• Adaptation for a changing environment: developing learning and teaching with information and communication technologies

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Open University (Athabasca University, 2006-01-01)
      This article examines the relationship between the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and learning and teaching, particularly in distance education contexts. We argue that environmental changes (societal, educational and technological) make it necessary to adapt systems and practices that are no longer appropriate. However, the need to adapt can be perceived as being technology-led and primarily concerned with requiring academic staff to develop their skills in using ICT. We provide a critique of continuing professional development (CPD) for using ICT in teaching and learning that does not entail examining the impact of environmental changes upon the assumptions, goals and strategies which underlie and shape an organisation's educational practices. In particular, we oppose CPD that concentrates on the individual teacher and their use of ICT. Instead, we contend that professional development should focus upon the scholarship of teaching and learning and must also reflect the wider organisational context within which ICT is managed and used.
    • Assessment and student learning : a fundamental relationship and the role of information and communication technologies

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2008-02-18)
      This paper reviews the role of assessment in student learning and its relationship with the use of information and communication technologies (ICT). There is ample evidence of technology-led innovations failing to achieve the transformations expected by educators. We draw upon existing research to illustrate the links between aspects of student learning, assessment practices and the use of ICT. Assessment influences not only what parts of a course get studied, but also how those parts are studied. While the adoption of ICT does not, in itself, change student behaviours, appropriately designed assessment that exploits the potential of ICT can change students? approaches to learning. We argue that ICT can enable important learning outcomes to be achieved, but these must be underpinned by an assessment strategy that cues students to adopt a suitable approach to learning.
    • Conceptions of learning in adult students embarking on distance education

      Makoe, Mpine; Richardson, John T.E.; Price, Linda; Open University (Springer Verlag (Germany), 2007-02-18)
      A 60-item questionnaire on conceptions of learning was mailed to students taking preparatory courses by distance learning with The Open University in the United Kingdom. Complete data were provided by 372 respondents. Their scores on six factor-based scales showed satisfactory internal consistency, cluster analysis identified five groups of students with distinct patterns of scores, and discriminant analysis identified the scales that served to distinguish among the clusters. Three groups had conceptions of learning based on critical thinking, personal development, and personal change, but the other groups had conceptions that were defined in largely negative terms. Adult learners embarking on distance education seem to hold distinctive conceptions of learning, which suggests that conceptions of learning are culturally and contextually dependent.
    • E-portfolio: a practical tool for self-directed, reflective, and collaborative professional learning

      Daunert, Anna Liza; Price, Linda; Harteis, Christian; Ruasch, Andreas; Seifried, Jurgen; University of Paderborn; Open University (Springer Netherlands, 2014-01-01)
      This chapter discusses the role of an e-portfolio in professional learning and development. We begin by providing a better understanding of the concept of a portfolio by discussing its meaning, purpose and uses in different contexts as well as the role of technological innovations, which paves the way for new practices in developing portfolios. This is followed by a comprehensive discussion about the use of electronic portfolios in light of recent research in order to provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of using e-portfolios. Current research suggests that e-portfolios are practical tools for supporting self-directed and reflective learning. In addition, e-portfolios have the potential to support collaborative learning among learners who are interested in sharing their works and in gaining feedback. At the end of the chapter, we discuss an approach to designing professional learning and development plans, which serves as a guide for
    • Employing culturally responsive pedagogy to foster literacy learning in schools

