• Black male student teachers: tomorrow’s teachers?

      Maylor, Uvanney (Emerald, 17-12-15)
      England’s school population is ethnically diverse yet the teacher workforce is predominantly White and female. While Black teachers are in short supply in England, Black male teachers are even fewer in number. This article seeks to understand the shortage of Black male teachers through the qualitative experiences of a small group of Black male pre-service teachers. Utilising critical race theory the article seeks to understand the preparation that a group of Black male pre-service teachers during their teacher training course and its impact on their willingness to commit to entering the teaching profession. The article questions whether Black pre-service teachers experience of a lack of acceptance in schools during their pre-service training contributes to the under-representation of Black male teachers in English schools.
    • Creative writing: mapping the subject

      Belas, Oliver (The English Association, 2018-03-06)
      [From the introduction] My aim is to stitch together a three-part patchwork, to piece together some thoughts on: (i) Creative Writing as an academic discipline; (ii) the textual dynamics and contradictory cultural logic of the map; and (iii) knowledge, particularly the talk of ‘knowledge-based’ education that has driven recent reform in secondary education. Under the influence of Michel de Certeau and in light of an examination of the work of the map and of mapping, i will argue that Creative Writing, while it exemplifies a very real mode of knowing, is not and cannot be recognized as a site or space of knowledge by England’s current secondary-educational politics.
    • Developing the capacity to recognise the capabilities of pupils with PMLD, to promote learning opportunities and to reduce isolation

      Butler, Cathal; University of Bedfordshire (Harpur Trust, 2018-09-12)
      This research focused on exploring whether Quest for Learning materials, developed originally in Northern Ireland, could be used as a basis for understanding the capacities of learners with Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties in a Special School in England. This research is occurring at an opportune time as the results of a recent government report, the Rochford Review on statutory assessment arrangements for learners operating below the standard of the national curriculum has provided an impetus to explore alternatives to the P-Scales, which have been used to report on the progress of these learners. The Quest for Learning Materials offer an opportunity to potentially work towards a broader range of more relevant learning goals for learners, and identify and celebrate the capacities and progress that these learners can make in educational settings. The research, was conducted in a class catering for learners with Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties. Video recordings were made of regular activities with 5 learners in the classroom, to assess whether the 43 milestones detailed in Quest for Learning could be meaningfully used to explore the capacities of these learners. Over 40 videos of each learner, recorded across an entire school year, were coded by the researcher. A subset of 10 videos for each learner was also independently coded by a member of staff in the School. Findings indicated that a variety of Milestones could be identified for each learner, with individual profiles emerging that showed the capacities of learners. A comparison of the coding between the researcher and the member of staff demonstrated a high degree of inter-rater reliability. These findings provide clear evidence that the Quest for Learning materials could be a useful tool to use for schools to address the recommendations from the Rochford review.
    • Development of an observation tool designed to increase cultural relationships and responsive pedagogy to raise the achievement of Māori students in secondary classrooms in Aotearoa New Zealand

      Berryman, Mere; Wearmouth, Janice (July Press, 2018-07-24)
      The paper discusses the development and conventions for use of a classroom observation tool designed to support secondary school teachers in Aotearoa New Zealand to develop respectful learning relationships and culturally responsive pedagogy in their classrooms. This tool was created within a programme of teacher professional development to support the improvement of indigenous Māori students’ achievement and engagement in learning. The Ministry of Education recognised the need for an extensive change in practices across the entire education sector that required a shift in thinking and behaviour. The observation tool was therefore designed to support formative assessment, focused on change, through deliberate and democratic professionalism. Initial data, whilst not conclusive, suggest this tool has the potential to support more effective cultural relationships and responsive pedagogy in classrooms thus improving learning and engagement among Māori students through increased self-efficacy, pride and a sense of themselves as culturally located.
    • Dewey, Democracy and Education and the school curriculum

