• Gender differences and similarities in online courses: challenging stereotypical views of women

      Price, Linda; Open University (Wiley-Blackwell, 2006-09-05)
      This paper considers gender differences in online contexts and examines current trends in women's performance, access and experience of online courses. It uses supportive case study examples and specific research into student' academic engagement, conceptions and perceptions of learning support in online environments. The analysis shows that women studying online are confident independent learners who may outperform their male counterparts. They do not have reduced computer and Internet access compared with men, nor are they disinclined to enrol on online courses. They attach greater value to the pastoral aspect of tutoring and have different interaction styles from men, which may have implications for online tutoring support. The gender debate needs to move on from access and performance to the differences and similarities in the degree of importance that men and women place on different interaction and tutoring styles online.
    • Using interactive virtual field guides and linked data in geoscience teaching and learning

      Stott, Tim; Litherland, Kate; Carmichael, Patrick; Nuttall, Anne-Marie; Liverpool John Moores University (Springer, 2017-09-19)
      This chapter draws on experiences of designing, developing, using and evaluating web-based Virtual Field Guides (VFGs) for teaching geosciences at Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU).  The chapter briefly reviews the previous use of VFGs to support students’ learning by fieldwork, highlighting some perceived benefits.  VFGs are considered to supplement real fieldwork, but not to become a substitute for it.  We then outline the design considerations, development and evaluation by LJMU students of two VFGs: (1) the Ingleton Waterfalls Trail in Yorkshire developed for Foundation degree students; (2) a Virtual Alps VFG developed for level 2 undergraduates. The design and development of these VFGs was undertaken using different approaches and the advantages and disadvantages of these different approaches are discussed.  The Ingleton Waterfalls VFG was developed by a team comprising two academics, one technician and two IT specialists.  Based on the experiences of developing the Ingleton Waterfalls VFG, the Virtual Alps VFG, on the other hand, was developed by two academics, with limited support/input from IT specialists. The technological background against which VFGs are used has changed rapidly and continues to do so, with 'Web 2.0' innovations, 'open data' initiatives, and interest in how 'user generated content' can be used to complement and extend existing databases and online collections.  These developments have changed not only the practice of geoscientists in general: they also offer new possibilities for VFGs and the role they play in teaching and learning. The chapter reviews some of these developments, in particular, the emergence of a 'linked web of data' for the geosciences, and concludes with a description and discussion of a pilot VFG which employs 'linked data' and 'semantic web' approaches to allow students to access diverse web based resources, to explore the relations between them, and to then draw on these in the course of more authentic assessment activities than has hitherto been the case.  The chapter concludes with a discussion of how the development of VFGs and their associated technologies might produce a shift in their use from being visual representation tools towards the use of them to develop skills necessary in practice, thus assimilating online tools into an expanding and evolving set of discourses and practices, rather than replacing or causing the loss of traditional disciplinary skills.