• Achieving improved quality and validity: reframing research and evaluation of learning technologies

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda (European Distance and E Learning Network, 2015-01-01)
      A critical reading of research literature relating to teaching and learning with technology for open, distance and blended education reveals a number of shortcomings in how investigations are conceptualised, conducted and reported. Projects often lack clarity about the nature of the enhancement that technology is intended to bring about. Frequently there is no explicit discussion of assumptions and beliefs that underpin research studies and the approaches used to investigate the educational impact of technologies. This presentation summarises a number of the weaknesses identified in published studies and considers the implications. Some ways in which these limitations could be avoided through a more rigorous approach to undertaking research and evaluation studies are then outlined and discussed.
    • Adaptation for a changing environment: developing learning and teaching with information and communication technologies

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Open University (Athabasca University, 2006-01-01)
      This article examines the relationship between the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and learning and teaching, particularly in distance education contexts. We argue that environmental changes (societal, educational and technological) make it necessary to adapt systems and practices that are no longer appropriate. However, the need to adapt can be perceived as being technology-led and primarily concerned with requiring academic staff to develop their skills in using ICT. We provide a critique of continuing professional development (CPD) for using ICT in teaching and learning that does not entail examining the impact of environmental changes upon the assumptions, goals and strategies which underlie and shape an organisation's educational practices. In particular, we oppose CPD that concentrates on the individual teacher and their use of ICT. Instead, we contend that professional development should focus upon the scholarship of teaching and learning and must also reflect the wider organisational context within which ICT is managed and used.
    • Enhancing learning and teaching through technology: a guide to evidence-based practice for academic developers

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Higher Education Academy; Open University (Higher Education Academy, 2011-01-01)
      This is a guide to help academic-developers support academics in developing scholarly and evidence-based approaches to learning and teaching with technology. This has guide been peer reviewed by the Higher Education Academy.
    • Enhancing learning and teaching through technology: a guide to evidence-based practice for academics

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Higher Education Academy; Open University (Higher Education Academy, 2011-01-01)
      This is a guide to help support academics develop scholarly and evidence-based approaches to learning and teaching with technology. This guide has been peer reviewed by the Higher Education Academy.
    • Enhancing learning and teaching through technology: a guide to evidence-based practice for policy makers

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Higher Education Academy; Open University (Higher Education Academy, 2011-01-01)
      This is a guide to help Policy-makers support academics in developing scholarly and evidence-based approaches to learning and teaching with technology. This has guide been peer reviewed by the Higher Education Academy.
    • Enhancing learning and teaching through technology: a table of resources for academic developers

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Higher Education Academy (Higher Education Academy, 2011-01-01)
      This is a resource that provides a listing of studies that have been reviewed that may be of use to academic developers who are supporting academics interested in using technology in their learning and teaching activities. The studies have been examined in relation to an evidence-based approach as reported in the studies. A framework has been used to report the studies and interpret variations between them. The resources are listed by media types to help orient readers.
    • Enhancing learning and teaching through technology: a table of resources for academics

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian; Higher Education Academy (Higher Education Academy, 2011-01-01)
      This is a resource that provides a listing of studies that have been reviewed that may be of use to HE practitioners interested in using technology in their learning and teaching activities. The studies have been examined in relation to an evidence-based approach as reported in the studies. A framework has been used to report the studies and interpret variations between them. The resources are listed by media types to help orient readers.
    • Enhancing learning and teaching through technology: a table of resources for policy makers

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian; Higher Education Academy; Open University (Higher Education Academy, 2011-01-01)
      This is a resource that provides a listing of studies that have been reviewed that may be of use to policy makers who are supporting academics who are using technology in their learning and teaching activities. The studies have been examined in relation to an evidence-based approach as reported in the studies. A framework has been used to report the studies and interpret variations between them. The resources are listed by media types to help orient readers.
    • Enhancing professional learning and teaching through technology: a synthesis of evidence-based practice among teachers in higher education