      Hopkins, Neil; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2018-03-04)
      This paper will investigate Dewey’s Democracy and Educationin relation to the curriculum. There are two overarching themes to the paper: the concept of the democratic curriculum and the academic/vocational divide. Dewey is seen as a pivotal thinker in relation to collaborative learning and the child as a vital voice in any learning that takes place in the classroom and beyond. The paper explores whether issues such as school governance and pupil voice facilitate Dewey’s notion of democratic education. Alongide this is the issue of the academic/vocational divide within English education. Acknowledgement will be made of Dewey’s theory of knowledge which emphasises the connection between concept and application and how this can influence the incorporation of the theoretical and the practical as part of children’s learning in a given curriculum.
    • Effective SENCO : meeting the challenge

      Wearmouth, Janice (McGraw-Hill Education, 2015-06-18)
      The co-ordination of special educational provision in schools is multi-faceted and challenging. New legislation in England, the Children and Families Act, introduced in September 2014, strengthens and extends the legal requirement to ensure the availability and effective co-ordination of high quality provision for special needs and disabilities (SEND) in schools and, for the first time, in further education colleges. The Special Educational Needs and Disability Code of Practice 0–25 years (DfE, 2014a) is an overt component of central government policy in the area of special educational needs with its status of statutory guidance. Teachers in schools and colleges continue to be expected to provide effective learning opportunities for all their pupils, including those who have special educational needs and disabilities. Schools, colleges and other settings have clear duties under the statutory guidance of the new Code and must ‘have regard’ to its contents. They should do what it says or be able to explain why they have not done so and explain the alternative provision that has been made. It is no longer sufficient, however, simply to ensure that young people with SEND have access to an appropriate education. Instead, Section 19(d) of Part 3 of the 2014 Children and Families Act specifies access that enables young people to ‘achieve the best possible’ educational and other outcomes. This reflects a new and higher level of outcome required by law. Effective co-ordination of SEND provision therefore continues to be high priority for senior management teams, governors, parents and politicians. School governors also have particular responsibilities towards young people with SEND in schools. Section 66 of the 2014 Act contains a key duty on the governing body of a school – and this includes the proprietors or management committee where relevant – to use their ‘best endeavours’ to secure special educational provision for all children or young people for whom they are responsible. It is essential that all involved understand what ‘having’ a special educational need or disability means for the young person and his or her family, and what addressing such needs and disabilities entails in schools. At the same time the requirement for all new special educational needs and disability co-ordinators (SENCOs) to take the National Award for SEN Co-ordination (NASC) has remained in place. Included in the new learning outcomes of the NASC which have been revised in light of the recent amendments to the law is a revision of what is required in terms of professional knowledge and understanding for the SENCO role. This book was therefore designed as an accessible, well-theorised and practical resource to help new and experienced SENCOs and those in training to carry out their duties in supporting the development and improvement of SEND provision from a thoughtful and confident position that is very well informed in current legislation, practice, theory and critical understanding of the issues in the field. It therefore provides a well-balanced and accessible overview of the following: * the new (2014) legislation related to SEND provision and the new SEND Code of Practice and the implications for schools and colleges, and the role of the SENCO in particular; * key challenges of the SENCO role, as identified by experienced, effective, practising SENCOs, and how these might be addressed; * what SENCOs really need to know and what they can and should do in order to co-ordinate provision for SEND properly and effectively. It also comprehensively covers the (2014) learning outcomes of the National Award for Special Educational Needs Co-ordination. Current legislation promotes the inclusion of (almost) all young people in mainstream schools and colleges. However, this has to be implemented within a national context of school and college ‘improvement’ and competition and market-oriented practices where young people with SEND may not be able to contribute positively to a school’s position on league tables of achievement. Such challenges are not necessarily insurmountable, however, and the book discusses the debates and dilemmas and offers practical suggestions to address these.
    • Gypsy and traveller education: engaging families - a research report

      Fensham-Smith, Amber; Welsh Government (Welsh Government Social Research, 2014-11-25)
      The research aimed to identify what works in engaging Gypsy and Traveller families in education with a specific focus on attainment, attendance, transition and retention. The research provides an account of good practice by drawing on the experiences of Traveller Education Service (TES) workers. It draws upon literature, a survey of Local Authorities and in-depth interviews with staff working in Traveller Education Services. It also offers a deeper insight into the complexities of engaging with families to inform other providers, practitioners and policy makers.
    • Handling difficulties in social, emotional and behaviour development