      Wearmouth, Janice (Taylor & Francis, 2017-03-16)
       In recent years it has become increasingly obvious that, to enable students in schools from an increasingly diverse range of cultural backgrounds to acquire literacy to a standard that will support them to achieve academically, it is important to adopt pedagogy that is responsive to, and respectful of, them as culturally situated. What largely has been omitted from the literature, however, is discussion of a relevant model of learning to underpin this approach. For this reason this paper adopts a socio-cultural lens (Vygotsky, 1978) through which to view such pedagogy and refers to a number of seminal texts to justify of its relevance. Use of this lens is seen as having a particular rationale. It forces a focus on the agency of the teacher as a mediator of learning who needs to acknowledge the learner’s cultural situatedness (Kozulin, 2003) if school literacy learning for all students is to be as successful as it might be. It also focuses attention on the predominant value systems and social practices that characterize the school settings in which students’ literacy learning is acquired. The paper discusses implications for policy and practice at whole-school, classroom and individual student levels of culturally-responsive pedagogy that is based on a socio-cultural model of learning. In doing so it draws on illustrations from the work of a number of researchers, including that of the author.
    • How do we measure student learning in higher education? Modelling factors

      Price, Linda; Kingston University (2012-01-01)
      This paper presents a heuristic model of student leaning as a means to understanding the scope of factors to be considered in making predictions about student learning. It is underpinned by a review of a wide body of literature. The model is drawn from Price and Richardson?s 4P model (2004) that considered factors in improving student learning and argues that the same issues apply to predicting student learning outcomes. It builds upon existing research into learning and teaching. It is an articulation and an extension of Dunkin and Biddle?s (1974) model, the Biggs (1985) original Presage-Process-Product model and research by Prosser and Trigwell (1999). The model has four main groups of factors: presage, perceptions, process and product. The presage group contains personological and situational factors such as context. Perceptions include how students conceive learning, how teachers conceive teaching, and the context. The process group of factors incorporates approaches to learning in students and teachers approaches to teaching. The model is presented as a basis for engaging in future research in a holistic manner that may bear further fruit in predicting student learning.
    • Improving quality and validity in research and evaluation studies of learning technologies

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda (IATED Academy, 2014-01-01)
      A critical reading of research literature relating to teaching and learning with technology in higher education reveals a number of shortcomings in how investigations are conceptualised, conducted and reported. Projects often lack clarity about the nature of the enhancement that technology is intended to bring about. Frequently there is no explicit discussion of assumptions and beliefs that underpin research studies and the approaches used to investigate the educational impact of technologies. This presentation summarises a number of the weaknesses identified in published studies and considers the implications. Some ways in which these limitations could be avoided through a more rigorous approach to undertaking research and evaluation studies are then outlined and discussed.
    • Individual differences in learning: cognitive control, cognitive style and learning style

      Price, Linda; Open University (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2004-01-01)
      This paper assesses the value of three learning style tests when used to examine the design of educational materials for teaching computer science at a distance. The paper presents three studies where three different learning styles were used to discriminate preference and performance in different contexts. The studies indicate that the Learning Style Questionnaire and the Group Embedded Figures Test are of little value. However the Cognitive Style Analysis proved useful in discriminating performance on imagery-rich materials in a simulated learning context. The paper argues that it may be necessary to match the theoretical basis of learning style with the context in which it is used in order to gain useful information. On the whole the studies showed that the value of learning style tests may be limited.
    • Learners and learning in the twenty first century: what do we know about students' attitudes towards and experiences of information and communication technologies that will help us design courses?

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Open University (Routledge, 2005-01-01)
      This article reports on issues relevant for teachers and instructional designers anticipating using information and communication technologies (ICTs) in higher education, particularly those wishing to adopt a flexible learning approach aimed at improving the quality of the student experience. The data that are reported on span more than five years, and have been gathered from a range of large quantitative postal surveys and smaller qualitative surveys, with total respondents numbering around 80,000. The large-scale surveys cover annual course reviews, computer access, students? use of media, access to media technologies and ICT access and use. The smaller qualitative studies include students? use of CD-ROMs and online tuition. This article describes the students? backgrounds and how this can affect their studies. It discusses students? access to media technologies and what their perceptions of media are in the context of independent learning. The conclusion is that, although ICTs can enable new forms of teaching and learning to take place, they cannot ensure that effective and appropriate learning outcomes are achieved. It is not technologies, but educational purposes and pedagogy, that must provide the lead, with students understanding not only how to work with ICTs, but why it is of benefit for them to do so. Knowing about students? use of media as well as their attitudes and experiences can help teachers and instructional designers develop better courses.
    • Learning theories for everyday teaching

