• Achieving improved quality and validity: reframing research and evaluation of learning technologies

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda (European Distance and E Learning Network, 2015-01-01)
      A critical reading of research literature relating to teaching and learning with technology for open, distance and blended education reveals a number of shortcomings in how investigations are conceptualised, conducted and reported. Projects often lack clarity about the nature of the enhancement that technology is intended to bring about. Frequently there is no explicit discussion of assumptions and beliefs that underpin research studies and the approaches used to investigate the educational impact of technologies. This presentation summarises a number of the weaknesses identified in published studies and considers the implications. Some ways in which these limitations could be avoided through a more rigorous approach to undertaking research and evaluation studies are then outlined and discussed.
    • Assessment & outcomes based education handbook

      Butler, Cathal; University of Prishtina; University of Bedfordshire (University of Prishtina, 2018-02-21)
      A guidance document produced as part of the TEMPUS project Modernizing Teacher Education at the University of Prishtina
    • Assessment and student learning : a fundamental relationship and the role of information and communication technologies

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2008-02-18)
      This paper reviews the role of assessment in student learning and its relationship with the use of information and communication technologies (ICT). There is ample evidence of technology-led innovations failing to achieve the transformations expected by educators. We draw upon existing research to illustrate the links between aspects of student learning, assessment practices and the use of ICT. Assessment influences not only what parts of a course get studied, but also how those parts are studied. While the adoption of ICT does not, in itself, change student behaviours, appropriately designed assessment that exploits the potential of ICT can change students? approaches to learning. We argue that ICT can enable important learning outcomes to be achieved, but these must be underpinned by an assessment strategy that cues students to adopt a suitable approach to learning.
    • Becoming a home-educator in a networked world: towards the democratisation of education alternatives?

      Fensham-Smith, Amber; University of Bedfordshire (Other Business, 2019-06-09)
      The internet is assumed to play a special role in UK home-education and has apparently fuelled an increase its prevalence. This paper reports the place and purpose of the internet, online networks and offline communities in the decision to home-educate amongst parents in England, Scotland and Wales. The research formed part of a mixed-method doctoral study that included: an online survey of 242 home-educators; 52 individual and group interviews with 85 parents, children and young people and a week-long participant observation with families. The sample included a range of both ‘new’ and ‘experienced’ home-educators. The findings show that online and offline networking helped prospective parents to learn of home-education as a viable and positive alternative to schooled provision. For parents, socialising with existing home-educators was pivotal for cultivating a sense of identity, belonging and commitment to an education without school. At the same time, becoming a legitimate home-educator was a complex achievement; hinged upon social and economic resources and cultural competencies. Evidence of exclusionary practices among home-educators both online and offline, challenges the extent to which home-education is truly more ‘open’ now than it once was. In the decision to home-educate, it is concluded that the democratising potential of the internet points to ‘old wine in new bottles’.
    • Culturally responsive approaches to challenging behaviour of minority ethnic students

      Wearmouth, Janice; Berryman, Mere; Glynn, Ted (Routledge, 2018-07-02)
      Different ways of conceptualizing the human mind, the development of learning and how learning and behaviour are interrelated lead to different approaches for dealing with issues schools have in relation to behaviour experienced as challenging or otherwise difficult. As Bruner (1996) notes, there are two ‘strikingly different’ ways of thinking about how the mind works. One of these is to conceptualize the mind in cognitive terms, as operating like a computer in processing the information it receives. Here, however, we are concerned with the second conceptualization, what Bruner terms ‘culturalism’, which has rather different implications for addressing behavioural issues. ‘Culturalism’ assumes that the development of the human mind depends on its evolution within a society in which the ‘reality’ of individual experience is represented through a shared symbolism, for example verbal or written language, where the community’s way of life is organized and understood. The cultural context in which a child is reared shapes his or her thinking and provides tools, a ‘cultural toolkit’ (Bruner, 1996) for organizing meaning in ways that can be communicated to others. In Bruner’s view, meaning-making is situated in a cultural context as well as in the prior conceptions that learners bring with them into new situations from other contexts. New learning is a product of the ‘interplay’ between them. To understand and respond appropriately to challenging behaviour at school requires us to understand the cultural contexts of both home and school. In this chapter we examine some of the evidence related to the relative under-achievement, disaffection and exclusion from the education system of students from particular minority ethnic groups and investigate a number of theories that attempt to explain these phenomena. We go on to use the communities of practice framework (Wenger, 1998; Wenger,McDermott & Snyder, 2002) to examine how drawing on community values and individuals’ responsibilities within communities can enable movement from retribution to a focus on ‘putting things right’ between all those involved or affected by wrong-doing. The particular examples given here are from Aotearoa New Zealand and relate to restorative practices influenced by traditional Māori cultural values and preferred responses to wrongdoing. The process associated with hui whakatika (hui: meeting; whakatika: to put things right) emphasizes restoration of harmony between the individual, the victim and the collective (Berryman & McFarlane, in press; Wearmouth et al, 2007a, 2007b). 
    • Democracy and the curriculum: English and Finnish Perspectives

      Hopkins, Neil; Tarnenen, Mirja (Routledge, 2016-09-29)
    • The democratic curriculum: concept and practice