      Wearmouth, Janice; Cunningham, Laura; Cremin, Teresa; Burnett, Cathy; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2018-03-14)
      This chapter focuses on difficulties experienced by children who demonstrate features of social, emotional and behavioural problems in schools, and ways to minimise the incidence of problematic behaviour. Schools play a critical part in shaping a young child’s identity as a learner (Bruner, 1996). Use of the terms ‘emotional and behavioural difficulties’ (EBD) (Warnock, 1978), or ‘social, emotional and behavioural difficulties’ (SEBD), as a label for some students who behave inappropriately is not always helpful. Poulou and Norwich (2002: 112) conclude, from a review of international studies, that the more teachers think student behaviour stems from problems within those students, such the ‘child’s innate personality’, ‘the more [teachers] may experience feelings of “stress” and even “helplessness” ’, and the less they may feel able to cope with difficult behaviour. The new Teachers’ Standards for Qualified Teacher Status, introduced in England from September 2012 (DfE, 2013), require teachers to take responsibility for promoting good behaviour in classrooms and elsewhere, have high expectations and maintain good relationships with pupils. Teachers can minimise the possibility of poor behaviour in classrooms if they recognise that appropriate behaviour can be taught (Rogers, 2013). Children can learn to make conscious choices about behaviour, even where it is associated with a genetic or neurological condition (Wearmouth, Glynn and Berryman, 2005). The chapter aims to familiarise teachers-in-training with * frames of reference commonly used in schools to research and understand social, emotional and behavioural difficulties, and form the basis for effective responses; * a range of effective responses in relation to these frames of reference; * an understanding that learning environments that are designed to support children to engage with their learning will reduce the possibility of undesirable behaviour in the first place.
    • How the vision of a clinician and an educator brought the MA Dental Law and Ethics course to life.

      Wassif, Hoda; D'Cruz, L.; University of Bedfordshire; Dental Protection (Springer Nature, 2017-09-22)
      This paper reflects on an educational development that is Dental Law and Ethics course as the course approaches its 5th anniversary. The authors outline their personal journey into developing and delivering this course as well share best practice in relation to teaching and learning dental postgraduate students who may approach the subject in different ways. It also highlights the vision behind this provision and how it is received by dental practitioners. The paper shares the learners’ perception of topics such as ethics in comparison to law, and it highlights the perspective of both authors in teaching and following the students’ journey in this course.
    • Inclusion and democracy in England and Finland

      Butler, Cathal; Naukkarinen, Aimo (Routledge, 2016-09-29)
    • Interactive study of multimedia and virtual technology in art education

      Liu, Quan; Chen, Haiyan; Crabbe, M. James C. (International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 2021-01-16)
      Art education an important part of aesthetic education. It is indispensable for the comprehensive and healthy development of human beings. The basic task is to cultivate creative ability, human aesthetics, and appreciation. Art education is conducive to improving the humanistic cultivation of young students, enhancing the spiritual realm of human beings, and cultivating the creative ability of young people. It has irreplaceable social, cultural, and anthropological significance for promoting the comprehensive and healthy development of people. The development of multimedia information technology provides a new teaching method for art education and teaching in a contemporary setting. This teaching method can guide students to optimize or change the methods and concepts of traditional art creation and aesthetic value. However, traditional art education multimedia technology has poor teaching effects due to limited teaching conditions. This requires the use of multimedia technology and other technologies for interactive fusion. Therefore, this paper proposes an interactive fusion model of multimedia and virtual technology, which is verified by the model. It was found that this integrated education method could not only simulate the real environment and expand the cognitive scope of students, but also could promote students’ learning motivation as well as situational and authentic learning experiences.
    • Knowledge, the curriculum, and democratic education: the curious case of school English

