• Dilemmas faced by pre-service teachers when learning about and implementing a game-centred approach

      Harvey, Stephen; Cushion, Christopher J.; Sammon, Paul (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2014-12-04)
      Game-centred approaches (GCAs) were designed for the effective integration of skills into contextualized situations. Despite a plethora of research, few studies explore the articulations between pre-service teachers’ experiences, conceptual understanding, pedagogical practices, the wider cultural and political realities of teaching and their impact on the learner. This paper uses Windschitl’s (2002) framework of practice dilemmas to structure an analysis of various dilemmas faced by a cohort of English pre-service teachers on a one-year Postgraduate Certificate in Education learning about and implementing a GCA. Nineteen (6 male; 13 female) postgraduate students based at a university in the East of England agreed to participate in the study. Data were generated through an online discussion board, case study log and from focus group interviews. Data analysis was an inductive iterative process that integrated the multiple data sources. The analysis was conducted through a constant comparison between the different sources to identify themes that were mapped against Windschitl’s (2002) heuristic. Supported by the realization of their own participation in ‘traditional’ physical education programmes, this cohort of pre-service teachers attempted to integrate GCAs into their practice. Significant challenges included the pre-service teachers’ own fragile conceptual understandings and pedagogical expertise in GCAs, exacerbated by current institutionalized practices within most physical education programmes.
    • How trainee physical education teachers in England write, use and evaluate lesson plans

      Capel, Susan; Bassett, Sophy; Lawrence, Julia; Newton, Angela; Zwozdiak-Myers, Paula; Brunel University; University of Bedfordshire; University of Hull (SAGE, 2018-07-19)
      Traditionally, all physical education initial teacher training (PEITT) courses in England, and in many other countries, require trainee teachers to complete detailed lesson plans for each lesson they teach in their school-based practicum and then to evaluate those lessons. However, there has been a limited amount of research on lesson planning in PEITT generally or in England specifically. The purpose of this study therefore was to gain an initial insight into how trainee physical education teachers write, use and evaluate lesson plans. Two-hundred-and-eighty-nine physical education trainees in England completed a questionnaire about lesson planning after finishing a block school-based practicum. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for the limited-choice questions on the questionnaires and open-ended questions were analysed using thematic analysis. Results showed mixed responses, with no one method followed by all trainees. Some trainees stated they planned and/or evaluated lessons as taught. Some stated they completed the plan and/or evaluation proforma to ‘tick a box’. The highest percentage of trainees stated it took between half an hour and one-and-a-half hours to plan each lesson. Although most trainees stated they found the plan useful in the lesson, others stated they found it too detailed to use. Some stated they did not deviate from the plan in the lesson, whereas others adapted the plan. The majority of trainees stated that evaluation enabled them to see if objectives had been achieved. Results are discussed in relation to teaching trainees how to plan lessons in PEITT in England.
    • Implications for promoting physical literacy

      Durden-Myers, Elizabeth; Green, Nigel R.; Whitehead, Margaret; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Bedfordshire (Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., 2018-12-31)
      This study considers the implications for teachers of physical education of adopting physical literacy as the focus of their work. These implications arise from the philosophical underpinning of the concept, from the definition of physical literacy and are in line with the mission of the International Physical Literacy Association. In the first section of this study, recommendations stemming from the philosophical roots of the concept will be outlined in brief. The other three sections will demonstrate how this philosophical basis and the definition of physical literacy should inform, first, lesson and unit content; second, teaching approaches; and, finally, curriculum planning. Unpacking the implications and what physical literacy looks like in practice is essential if teachers are to begin to incorporate physical literacy within their practice.
    • Laying the foundations for physical literacy in Wales: the contribution of the Foundation Phase to the development of physical literacy

