• Adaptation for a changing environment: developing learning and teaching with information and communication technologies

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Open University (Athabasca University, 2006-01-01)
      This article examines the relationship between the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and learning and teaching, particularly in distance education contexts. We argue that environmental changes (societal, educational and technological) make it necessary to adapt systems and practices that are no longer appropriate. However, the need to adapt can be perceived as being technology-led and primarily concerned with requiring academic staff to develop their skills in using ICT. We provide a critique of continuing professional development (CPD) for using ICT in teaching and learning that does not entail examining the impact of environmental changes upon the assumptions, goals and strategies which underlie and shape an organisation's educational practices. In particular, we oppose CPD that concentrates on the individual teacher and their use of ICT. Instead, we contend that professional development should focus upon the scholarship of teaching and learning and must also reflect the wider organisational context within which ICT is managed and used.
    • Enhancing learning and teaching through technology: a guide to evidence-based practice for academic developers

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Higher Education Academy; Open University (Higher Education Academy, 2011-01-01)
      This is a guide to help academic-developers support academics in developing scholarly and evidence-based approaches to learning and teaching with technology. This has guide been peer reviewed by the Higher Education Academy.
    • Enhancing learning and teaching through technology: a guide to evidence-based practice for academics

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Higher Education Academy; Open University (Higher Education Academy, 2011-01-01)
      This is a guide to help support academics develop scholarly and evidence-based approaches to learning and teaching with technology. This guide has been peer reviewed by the Higher Education Academy.
    • Enhancing learning and teaching through technology: a guide to evidence-based practice for policy makers

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Higher Education Academy; Open University (Higher Education Academy, 2011-01-01)
      This is a guide to help Policy-makers support academics in developing scholarly and evidence-based approaches to learning and teaching with technology. This has guide been peer reviewed by the Higher Education Academy.
    • Enhancing learning and teaching through technology: a table of resources for academic developers

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Higher Education Academy (Higher Education Academy, 2011-01-01)
      This is a resource that provides a listing of studies that have been reviewed that may be of use to academic developers who are supporting academics interested in using technology in their learning and teaching activities. The studies have been examined in relation to an evidence-based approach as reported in the studies. A framework has been used to report the studies and interpret variations between them. The resources are listed by media types to help orient readers.
    • Enhancing learning and teaching through technology: a table of resources for academics

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian; Higher Education Academy (Higher Education Academy, 2011-01-01)
      This is a resource that provides a listing of studies that have been reviewed that may be of use to HE practitioners interested in using technology in their learning and teaching activities. The studies have been examined in relation to an evidence-based approach as reported in the studies. A framework has been used to report the studies and interpret variations between them. The resources are listed by media types to help orient readers.
    • Enhancing learning and teaching through technology: a table of resources for policy makers

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian; Higher Education Academy; Open University (Higher Education Academy, 2011-01-01)
      This is a resource that provides a listing of studies that have been reviewed that may be of use to policy makers who are supporting academics who are using technology in their learning and teaching activities. The studies have been examined in relation to an evidence-based approach as reported in the studies. A framework has been used to report the studies and interpret variations between them. The resources are listed by media types to help orient readers.
    • Enhancing professional learning and teaching through technology: a synthesis of evidence-based practice among teachers in higher education

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian; Institute of Educational Technology; Open University (Institute of Educational Technology, The Open University, 2011-01-01)
      This synthesis provides a review of evidence-based practice to learning and teaching with technology in higher education. The evidence was considered in relation to the three levels of purpose of identified in the HEFCE e-Learning Strategy namely: efficiency, enhancement and transformation gains in student learning. A further framework was devised in this synthesis to determine where evidence might be of use and the extent of its impact. This was to support a range of stakeholders (practitioners, educational developers and policy makers) in making the best use of evidence in their particular roles. The synthesis is limited to scrutinising the application of technology in learning and teaching. It focused on a demonstration of the use of evidence in the practices of professional teachers in higher education, and how this evidence might change practice.
    • Examining some assumptions and limitations of research on the effects of emerging technologies for teaching and learning in higher education

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda (Blackwell Publishing, 2013-06-04)
      This article examines assumptions and beliefs underpinning research into educational technology. It critically reviews some approaches used to investigate the impact of technologies for teaching and learning. It focuses on comparative studies, performance comparisons and attitudinal studies to illustrate how under-examined assumptions lead to questionable findings. The extent to which it is possible to substantiate some of the claims made about the impact of technologies on the basis of these approaches and methods is questioned. We contend researchers should ensure that they acknowledge underlying assumptions and the limitations imposed by the approach adopted in order to appropriately interpret findings.
    • Informed design of educational technology for teaching and learning? Towards an evidence-informed model of good practice

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian; Open University (Routledge, 2014-08-11)
      The aim of this paper is to model evidence-informed design based on a selective critical analysis of research articles. We draw upon findings from an investigation into practitioners? use of educational technologies to synthesise and model what informs their designs. We found that practitioners? designs were often driven by implicit assumptions about learning. These shaped both the design of interventions and the methods sought to derive evaluations and interpret the findings. We argue that interventions need to be grounded in better and explicit conceptualisations of what constitutes learning in order to have well-informed designs that focus on improving the quality of student learning.
    • Lecturers' vs. students' perceptions of the accessibility of instructional materials