      Belas, Oliver (SAGE Publications, 2019-05-17)
      Debate over subject curricula is apt to descend into internecine squabbles over which (whose?) curriculum is best. Especially so with school English, because its domain(s) of knowledge have commonly been misunderstood, or, perhaps, misrepresented in the government’s programmes of study. After brief consideration of democratic education (problems of its form and meaning), I turn to issues of knowledge and disciplinarity, outlining two conceptions of knowledge – the one constitutive and phenomenological, the other stipulative and social-realist. Drawing on Michael Young and Johan Muller, I argue that, by social-realist standards of objectivity, school English in England -- as currently framed in national curriculum documents -- falls short of the standards of ‘powerful knowledge’ and of a democratic education conceived as social justice. Having considered knowledge and disciplinarity in broad terms, I consider the curricular case of school English, for it seems to me that the curious position of English in our national curriculum has resulted in a model that is either weakly, perhaps even un-, rooted in the network of academic disciplines that make up English studies.
    • The magic of mentoring: developing others and yourself

      Thompson, Carol (Routledge, 2019-02-01)
      The Magic of Mentoring offers an introduction to the theory and practice of successful mentoring together with a unique focus on how mentors can reflect on the skills they bring to the role, and those they still need to develop. Through the use of scenarios, reflections and stories, the reader is encouraged to apply the content to a real context, demonstrating the importance of reflection for both parties and the benefits derived from this, especially those related to understanding ourselves and others.
    • Older and wiser? first year BDS graduate entry students and their views on using social media and professional practice

      Knott, PN; Wassif, Hoda; University of Bedfordshire; University of Central Lancashire (Springer Nature, 2018-08-31)
      The use of social media sites (SMS) has increased exponentially since their creation and introduction in the early 2000s. The number of regular users of SMS is estimated at over two billion people worldwide. Ethical and legal guidelines exert an additional responsibility on the behaviour of both graduate and undergraduate dentists when compared to members of the general public with some assumption that life experience can offer some insight into attitudes about online use of social media in relation to professional practice. Aim We set out to explore the views of the first year graduate entry programme students at the University of Central Lancashire and their use of SMS together with their opinions on what they consider to be professional online behaviour. Methods A mixed-methods approach was adopted with a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews which were designed to elicit the students’ opinions. Results For this group of students, 100% were using social media sites and some were aware of some of their limitations and possible impact on their careers. There was some rather superficial knowledge of what is and is not professional to post via social media, however, students were not fully aware about the legal and ethical guidelines in place in relation to the topic. Conclusion Results from this study present an opportunity and a challenge for educators to incorporate additional details not only about professionalism and ethical and legal aspects within the undergraduate curriculum but more specific emphasis on the use of social media as part of the undergraduate BDS course.
    • On tacit knowledge for philosophy of education

      Belas, Oliver (Springer, 2017-11-17)
      This article offers a detailed reading Gascoigne and Thornton’s book Tacit Knowledge (2013), which aims to account for the tacitness of tacit knowledge (TK) while preserving its status as knowledge proper. I take issue with their characterization and rejection of the existential-phenomenological Background—which they presuppose even as they dismiss—and their claim that TK can be articulated “from within”—which betrays a residual Cartesianism, the result of their elision of conceptuality and propositionality. Knowledgeable acts instantiate capacities which we might know we have and of which we can be aware, but which are not propositionally structured at their “core”. Nevertheless, propositionality is necessary to what Robert Brandom calls, in Making It Explicit (1994) and Articulating Reasons (2000), “explicitation”, which notion also presupposes a tacit dimension, which is, simply, the embodied person (the knower), without which no conception of knowledge can get any purchase. On my view, there is no knowledgeable act that can be understood as such separately from the notion of skilled corporeal performance. The account I offer cannot make sense of so-called “knowledge-based” education, as opposed to systems and styles which supposedly privilege “contentless” skills over and above “knowledge”, because on the phenomenological and inferentialist lines I endorse, neither the concepts “knowledge” nor “skill” has any purchase or meaning without the other.
    • The perfectionist call of intelligibility : secondary English, creative writing, and moral education

