• Achieving improved quality and validity: reframing research and evaluation of learning technologies

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda (European Distance and E Learning Network, 2015-01-01)
      A critical reading of research literature relating to teaching and learning with technology for open, distance and blended education reveals a number of shortcomings in how investigations are conceptualised, conducted and reported. Projects often lack clarity about the nature of the enhancement that technology is intended to bring about. Frequently there is no explicit discussion of assumptions and beliefs that underpin research studies and the approaches used to investigate the educational impact of technologies. This presentation summarises a number of the weaknesses identified in published studies and considers the implications. Some ways in which these limitations could be avoided through a more rigorous approach to undertaking research and evaluation studies are then outlined and discussed.
    • Adaptation for a changing environment: developing learning and teaching with information and communication technologies

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Open University (Athabasca University, 2006-01-01)
      This article examines the relationship between the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and learning and teaching, particularly in distance education contexts. We argue that environmental changes (societal, educational and technological) make it necessary to adapt systems and practices that are no longer appropriate. However, the need to adapt can be perceived as being technology-led and primarily concerned with requiring academic staff to develop their skills in using ICT. We provide a critique of continuing professional development (CPD) for using ICT in teaching and learning that does not entail examining the impact of environmental changes upon the assumptions, goals and strategies which underlie and shape an organisation's educational practices. In particular, we oppose CPD that concentrates on the individual teacher and their use of ICT. Instead, we contend that professional development should focus upon the scholarship of teaching and learning and must also reflect the wider organisational context within which ICT is managed and used.
    • Adaptive agency: some surviving and some thriving in the 'interesting times' of English teaching

      Goodwyn, Andrew (Emerald, 2019-06-03)
      Purpose This paper aims to introduce the concept of adaptive agency and illustrate its emergence in the field of English teaching in a number of countries using England over the past 30 years as a case study. It examines how the exceptional flexibility of English as school subject has brought many external impositions whilst its teachers have evolved remarkable adaptivity. Design/methodology/approach It proposes several models of agency and their different modes, focussing finally on adaptive agency as a model that has emerged over a 30-year period. It considers aspects of this development across a number of countries, mostly English speaking ones, but its chief case is that of England. It is principally a theoretical paper drawing on Phenomenology, Critical Realism and later modernist interpretations of Darwinian Theory, but it is grounded by drawing on two recent empirical projects to illustrate English teachers' current agency. It offers a fresh overview of how agency and accountability have interacted within a matrix of official policy and constraint. Findings Adaptive agency has become a necessary aspect of teacher expertise. Such a mode of working creates great emotional strains and tensions, leading to many teachers leaving the profession. However, many English teachers whilst feeling controlled in the matrix of power and the panopticon of surveillance, remain resilient and positive about the future of the subject.
    • Advancing cultures of innovation: The change laboratory as an intervention to facilitate agency and collaborative sustainable development among teachers in higher education

      Englund, Claire; Price, Linda (Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education (ASCILITE), 2018-12-31)
      To cope with the rapidly changing Higher Education climate, teachers need the agency to act proactively to initiate and steer changes to meet their needs. The results of this study indicate that transformative agency emerges when teachers are given the opportunity to analyse, envision and redesign their practice collaboratively with the help of mediating conceptual tools. This has implications for academic development, suggesting that activities providing a ‘third space’ for discussion and criticism of current practices is needed to support the development of agency thus creating a culture of innovative practice.
    • "Am I still doing a good job?" : conceptions of tutoring in distance education

      Jelfs, Anne; Macdonald, Janet; Price, Linda; Richardson, John T.E.; Cannell, Pete; Rust, C; Open University (Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development, 2007-01-01)
    • Approaches to studying and perceptions of academic quality in electronically delivered courses

      Richardson, John T.E.; Price, Linda (Wiley-Blackwell, 2003-06-27)
      The Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) and a short form of the Approaches to Studying Inventory (ASI) were administered to students who were taking electronically delivered courses in computer science. The constituent structure of the CEQ was preserved in this distinctive context, and a second?order factor analysis confirmed its role as an index of perceived academic quality. The students' scores on the individual scales of the CEQ and the ASI shared nearly two?thirds of their variance. In short, approaches to studying in electronically delivered courses are strongly associated with students' perceptions of the academic quality of those courses.
    • Approaches to studying and perceptions of the academic environment among university students in China