      Thompson, Carol; Spenceley, Lydia; University of Bedfordshire (Sage: Learning Matters, 2019-10-12)
      An essential tool for new teachers and trainees who want to use learning theories to develop their practice. The text explores key learning theories in a pragmatic way and encourages focused reflection to promote critical analysis of theories and their potential application to specific contexts. The authors highlight the practical benefits of using theory in planning, teaching and reflecting on practice. The text also encourages the use of a range of creative approaches to enhance learning. Each chapter explores a key aspect of the teacher's role (such as planning, motivation or assessment) and outlines theories relating to this theme - fully embedding the use of learning theories in practical every day teaching. It includes activities for reflection and a section encouraging readers to 'map' the theory to their own practice. Scenarios and case studies throughout illustrate learning and support readers link theory to practice.
    • Modelling factors for predicting student learning outcomes in higher education

      Price, Linda; Gijbels, David; Donche, Vincent; Richardson, John T.E.; Vermunt, Jan D.; Open University; University of Antwerp; University of Cambridge (Routledge, 2014-01-01)
      This chapter presents a heuristic model of student leaning as a means to understanding the scope of factors to be considered in making predictions about student learning. It is underpinned by a review of a wide body of literature. The model is drawn from Price and Richardson's 4P model (2004) that considered factors in improving student learning and argues that the same issues apply to predicting student learning outcomes. It builds upon existing research into learning and teaching. It is an articulation and an extension of Dunkin and Biddle?s (1974) model, the Biggs (1985) original Presage-Process-Product model and research by Prosser and Trigwell (1999). The model has four main groups of factors: presage, perceptions, process and product. The presage group contains personological and situational factors such as context. Perceptions include how students conceive learning, how teachers conceive teaching, and the context. The process group of factors incorporates approaches to learning in students and teachers approaches to teaching. The model is presented as a basis for engaging in future research in a holistic manner that may bear further fruit in predicting student learning.
    • A review of literature relevant to a study of students' views of their learning on a psychodynamic psychotherapeutic course

      Pape, Nick R.; Wearmouth, Janice (London Churchill College, 2016-12-31)
      This paper focuses on the literature underpinning the use of an analytic framework based on aspects of both psychodynamic theories and socio-cultural understandings of the learning process to underpin a study of students' perceptions of facilitating factors that enable learnign of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Psychodynamic approaches to psychotherapy have within them no intrinsic theory of learning. To study the learning process, as reported by students, therefore requires reliance on an external theoretical model that is sufficiently compatible with psychodynamic theory and that does not distort either the research process or the interpretation of data in a way that is unrecognisable to adherents of a psychodynamic perspective. Psychodynamic learning cannot be undertaken on an instructional basis but only by authentic learning tasks grounded in the personal interests of learners. Is is for this reason that a sociocultural constructivist view of the learning process was chosen as being appropriate to integrate into a framework through which to view psychodynamic therapeutic learning. The research sought to explore how learners created and applied perceptions of what helped learning. A qualitative case study design was employed with eight randomly selected participants from Higher Education institutes. Analysis of data from interviews, observations and document collection, using a framework derived from sociocultural understandings of learning as well as psychodynamic theories, enabled the emergence of nine themes: autonomy; self-changes; closeness; encouragement/discouragement; individual learning process; listening; ambivalence about judging the tutor; private life; self-esteem and confidence. The over-arching theme that emerged was the tutor-student relationship, understandable in sociocultural constructivist terms as enabling learning witin a Vygotskyian zone of proximal development and the Bowlbian concept of provision of a safe base from which students journeyed towards autonomous independent learning.
    • Why is it difficult to improve student learning?

      Price, Linda; Richardson, John T.E.; Open University (2003-09-03)