• Democracy and the curriculum: English and Finnish Perspectives

      Hopkins, Neil; Tarnenen, Mirja (Routledge, 2016-09-29)
    • The democratic curriculum: concept and practice

      Hopkins, Neil; University of Bedfordshire (Wiley Blackwell, 2014-06-20)
      Dewey continues to offer arguments that remain powerful on the need to break down the divisions between ‘academic’ and ‘vocational’ in terms of his specific theory of knowledge. Dewey's writings are used to argue that a democratic curriculum needs to challenge such divisions to encompass the many forms of knowledge necessary in the contemporary classroom. Gandin and Apple's investigation of community participation (Orçamento Participativo or Participatory Budgeting) in the curriculum of the Citizen School in Porto Alegre, Brazil, will be explored as an example of democratic structures informing educational planning. The work of Paul Hirst, Atli Harđarson and Chris Jane Brough is analysed regarding the issue of curriculum aims and student negotiation. Dewey's emphasis on learning as a collective enterprise will resonate here. Brough offers innovative research on student-centred curriculum integration that suggests even very young children are able to participate in debate over their own learning. Hirst and Harđarson provide contrasting views on the issue of curriculum aims—Hirst arguing that a curriculum cannot exist without definable aims while Harđarson challenges the very notion of settled aims if students are to be reflexive regarding their education. The article also refers to the work of Alexander on the use of dialogic questioning in the classroom. Such questioning, it is suggested, enhances and encourages collaborative forms of enquiry necessary for a democratic curriculum through discussion between teachers, students and other stakeholders.
    • Developing a mission for further education: changing culture using non-financial and intangible value

      Hadawi, Ali; Crabbe, M. James C.; Central Bedfordshire College; University of Northampton; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2018-01-29)
      In his keynote lecture at the Reimagining Further Education conference in Birmingham in June 2016, Sir Frank McLoughlin was clear that the sector ‘needed a mission’ to unite around, and to let people know where it is going’ (McLoughlin 2016). This was endorsed by the attendees, who felt that it would enable the sector to regain ownership of what it stands for nationally, regionally, and locally. Such a vision is needed to create a TVET (Technical and Vocational Education and Training) sector that is targeted to develop an effective shared culture in the further education sector, close skills shortages and skills gaps in education, enhance community cohesion and improve productivity. This vision needs to have a robust measure of impact that aligns with the vision. One possibility is to explore a non-financial and intangible value metric where social value is aligned to the sector mission. A robust measure will enable key stakeholders to agree on areas of focus in a specific geographical location or a specific time. Such a measure might challenge the need for the existence of regulatory bodies such as Ofsted in the way they operate now. With such a robust measure of social value/impact, Government will not need to issue a white paper every time a response to a localised issue is required. We suggest that the Social Earnings Ratio (S/E or SERatio) is such a robust measure. For example, if the need in a certain locality is to address skills gaps/shortages or to focus on community cohesion, all that is needed is a change in the weighting of the various components of such a measure. This will allow development of a Further Education mission which can be utilised nationally, regionally and locally. In this article we develop this idea and provide an illustration of how the SERatio could be applied to an FE college.  The example we use is that of a small FE college with an annual budget of £12m. We demonstrate, using SERatio, that this college produces an intangible value of approximately £40m per annum. Such an approach will enable Further Education to become the strong owner of its mission and vision in the future, and allow it to develop its own culture and expertise to the maximum of its potential.
    • Developing the capacity to recognise the capabilities of pupils with PMLD, to promote learning opportunities and to reduce isolation