      Price, Linda; Richardson, John T.E.; Robinson, Bernadette; Ding, Xia; Sun, Xiaoling; Han, Cuiling; Open University (Routledge, 2011-06-24)
      It has been claimed that students from 'Confucian-heritage' cultures approach studying in higher education differently from Western students. This study investigated the experiences and the approaches to studying of students at a university in China. A total of 356 students completed both the Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) and the Revised Approaches to Studying Inventory (RASI). Their responses to the CEQ yielded two factors concerned with student support and course demands. Their responses to the RASI yielded two factors: a deep/strategic approach and a surface approach. Students who rated their courses positively in terms of student support were more likely to adopt a deep/strategic approach. Students who rated their courses positively in terms of course demands were less likely to adopt a surface approach. In broad terms, the students' perceptions and approaches to studying were similar to those of Western students, though with some specific differences. The findings add to the literature on Chinese students' approaches to learning and also have practical implications for teachers seeking to promote more desirable forms of studying in their students.
    • Assessment & outcomes based education handbook

      Butler, Cathal; University of Prishtina; University of Bedfordshire (University of Prishtina, 2018-02-21)
      A guidance document produced as part of the TEMPUS project Modernizing Teacher Education at the University of Prishtina
    • Assessment and student learning : a fundamental relationship and the role of information and communication technologies

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2008-02-18)
      This paper reviews the role of assessment in student learning and its relationship with the use of information and communication technologies (ICT). There is ample evidence of technology-led innovations failing to achieve the transformations expected by educators. We draw upon existing research to illustrate the links between aspects of student learning, assessment practices and the use of ICT. Assessment influences not only what parts of a course get studied, but also how those parts are studied. While the adoption of ICT does not, in itself, change student behaviours, appropriately designed assessment that exploits the potential of ICT can change students? approaches to learning. We argue that ICT can enable important learning outcomes to be achieved, but these must be underpinned by an assessment strategy that cues students to adopt a suitable approach to learning.
    • Assessment or referral tool: the unintended consequences of a dual purpose common assessment framework form

      Nethercott, Kathryn; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2020-02-03)
      The Common Assessment Framework (CAF) was designed to facilitate early intervention through multi-agency working and the active involvement of families. The underlying principle was to move away from a risk-focused, needs-led or service-led culture to assess need and match needs to identified services. It was anticipated that services and assessments would become more evidence-based, and a common language between professionals and agencies would evolve. Taking a social constructionist approach this study explored professionals’ experiences of the use of the Common Assessment Framework form. Forty-one professionals from four different local authorities and a variety of agencies took part in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed utilizing thematic analysis. Findings suggest the unintended consequences of the use of the CAF were influenced by local authority policy. As the local authorities adopted the policy of utilizing the CAF as a referral mechanism, rather than to assess needs, profes-sionals unintentionally perceived the CAF form as a referral tool, to refer families to existing service provision. Further to this, professionals referred to the CAF form itself, as a ‘means to an end’, implying that this was a step that had to be overcome in order to access services.
    • Becoming a home-educator in a networked world: towards the democratisation of education alternatives?

      Fensham-Smith, Amber; University of Bedfordshire (Other Business, 2019-06-09)
      The internet is assumed to play a special role in UK home-education and has apparently fuelled an increase its prevalence. This paper reports the place and purpose of the internet, online networks and offline communities in the decision to home-educate amongst parents in England, Scotland and Wales. The research formed part of a mixed-method doctoral study that included: an online survey of 242 home-educators; 52 individual and group interviews with 85 parents, children and young people and a week-long participant observation with families. The sample included a range of both ‘new’ and ‘experienced’ home-educators. The findings show that online and offline networking helped prospective parents to learn of home-education as a viable and positive alternative to schooled provision. For parents, socialising with existing home-educators was pivotal for cultivating a sense of identity, belonging and commitment to an education without school. At the same time, becoming a legitimate home-educator was a complex achievement; hinged upon social and economic resources and cultural competencies. Evidence of exclusionary practices among home-educators both online and offline, challenges the extent to which home-education is truly more ‘open’ now than it once was. In the decision to home-educate, it is concluded that the democratising potential of the internet points to ‘old wine in new bottles’.
    • Becoming a learner in the workplace: a student’s guide to practice–based and work-based learning in health and social care

      Wareing, Mark; University of Bedfordshire (Quay Books, 2016-04-01)
      This student guide has been written to help support you to engage in practice-based and work-based learning in a range of health and social care settings. An increasing number of students are undertaking health and social care studies that include placement learning including those studying at higher apprenticeship and foundation degree level who are seeking to use clinical workplaces and practice areas for learning. This book has also been written for those studying traditional undergraduate health professions such as nursing and midwifery, and will be useful for those undertaking practice-based learning in radiography, social work and the therapies. It provides the reader with a through understanding of the challenges and opportunities of practice and work-based learning that requires a range of skills, strategies, techniques and attitudes to empower readers to be fully equipped to engage in participatory workplace learning. Each chapter contains a range of activities that will require the reader to think about their own experience and the skills required to engage in practice-based or work-based learning. The purpose of the activities is to bring each chapter to life and enable the reader to engage with the text actively rather than passively
    • Black male pre-service teachers: tomorrow’s teachers