      Wainwright, Nalda; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Whitehead, Margaret; Williams, Andy; Kirk, David (Routledge, 2018-03-27)
      Background: The Foundation Phase in Wales is a play-based curriculum for pupils aged 3–7 years old. Children learn through more holistic areas of learning in place of traditional subjects. As such, the subject of physical education in its traditional form no longer exists for pupils under the age of 7 in Wales. In light of the role of physical education in developing physical literacy and in particular the importance of this age group for laying the foundations of movement for lifelong engagement in physical activity, the disappearance of physical education from the curriculum could be deemed to be a concern. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the Foundation Phase as a naturalistic intervention and examine its contribution to the development of physical literacy. Participants and setting: Participants included year 1 pupils (N = 49) aged 5 and 6 from two schools in contrasting locations. A smaller group within each class was selected through purposive sampling for the repeated measures assessments (N = 18). Research design and methods: A complementarity mixed-method design combined quantitative and qualitative methods to study the Foundation Phase as a naturalistic intervention. Quantitative data were generated with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 administered to the sample group of children from both schools as a quasi-repeated measure, the physical competence subscale of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance and the Leuven Involvement Scale for Young Children. Qualitative data were generated throughout the study from the analysis of video and field notes through participant observation. Data from the mixed methods were analysed through complementarity to give a rich insight into pupils’ progress and experiences in relation to physical literacy. Results: Overall analysis of the data from TGMD-2 showed significant improvements in the Gross Motor Quotient and Locomotor skills from T1 to T3, but no significant improvement in object control. Data from qualitative methods were analysed to explore processes that may account for these findings. Video and field notes complement the quantitative data highlighting that children were developing their locomotor skills in many aspects of their learning. Observations using the Leuven Involvement Scale indicated that children had high levels of involvement in their learning and apparent in video and field notes was pupils’ motivation for movement. Paired sample t-tests (N = 18) conducted on the Harter and Pike perceived physical competence six-item score subscales (T1 and T3) indicated a significant difference in the mean perceived physical competence scores on the six-item scale between T1and T3. Qualitative data explored pupils’ confidence for movement in many areas of learning. Conclusion: The combination of quantitative and qualitative data indicates that the Foundation Phase is an early childhood curriculum that lays the foundations of physical literacy with the exception of aspects of the physical competence, specifically object control skills. Although these skills only contribute to psychomotor aspects of physical literacy they are strongly associated with later engagement in physical activity. The development of specific physical skills such as object control skills may need more specialist input with early childhood pedagogy teachers trained in motor development to see significant improvements.
    • Operationalizing physical literacy: special issue editorial

      Durden-Myers, Elizabeth; Whitehead, Margaret; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Bedfordshire (Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., 2018-12-31)
      Physical literacy has been described as a "longed for concept" and has in turn gained much interest worldwide. This interest has also given rise for calls for physical literacy to be operationalized, providing clarity and guidance on developing physical literacy informed practice. Operationalizing physical literacy is crucial in moving the concept forward by providing "substance to the claims made by (physical literacy) advocates." This special issue aims to respond to calls for research to "unpack" physical literacy across a number of areas in pursuit of operationalizing physical literacy in practice. Nine articles are included within this special issue.
    • Physical literacy from philosophy to practice

      Pot, Niek; Whitehead, Margaret; Durden-Myers, Elizabeth; Windesheim University of Applied Sciences; University of Bedfordshire; Liverpool John Moores University (Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., 2018-12-31)
      This article aims to give an overview of the philosophical foundations of physical literacy (monism, existentialism, and phenomenology) and to discuss how philosophy can be operationalized in physical education practice. When translated into physical education practice, the physical literacy philosophies give credence to the view that, in schools, physical education should not be considered as a subsidiary subject that is needed merely to refresh the mind for the cognitive subjects. The authors also highlight that the context in which activities take place should be challenging, realistic, and adaptable to the individual preferences and levels of attainment of the different learners. Often, these contexts go beyond the traditional competitive sports context. Drawing on these philosophies, physical education must be learner centered and provide situations in which learners can discover and develop their individual potential to stay motivated, confident, and competent for engagement in physical activities for life.
    • Secondary school physical education

      Bowler, Mark; Newton, Angela; Keyworth, Saul; McKeown, Joanne; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2019-12-19)
    • The value of fostering physical literacy

      Whitehead, Margaret; Durden-Myers, Elizabeth; Pot, Niek; University of Bedfordshire; Liverpool John Moores University; Windesheim University of Applied Sciences (Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., 2018-12-31)
      This article considers the value of physical literacy. Unequivocal support for aspects of the concept can be found in philosophy, neuroscience, social justice, the nature of human development, psychology, and sociocultural studies. These areas of support will be outlined and then related to the practical value of physical literacy in the school context. This article will close with a discussion centered on claims that physical literacy is an end in itself rather than predominantly ameans to other ends. It is the aim of this article to communicate the unique value of fostering physical literacy within the school context, including the support and relationship to other interrelated disciplines.