      Butler, Cathal; University of Bedfordshire (Harpur Trust, 2018-09-12)
      This research focused on exploring whether Quest for Learning materials, developed originally in Northern Ireland, could be used as a basis for understanding the capacities of learners with Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties in a Special School in England. This research is occurring at an opportune time as the results of a recent government report, the Rochford Review on statutory assessment arrangements for learners operating below the standard of the national curriculum has provided an impetus to explore alternatives to the P-Scales, which have been used to report on the progress of these learners. The Quest for Learning Materials offer an opportunity to potentially work towards a broader range of more relevant learning goals for learners, and identify and celebrate the capacities and progress that these learners can make in educational settings. The research, was conducted in a class catering for learners with Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties. Video recordings were made of regular activities with 5 learners in the classroom, to assess whether the 43 milestones detailed in Quest for Learning could be meaningfully used to explore the capacities of these learners. Over 40 videos of each learner, recorded across an entire school year, were coded by the researcher. A subset of 10 videos for each learner was also independently coded by a member of staff in the School. Findings indicated that a variety of Milestones could be identified for each learner, with individual profiles emerging that showed the capacities of learners. A comparison of the coding between the researcher and the member of staff demonstrated a high degree of inter-rater reliability. These findings provide clear evidence that the Quest for Learning materials could be a useful tool to use for schools to address the recommendations from the Rochford review.
    • Development of an observation tool designed to increase cultural relationships and responsive pedagogy to raise the achievement of Māori students in secondary classrooms in Aotearoa New Zealand

      Berryman, Mere; Wearmouth, Janice (July Press, 2018-07-24)
      The paper discusses the development and conventions for use of a classroom observation tool designed to support secondary school teachers in Aotearoa New Zealand to develop respectful learning relationships and culturally responsive pedagogy in their classrooms. This tool was created within a programme of teacher professional development to support the improvement of indigenous Māori students’ achievement and engagement in learning. The Ministry of Education recognised the need for an extensive change in practices across the entire education sector that required a shift in thinking and behaviour. The observation tool was therefore designed to support formative assessment, focused on change, through deliberate and democratic professionalism. Initial data, whilst not conclusive, suggest this tool has the potential to support more effective cultural relationships and responsive pedagogy in classrooms thus improving learning and engagement among Māori students through increased self-efficacy, pride and a sense of themselves as culturally located.
    • Development of the ALDinHE recognition scheme: Certifying the ‘Learning Developer’ title

      Briggs, Steven G.; University of Bedfordshire (Association for Learning Development in Higher Education (ALDinHE), 2018-05-30)
      Over the last fifteen years, the pedagogy of learning development has become increasingly established within UK universities (Hilsdon, 2018). As such, there have never been more individuals who professionally identify with the ‘learning developer’ title. Self-identification with a professional title is always going to be problematic as there will be significant variation in background, experience, qualifications and values amongst practitioners. This will result in confusion and ambiguity around the meaning of a title (such as learning developer), which in turn can undermine practitioners’ professional status and career development opportunities. It is therefore unsurprising that over the last five years there has been a growing call amongst the learning development community to introduce greater consistency around how the learning developer title is used (Webster, 2015; Webster, 2017; Johnson, 2018). The Association for Learning Development in Higher Education (ALDinHE) has responded to this call to action by developing a recognition scheme for learning developers. This has two levels - certified practitioner (CeP) and certified leading practitioner (CeLP). Unlike other educational development recognition schemes - for example, Higher Education Academy (HEA) fellowships or Staff and Educational Development Association (SEDA) fellowships) - the CeP/CeLP scheme involves evidencing core values associated with practicing learning development. As such, it provides the first bespoke recognition opportunity for the learning development community. This article outlines how the ALDinHE recognition scheme was conceived, piloted and launched at the 2018 Learning Development Conference.
    • Dewey and the democratic curriculum

      Hopkins, Neil (Emerald Publishing, 2018-05-14)
      This paper uses Dewey’s seminal Democracy and Education (1916) as a key text to investigate the concept of the democratic curriculum. I argue that a democratic curriculum is one where a series of educational innovations or procedures are followed. These are: a removal of the exisiting division between ‘academic’ and ‘vocational’ education; pedagogy in the form of discussion and dialogue; negotiation of curriculum aims and objectives with students and other local stakeholders. The focus of attention will be on the English school curriculum (both primary and secondary), especially concerning the National Curriculum, and the debate over ‘standards’ and testing . A tentative link between the democratic curriculum and increased student motivation and participation is made.
    • Dewey, Democracy and Education and the school curriculum

