support for previous research regarding the value of longer term teacher development programmes and illuminates existing theoretical models with practitioner perspectives.
    • Impacts of COVID-19 and social isolation on academic staff and students at universities: a cross-sectional study

      Filho, Walter Leal; Wall, Tony; Rayman-Bacchus, Lez; Mifsud, Mark; Pritchard, Diana J.; Lovren, Violeta; Farinha, Carla; Petrovic, Danijela S.; Balogun, Abdul-Lateef; Hamburg University of Applied Sciences; et al. (Biomed Central, 2021-06-24)
      The impacts of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the shutdown it triggered at universities across the world, led to a great degree of social isolation among university staff and students. The aim of this study was to identify the perceived consequences of this on staff and their work and on students and their studies at universities. The study used a variety of methods, which involved an on-line survey on the influences of social isolation using a non-probability sampling. More specifically, two techniques were used, namely a convenience sampling (i.e. involving members of the academic community, which are easy to reach by the study team), supported by a snow ball sampling (recruiting respondents among acquaintances of the participants). A total of 711 questionnaires from 41 countries were received. Descriptive statistics were deployed to analyse trends and to identify socio-demographic differences. Inferential statistics were used to assess significant differences among the geographical regions, work areas and other socio-demographic factors related to impacts of social isolation of university staff and students. The study reveals that 90% of the respondents have been affected by the shutdown and unable to perform normal work or studies at their institution for between 1 week to 2 months. While 70% of the respondents perceive negative impacts of COVID 19 on their work or studies, more than 60% of them value the additional time that they have had indoors with families and others. . While the majority of the respondents agree that they suffered from the lack of social interaction and communication during the social distancing/isolation, there were significant differences in the reactions to the lockdowns between academic staff and students. There are also differences in the degree of influence of some of the problems, when compared across geographical regions. In addition to policy actions that may be deployed, further research on innovative methods of teaching and communication with students is needed in order to allow staff and students to better cope with social isolation in cases of new or recurring pandemics.