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian; Institute of Educational Technology; Open University (Institute of Educational Technology, The Open University, 2011-01-01)
      This synthesis provides a review of evidence-based practice to learning and teaching with technology in higher education. The evidence was considered in relation to the three levels of purpose of identified in the HEFCE e-Learning Strategy namely: efficiency, enhancement and transformation gains in student learning. A further framework was devised in this synthesis to determine where evidence might be of use and the extent of its impact. This was to support a range of stakeholders (practitioners, educational developers and policy makers) in making the best use of evidence in their particular roles. The synthesis is limited to scrutinising the application of technology in learning and teaching. It focused on a demonstration of the use of evidence in the practices of professional teachers in higher education, and how this evidence might change practice.
    • Examining some assumptions and limitations of research on the effects of emerging technologies for teaching and learning in higher education

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda (Blackwell Publishing, 2013-06-04)
      This article examines assumptions and beliefs underpinning research into educational technology. It critically reviews some approaches used to investigate the impact of technologies for teaching and learning. It focuses on comparative studies, performance comparisons and attitudinal studies to illustrate how under-examined assumptions lead to questionable findings. The extent to which it is possible to substantiate some of the claims made about the impact of technologies on the basis of these approaches and methods is questioned. We contend researchers should ensure that they acknowledge underlying assumptions and the limitations imposed by the approach adopted in order to appropriately interpret findings.
    • How scholarly is our approach to using technology in learning & teaching?

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian; Kingston University (2012-01-01)
    • Improving quality and validity in research and evaluation studies of learning technologies

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda (IATED Academy, 2014-01-01)
      A critical reading of research literature relating to teaching and learning with technology in higher education reveals a number of shortcomings in how investigations are conceptualised, conducted and reported. Projects often lack clarity about the nature of the enhancement that technology is intended to bring about. Frequently there is no explicit discussion of assumptions and beliefs that underpin research studies and the approaches used to investigate the educational impact of technologies. This presentation summarises a number of the weaknesses identified in published studies and considers the implications. Some ways in which these limitations could be avoided through a more rigorous approach to undertaking research and evaluation studies are then outlined and discussed.
    • The influence upon design of differing conceptions of teaching and learning with technology

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Olofsson, Anders D.; Lindberg, J. Ola; Open University (IGI Global, 2012-01-01)
      This chapter considers some of the theoretical foundations of teaching and learning in higher education and how these are reflected in practice. We consider how varying conceptions of teaching and learning with technology have an impact upon how teachers design teaching and learning. This chapter reviews why these variations are important and how they can affect the design of the curriculum and ultimately what and how students learn. We conclude that promoting increased use of technology does little, if anything, to improve student learning. It is only by attending to higher education teachers? conceptions of teaching and learning with technology and supporting change in this area that significant progress will be achieved. In this chapter we advocate that informed design in the use of technology is underpinned by beliefs about (conceptions of) teaching and learning with technology. To this end the chapter explores some of the theoretical underpinnings of these conceptions and argues that they are fundamental to driving well-informed practice in the use of technology to support student learning.
    • Informed design of educational technology for teaching and learning? Towards an evidence-informed model of good practice

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian; Open University (Routledge, 2014-08-11)
      The aim of this paper is to model evidence-informed design based on a selective critical analysis of research articles. We draw upon findings from an investigation into practitioners? use of educational technologies to synthesise and model what informs their designs. We found that practitioners? designs were often driven by implicit assumptions about learning. These shaped both the design of interventions and the methods sought to derive evaluations and interpret the findings. We argue that interventions need to be grounded in better and explicit conceptualisations of what constitutes learning in order to have well-informed designs that focus on improving the quality of student learning.
    • Mind the gap: the chasm between research and practice in teaching and learning with technology

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian; Richardson, John T.E.; Case, Jennifer M.; Huisman, Jeroen; Open University; University of Cape Town; Ghent University (Routledge, 2016-01-01)
    • Missing: evidence of a scholarly approach to teaching and learning with technology in higher education