      Maylor, Uvanney (Emerald, 17-12-15)
      England’s school population is ethnically diverse yet the teacher workforce is predominantly White and female. While Black teachers are in short supply in England, Black male teachers are even fewer in number. This article seeks to understand the shortage of Black male teachers through the qualitative experiences of a small group of Black male pre-service teachers. Utilising critical race theory the article seeks to understand the preparation that a group of Black male pre-service teachers during their teacher training course and its impact on their willingness to commit to entering the teaching profession. The article questions whether Black pre-service teachers experience of a lack of acceptance in schools during their pre-service training contributes to the under-representation of Black male teachers in English schools.
    • Black male student teachers: tomorrow’s teachers?

      Maylor, Uvanney; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2018-06-11)
      Purpose: This paper aims to understand the preparation that a group of black male pre-service students received during their course and its impact on their willingness to commit to entering the teaching profession. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on findings from a small-scale qualitative study of black and minority ethnic student teachers’ experiences in one initial teacher education institution. Findings: The paper raises questions as to whether black pre-service teachers’ experiences of a lack of acceptance in schools during their pre-service training contribute to the under-representation of black male teachers in English schools. Originality/value: There is limited research on the experiences of black male student teachers. The paper brings new insights and offers reasons for black male student teachers not entering the teaching profession.
    • Black women academics and senior managers resisting gendered racism in British higher education institutions

      Wright, Cecile; Maylor, Uvanney; Watson, Valerie (Springer International Publishing, 2018-12-31)
      This chapter analyses Black women academics and senior managers’ experiences of working in UK higher education. Testimony included in this chapter is drawn from the authors’ experiences with White staff, and critical discussion and shared reflection as the chapter was being prepared. The chapter utilises the theoretical lenses of intersectionality and critical race theory that have coincided with and been supported by the phenomenological experiences of the authors. The womens’ narratives reflect notions of resistance and resilience, which coalesce around themes of challenging visibility and invisibility, negotiating institutional power and the use of their networks in sustaining their survival.
    • BNCI systems as a potential assistive technology: ethical issues and participatory research in the BrainAble project

      Carmichael, Patrick; Carmichael, Clare; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2013-12-06)
      This paper highlights aspects related to current research and thinking about ethical issues in relation to Brain Computer Interface (BCI) and Brain-Neuronal Computer Interfaces (BNCI) research through the experience of one particular project, BrainAble, which is exploring and developing the potential of these technologies to enable people with complex disabilities to control computers. It describes how ethical practice has been developed both within the multidisciplinary research team and with participants. Results: The paper presents findings in which participants shared their views of the project prototypes, of the potential of BCI/BNCI systems as an assistive technology, and of their other possible applications. This draws attention to the importance of ethical practice in projects where high expectations of technologies, and representations of “ideal types” of disabled users may reinforce stereotypes or drown out participant “voices”. Conclusions: Ethical frameworks for research and development in emergent areas such as BCI/BNCI systems should be based on broad notions of a “duty of care” while being sufficiently flexible that researchers can adapt project procedures according to participant needs. They need to be frequently revisited, not only in the light of experience, but also to ensure they reflect new research findings and ever more complex and powerful technologies.
    • Book review: Educating outside

      Mistry, Malini Tina (Taylor & Francis, 2018-09-19)
      Book review of Educating Outside: Curriculum-linked outdoor learning ideas for primary teachers By: Helen Porter Bloomsbury Education, 2018 9781472946300
    • Book review: How to be an outstanding nursery leader

      Mistry, Malini Tina (Taylor and Francis, 2019-01-20)
      Review of How to be an outstanding nursery leader by Allison Lee, 2018, London, Bloomsbury, 182 pp., £12.99 (paperback), ISBN: 978 1 4729 5257 8
    • Book review: Making sense of neuroscience in the Early Years

      Mistry, Malini Tina (Taylor & Francis, 2017-11-08)
      Book review of Making sense of neuroscience in the Early Years Sally Featherstone Featherstone, 2017 9781472938312
    • Book review: School readiness and the characteristics of effective learning: the essential guide for Early Years practitioners

      Mistry, Malini Tina (Taylor and Francis, 2019-02-17)
      Book review of School readiness and the characteristics of effective learning: the essential guide for Early Years practitioners by Tamsin Grimmer, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2018, 206 pp.,, £13.99 (paperback), ISBN: 978 1 78592-175-9