      Hopkins, Neil; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2018-03-04)
      This paper will investigate Dewey’s Democracy and Educationin relation to the curriculum. There are two overarching themes to the paper: the concept of the democratic curriculum and the academic/vocational divide. Dewey is seen as a pivotal thinker in relation to collaborative learning and the child as a vital voice in any learning that takes place in the classroom and beyond. The paper explores whether issues such as school governance and pupil voice facilitate Dewey’s notion of democratic education. Alongide this is the issue of the academic/vocational divide within English education. Acknowledgement will be made of Dewey’s theory of knowledge which emphasises the connection between concept and application and how this can influence the incorporation of the theoretical and the practical as part of children’s learning in a given curriculum.
    • Dialogue or duel? a critical reflection on the gendered politics of engaging and impacting

      Quinn, Jocey; Allen, Kim; Hollingworth, Sumi; Maylor, Uvanney; Osgood, Jayne; Rose, Anthea (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014-12-31)
      This chapter seeks to offer a critical reflection on the politics of engaging stakeholders in research. Specifically, we shed light on the difficulties and tensions encountered in delivering a seminar series on the ‘inter-relationships of education and culture’ that had at its heart a desire to facilitate a dialogue between academics and policy makers and practitioners. This series of seminars, ‘New Perspectives on Education and Culture’ (http://educationandculture.wordpress.com/), ran from January 2011 to January 2013 and was funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC, 2012).
    • Dilemmas faced by pre-service teachers when learning about and implementing a game-centred approach

      Harvey, Stephen; Cushion, Christopher J.; Sammon, Paul (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2014-12-04)
      Game-centred approaches (GCAs) were designed for the effective integration of skills into contextualized situations. Despite a plethora of research, few studies explore the articulations between pre-service teachers’ experiences, conceptual understanding, pedagogical practices, the wider cultural and political realities of teaching and their impact on the learner. This paper uses Windschitl’s (2002) framework of practice dilemmas to structure an analysis of various dilemmas faced by a cohort of English pre-service teachers on a one-year Postgraduate Certificate in Education learning about and implementing a GCA. Nineteen (6 male; 13 female) postgraduate students based at a university in the East of England agreed to participate in the study. Data were generated through an online discussion board, case study log and from focus group interviews. Data analysis was an inductive iterative process that integrated the multiple data sources. The analysis was conducted through a constant comparison between the different sources to identify themes that were mapped against Windschitl’s (2002) heuristic. Supported by the realization of their own participation in ‘traditional’ physical education programmes, this cohort of pre-service teachers attempted to integrate GCAs into their practice. Significant challenges included the pre-service teachers’ own fragile conceptual understandings and pedagogical expertise in GCAs, exacerbated by current institutionalized practices within most physical education programmes.
    • Disrupting the dissertation: linked data, enhanced publication and algorithmic culture

      Tracy, Frances; Carmichael, Patrick (SAGE Publications, 2017-09-24)
      This article explores how the three aspects of Striphas’ notion of algorithmic culture (information, crowds and algorithms) might influence and potentially disrupt established educational practices.  We draw on our experience of introducing semantic web and linked data technologies into higher education settings, focussing on extended student writing activities such as dissertations and projects, and drawing in particular on our experiences related to undergraduate archaeology dissertations. The potential for linked data to be incorporated into electronic texts, including academic publications, has already been described, but these accounts have highlighted opportunities to enhance research integrity and interactivity, rather than considering their potential creatively to disrupt existing academic practices. We discuss how the changing relationships between subject content and practices, teachers, learners and wider publics both in this particular algorithmic culture, and more generally, offer new opportunities; but also how the unpredictability of crowds, the variable nature and quality of data, and the often hidden power of algorithms, introduce new pedagogical challenges and opportunities.
    • Distance education over the Internet

      Thomas, Pete; Price, Linda; Petre, Marian; Poniatowska, Barbara; Price, Blain; Emms, Judy (1996-07-01)
    • Distance education via the Internet: the student experience