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Open University (Routledge, 2013-05-22)
      As technology is increasingly being used for teaching and learning in higher education, it is important to scrutinise what tangible educational gains are being attained. Are claims about technology transforming learning and teaching in higher education borne out by actual practices? This paper draws upon a critical analysis of recent research literature concerning Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL). It argues that few published accounts of TEL practices show evidence of a scholarly approach to university teaching. Frequently, TEL interventions appear to be technology-led rather than responding to identified teaching and learning issues. The crucial role of teachers? differing conceptions of teaching and of the purpose of professional development activities is often ignored. We argue that developing a more scholarly approach among university teachers is more essential than providing technical training if practices are to be improved to maximise the effectiveness of TEL.
    • Modeling an institutional approach to developing Technology Enabled Learning : closing the gap between research and practice

      Price, Linda; Casanova, Diogo; Orwell, Suzan; Kingston University (2017-01-01)
      This paper presents our approach to closing the gap between research and practice when delivering technology enabled learning. We illustrate our model that uses research to underpin how we have shaped a whole institutional roll out of our new VLE, Canvas. The model is built around our Learning Design principles based on current research in the field and key institutional priorities. The model addresses how we lever the implementation of our new VLE as a catalyst for changing the institutional pedagogical paradigm. Our experience shows that by adopting such an approach we are able to positively impact on institutional teaching practices and influence policy to support innovative VLE pedagogy.
    • Modelling factors for predicting student learning outcomes in higher education

      Price, Linda; Gijbels, David; Donche, Vincent; Richardson, John T.E.; Vermunt, Jan D.; Open University; University of Antwerp; University of Cambridge (Routledge, 2014-01-01)
      This chapter presents a heuristic model of student leaning as a means to understanding the scope of factors to be considered in making predictions about student learning. It is underpinned by a review of a wide body of literature. The model is drawn from Price and Richardson's 4P model (2004) that considered factors in improving student learning and argues that the same issues apply to predicting student learning outcomes. It builds upon existing research into learning and teaching. It is an articulation and an extension of Dunkin and Biddle?s (1974) model, the Biggs (1985) original Presage-Process-Product model and research by Prosser and Trigwell (1999). The model has four main groups of factors: presage, perceptions, process and product. The presage group contains personological and situational factors such as context. Perceptions include how students conceive learning, how teachers conceive teaching, and the context. The process group of factors incorporates approaches to learning in students and teachers approaches to teaching. The model is presented as a basis for engaging in future research in a holistic manner that may bear further fruit in predicting student learning.
    • Promoting reflection in asynchronous virtual learning spaces: tertiary distance tutors' conceptions.

      Rivers, Bethany Alden; Richardson, John T.E.; Price, Linda; University of Northamptonshire; Open University (Athabasca University, 2014-01-01)
      Increasingly, universities are embedding reflective activities into the curriculum. With the growth in online tertiary education, how effectively is reflection being promoted or used in online learning spaces? Based on the notion that teachers? beliefs will influence their approaches to teaching, this research sought to understand how a group of distance tutors at the UK Open University conceptualised reflection. It was hoped that these findings would illuminate their approaches to promoting reflection as part of their online pedagogies. Phenomenographic analysis indicated that these tutors conceptualised reflection in four qualitatively different ways. Furthermore, the data suggested that these educators held a combination of two conceptions: one that understood the origin of being reflective and one that understood the purpose of reflection. Analysis of structural aspects of these conceptions offered insight into tutors? own perspectives for what is needed to make online learning environments fertile territory for reflective learning.
    • Putting technology in the frame : multiple lenses on evidenced based practice in a university wide roll out

      Price, Linda; Downward, Stuart; Lawrence, David; Avery, Barry; Preston, Anne; Fonseca, Tania Dias; Vyas, Nora; Lock, Nick; Alsop, Graham; Orwell, Suzan; et al. (2017-01-01)