      Price, Linda; Open University (Springer Netherlands, 2006-10-26)
      The goal of this study was to examine the differences between lecturers and students? perceptions of the accessibility of instructional materials. The perceptions of 12 mature computing distance education students and 12 computing lecturers were examined using the knowledge elicitation techniques of card sorting and laddering. The study showed that lecturers had pedagogical views while students tended to concentrate on surface attributes such as appearance. Students perceived instructional materials containing visual representations as most accessible. This has two implications for the professional development of computing lecturers designing instructional materials. First, lecturers need to appreciate the differences between expert and novice views of accessibility and how students will engage with the materials. Second, lecturers need to understand that learners perceive instructional materials containing visual representations as more accessible compared to ?text only? versions. Hence greater use of these may enable students to engage more readily in learning. Given that print is the ubiquitous teaching medium this is likely to have implications for students and lecturers in other disciplines.
    • Mind the gap: the chasm between research and practice in teaching and learning with technology

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian; Richardson, John T.E.; Case, Jennifer M.; Huisman, Jeroen; Open University; University of Cape Town; Ghent University (Routledge, 2016-01-01)
    • Missing: evidence of a scholarly approach to teaching and learning with technology in higher education

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Open University (Routledge, 2013-05-22)
      As technology is increasingly being used for teaching and learning in higher education, it is important to scrutinise what tangible educational gains are being attained. Are claims about technology transforming learning and teaching in higher education borne out by actual practices? This paper draws upon a critical analysis of recent research literature concerning Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL). It argues that few published accounts of TEL practices show evidence of a scholarly approach to university teaching. Frequently, TEL interventions appear to be technology-led rather than responding to identified teaching and learning issues. The crucial role of teachers? differing conceptions of teaching and of the purpose of professional development activities is often ignored. We argue that developing a more scholarly approach among university teachers is more essential than providing technical training if practices are to be improved to maximise the effectiveness of TEL.
    • Modelling factors for predicting student learning outcomes in higher education

      Price, Linda; Gijbels, David; Donche, Vincent; Richardson, John T.E.; Vermunt, Jan D.; Open University; University of Antwerp; University of Cambridge (Routledge, 2014-01-01)
      This chapter presents a heuristic model of student leaning as a means to understanding the scope of factors to be considered in making predictions about student learning. It is underpinned by a review of a wide body of literature. The model is drawn from Price and Richardson's 4P model (2004) that considered factors in improving student learning and argues that the same issues apply to predicting student learning outcomes. It builds upon existing research into learning and teaching. It is an articulation and an extension of Dunkin and Biddle?s (1974) model, the Biggs (1985) original Presage-Process-Product model and research by Prosser and Trigwell (1999). The model has four main groups of factors: presage, perceptions, process and product. The presage group contains personological and situational factors such as context. Perceptions include how students conceive learning, how teachers conceive teaching, and the context. The process group of factors incorporates approaches to learning in students and teachers approaches to teaching. The model is presented as a basis for engaging in future research in a holistic manner that may bear further fruit in predicting student learning.
    • Secondary school physical education

      Bowler, Mark; Newton, Angela; Keyworth, Saul; McKeown, Joanne; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2019-12-19)
    • Technology-enhanced learning and teaching in higher education: what is 'enhanced' and how do we know? A critical literature review

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Open University (Routledge, 2013-02-20)
      The term Technology-enhanced learning (TEL) is used to describe the application of information and communication technologies to teaching and learning. Explicit statements about what the term is understood to mean are rare and it is not evident that a shared understanding has been developed in higher education of what constitutes an enhancement of the student learning experience. This article presents a critical review and assessment of how TEL is interpreted in recent literature. It examines the purpose of technology interventions, the approaches adopted to demonstrate the role of technology in enhancing the learning experience, differing ways in which enhancement is conceived and the use of various forms evidence to substantiate claims about TEL. Thematic analysis enabled categories to be developed and relationships explored between the aims of TEL interventions, the evidence presented, and the ways in which enhancement is conceived.
    • Using technology for teaching and learning in higher education: a critical review of the role of evidence in informing practice

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian (Routledge, 2013-11-09)
      The use of technology for teaching and learning is now widespread, but its educational effectiveness is still open to question. This mixed-method study explores educational practices with technology in higher education. It examines what forms of evidence (if any) have influenced teachers? practices. It comprises a literature review, a questionnaire and interviews. A framework was used to analyse a wide range of literature. The questionnaires were analysed using content analysis and the interviews were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Findings suggest that evidence has partial influence upon practice with practitioners preferring to consult colleagues and academic developers. The study underscored the difficulty in defining and evaluating evidence, highlighting ontological and epistemological issues. The academic developer?s role appears to be key in mediating evidence for practitioners.
    • Which way to SoTL utopia?

      Draeger, John D.; Price, Linda; Open University (Georgia Southern University, Center for Excellence in Teaching, 2011-01-01)
      Where is the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) movement headed? This paper offers a vision for the future by using an Aristotelian model of virtue to sketch an account of intellectual habits. We argue that these habits allow students, teachers, and scholars to engage in the endless pursuit of learning. We call this place 'SoTL Utopia' as the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning is the vehicle that allows us to reach this destination. While utopian, we argue that these habits will improve learning in higher education through more ubiquitous engagement in SoTL.
    • Why is it difficult to improve student learning?

      Price, Linda; Richardson, John T.E.; Open University (2003-09-03)