      Belas, Oliver (The Canadian Philosophy of Education Society, 2016-11-29)
      This article puts forward moral-philosophical arguments for re-building and re-thinking secondary-level (high-school equivalent) English studies around creative writing practices. I take it that when educators and policy makers talk about such entities as the “well-rounded learner,” what we have, or should have, in mind is moral agents whose capacities for moral dialogue, judgement, and discourse are increased as a result of their formal educational experiences. In its current form, secondary English is built mainly, though not exclusively, around reading assessment; around, that is, demonstration of students’ “comprehension” of texts. There is little or no sense that the tradition and practice of literary criticism upon which this type of assessment is based is a writerly tradition. By making writing practices central to what it is to do English in the secondary classroom, I argue that we stand a better chance at helping students develop their capacities for self-expression, for articulating their developing webs of belief and for scrutinizing those webs of belief. I thus wish to think about English and Creative Writing Studies in light of Cavell’s moral perfectionism, and to conceive of it as an arts-practical subject and a mode by which one might, in Baldacchino’s sense, undergo a process of “unlearning.” My arguments are tailored to the English educational context. 
    • Popular science, pragmatism, and conceptual clarity

      Belas, Oliver; University of Bedfordshire (Associazione Pragma, 2014-07-08)
    • Pupil, teacher and family voice in educational institutions: values, opinions, beliefs and perspectives

      Wearmouth, Janice; Goodwyn, Andrew (Routledge, 2019-03-31)
      In the current volume, the term ‘voice’ refers to the values, opinions, beliefs and perspectives of students, families, teachers and senior management of institutions in the education system. It also refers to the extent to which those values, opinions, beliefs, and perspectives are considered and included when important decisions are being made. We acknowledge that, while the concept of voice is given in the singular, the groups to which we give voice in this book are not intended to represent a unified body of beliefs, perspectives, and cultural values. Rhetoric associated with the concept of voice in education has grown increasingly popular in recent decades. This predicated on the belief that students will achieve more, that parents and families will feel more confidence in the institution, and that teachers will be more effective and professionally fulfilled if the senior management listen to, and act upon, the values, opinions and beliefs of the people community associated with it. However, rhetoric is not always the same as what is actually experienced in reality. This book has been designed to explore some of the tensions in this area of education.
    • Special educational needs and disabilities in schools : a critical introduction

      Wearmouth, Janice (Bloomsbury, 2017-06-01)
      This book has been designed as a key resource in supporting student teachers during and beyond their teaching training, as well as others interested in education, to begin to understand how, and to be able, to address the special educational, and/or additional support, needs of children and young people within schools and colleges. Legislation across the United Kingdom and in Northern Ireland has established the legal requirement to ensure the availability of provision for special educational needs, or additional support, needs and disabilities in schools and, as in England for the first time, in further education colleges. In England, for example, the Children and Families Act, introduced in September 2014, has strengthened and extended this legislation. Under the terms of Section 19(d) of Part 3 of this Act, simply to ensure that young people with special educational needs and disability (SEND) have access to an appropriate education is no longer sufficient. Instead, it specifies access that enables young people to ‘achieve the best possible’ educational and other outcomes. This reflects a new and higher level of outcome required by law. Codes of Practice to ensure that education law in this area is implemented in schools and colleges have been developed in each of the four countries. These Codes have the status of statutory guidance. Teachers in schools (and, in England, colleges) continue to be expected to provide effective learning opportunities for all their pupils, including those who have special educational needs and/or disabilities. Schools, colleges and other settings have clear duties under the statutory guidance of the Code that applies in their own geographical area. Current legislation promotes the inclusion of (almost) all young people in mainstream schools and colleges. However this often has to be implemented within a national context of school and college ‘improvement’ and competition and market-oriented practices where, in some (but not all!) places, young people who experience difficulties may not be welcomed. Such challenges are not necessarily insurmountable however and the book discusses the debates and dilemmas and offers practical suggestions to address these. It is essential that all involved understand what ‘having’ a special educational, or additional support, need or disability means for the young person and his/her family, and what addressing such needs and/or disabilities entails in schools.