      Carswell, Linda; Thomas, Pete; Petre, Marian; Poniatowska, Barbara; Price, Blain; Emms, Judy; Open University (Wiley-Blackwell, 2000-01-01)
    • Distinguishing between ‘macro’ and ‘micro’ possibility thinking: seen and unseen creativity

      Clack, Jim; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier Ltd, 2017-06-16)
      This paper proposes a model that describes potential ways in which creativity may be manifest in the classroom. Building on the work by Craft and her colleagues (e.g. Chappell, Craft, Burnard, & Cremin, 2008; Craft, Cremin, Burnard, Dragovic, & Chappell, 2012), this paper uses empirical evidence from the author's PhD study (Clack, 2011), to propose further developments in the ‘Possibility Thinking’ model. It is argued that it is possible to characterise ‘types’ of Possibility Thinking activity. The first ‘type’ identified is ‘macro’ Possibility Thinking, characterised by ‘large’, observable events in the classroom. The second type, ‘micro’ Possibility Thinking, may be characterised as 'smaller’, more thoughtful, personal moments that are less visible to an observer. Developing the existing model in this way helps provide insights into the creative process and as a result helps provide insights into how we may foster and develop creativity in the classroom and indeed in everyday life.
    • Dynamic conversations: using social media in learning and teaching

      Saeudy, Mohamed; University of Bedfordshire (2022-01-21)
      This conversation aims to consider how social media could be used to support academic practices during and beyond the Covid-19 conditions. It aims to explore some practical approaches to using Social Media in a satisfying and sustainable way. I am looking forward to exploring future opportunities for using social media beyond the covid-19 conditions to support the student experience.
    • E-learning or e-teaching? What's the difference in practice?

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian; Kingston University (2005-04-01)
    • E-portfolio: a practical tool for self-directed, reflective, and collaborative professional learning

      Daunert, Anna Liza; Price, Linda; Harteis, Christian; Ruasch, Andreas; Seifried, Jurgen; University of Paderborn; Open University (Springer Netherlands, 2014-01-01)
      This chapter discusses the role of an e-portfolio in professional learning and development. We begin by providing a better understanding of the concept of a portfolio by discussing its meaning, purpose and uses in different contexts as well as the role of technological innovations, which paves the way for new practices in developing portfolios. This is followed by a comprehensive discussion about the use of electronic portfolios in light of recent research in order to provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of using e-portfolios. Current research suggests that e-portfolios are practical tools for supporting self-directed and reflective learning. In addition, e-portfolios have the potential to support collaborative learning among learners who are interested in sharing their works and in gaining feedback. At the end of the chapter, we discuss an approach to designing professional learning and development plans, which serves as a guide for
    • Education for democratic citizenship in Ireland

      Butler, Cathal (Taylor and Francis, 2019-12-17)
      This chapter explores the complex historical, political and religious context that frame discussions around citizenship and democracy within education in Ireland, as an independent nation, and as a member of the European Union. What it means to be a citizen in Ireland will be explored.The focus is primarily on the Republic of Ireland, though issues that arise in Northern Ireland will also be covered. The chapter will focus on curriculum subject areas that touch on citizenship and democracy, past and present. The extent to which policy and practice can map onto the key concepts set out in the Council of Europe's framework of competences for democratic culture will be explored, with a specific focus on the extent to which teachers are trained to be able to teach these subjects.
    • Education for offenders in prison

      Crabbe, M. James C.; University of Bedfordshire; University of Oxford (University of Bedfordshire, 2016-11)
      Prisoners are a group of people often forgotten or ignored by society as a whole. Yet recidivism (reoffending) is a serious drain on resources worldwide, and tackling it has been the subject of much research and policy development. Education in secure environments and beyond helps offenders, reduces recidivism and improves employability. Here, we address current and future pathways in offender education, involving Information Technology and offender-led learning. These issues have been studied in the Coates Review (2016), which should be an important breakthrough in improving education in prisons, and effecting culture change about prisoner education in and beyond prisons.