      Hopkins, Neil; University of Bedfordshire (Wiley Blackwell, 2014-06-20)
      Dewey continues to offer arguments that remain powerful on the need to break down the divisions between ‘academic’ and ‘vocational’ in terms of his specific theory of knowledge. Dewey's writings are used to argue that a democratic curriculum needs to challenge such divisions to encompass the many forms of knowledge necessary in the contemporary classroom. Gandin and Apple's investigation of community participation (Orçamento Participativo or Participatory Budgeting) in the curriculum of the Citizen School in Porto Alegre, Brazil, will be explored as an example of democratic structures informing educational planning. The work of Paul Hirst, Atli Harđarson and Chris Jane Brough is analysed regarding the issue of curriculum aims and student negotiation. Dewey's emphasis on learning as a collective enterprise will resonate here. Brough offers innovative research on student-centred curriculum integration that suggests even very young children are able to participate in debate over their own learning. Hirst and Harđarson provide contrasting views on the issue of curriculum aims—Hirst arguing that a curriculum cannot exist without definable aims while Harđarson challenges the very notion of settled aims if students are to be reflexive regarding their education. The article also refers to the work of Alexander on the use of dialogic questioning in the classroom. Such questioning, it is suggested, enhances and encourages collaborative forms of enquiry necessary for a democratic curriculum through discussion between teachers, students and other stakeholders.
    • Developing the capacity to recognise the capabilities of pupils with PMLD, to promote learning opportunities and to reduce isolation

      Butler, Cathal; University of Bedfordshire (Harpur Trust, 2018-09-12)
      This research focused on exploring whether Quest for Learning materials, developed originally in Northern Ireland, could be used as a basis for understanding the capacities of learners with Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties in a Special School in England. This research is occurring at an opportune time as the results of a recent government report, the Rochford Review on statutory assessment arrangements for learners operating below the standard of the national curriculum has provided an impetus to explore alternatives to the P-Scales, which have been used to report on the progress of these learners. The Quest for Learning Materials offer an opportunity to potentially work towards a broader range of more relevant learning goals for learners, and identify and celebrate the capacities and progress that these learners can make in educational settings. The research, was conducted in a class catering for learners with Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties. Video recordings were made of regular activities with 5 learners in the classroom, to assess whether the 43 milestones detailed in Quest for Learning could be meaningfully used to explore the capacities of these learners. Over 40 videos of each learner, recorded across an entire school year, were coded by the researcher. A subset of 10 videos for each learner was also independently coded by a member of staff in the School. Findings indicated that a variety of Milestones could be identified for each learner, with individual profiles emerging that showed the capacities of learners. A comparison of the coding between the researcher and the member of staff demonstrated a high degree of inter-rater reliability. These findings provide clear evidence that the Quest for Learning materials could be a useful tool to use for schools to address the recommendations from the Rochford review.
    • Dewey and the democratic curriculum

      Hopkins, Neil (Emerald Publishing, 2018-05-14)
      This paper uses Dewey’s seminal Democracy and Education (1916) as a key text to investigate the concept of the democratic curriculum. I argue that a democratic curriculum is one where a series of educational innovations or procedures are followed. These are: a removal of the exisiting division between ‘academic’ and ‘vocational’ education; pedagogy in the form of discussion and dialogue; negotiation of curriculum aims and objectives with students and other local stakeholders. The focus of attention will be on the English school curriculum (both primary and secondary), especially concerning the National Curriculum, and the debate over ‘standards’ and testing . A tentative link between the democratic curriculum and increased student motivation and participation is made.
    • Dewey, Democracy and Education and the school curriculum

      Hopkins, Neil; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2018-03-04)
      This paper will investigate Dewey’s Democracy and Educationin relation to the curriculum. There are two overarching themes to the paper: the concept of the democratic curriculum and the academic/vocational divide. Dewey is seen as a pivotal thinker in relation to collaborative learning and the child as a vital voice in any learning that takes place in the classroom and beyond. The paper explores whether issues such as school governance and pupil voice facilitate Dewey’s notion of democratic education. Alongide this is the issue of the academic/vocational divide within English education. Acknowledgement will be made of Dewey’s theory of knowledge which emphasises the connection between concept and application and how this can influence the incorporation of the theoretical and the practical as part of children’s learning in a given curriculum.
    • Distance education over the Internet

      Thomas, Pete; Price, Linda; Petre, Marian; Poniatowska, Barbara; Price, Blain; Emms, Judy (1996-07-01)
    • Education for democratic citizenship in Ireland

      Butler, Cathal (Taylor and Francis, 2019-12-17)
      This chapter explores the complex historical, political and religious context that frame discussions around citizenship and democracy within education in Ireland, as an independent nation, and as a member of the European Union. What it means to be a citizen in Ireland will be explored.The focus is primarily on the Republic of Ireland, though issues that arise in Northern Ireland will also be covered. The chapter will focus on curriculum subject areas that touch on citizenship and democracy, past and present. The extent to which policy and practice can map onto the key concepts set out in the Council of Europe's framework of competences for democratic culture will be explored, with a specific focus on the extent to which teachers are trained to be able to teach these subjects.
    • Effective SENCO : meeting the challenge

      Wearmouth, Janice (McGraw-Hill Education, 2015-06-18)
      The co-ordination of special educational provision in schools is multi-faceted and challenging. New legislation in England, the Children and Families Act, introduced in September 2014, strengthens and extends the legal requirement to ensure the availability and effective co-ordination of high quality provision for special needs and disabilities (SEND) in schools and, for the first time, in further education colleges. The Special Educational Needs and Disability Code of Practice 0–25 years (DfE, 2014a) is an overt component of central government policy in the area of special educational needs with its status of statutory guidance. Teachers in schools and colleges continue to be expected to provide effective learning opportunities for all their pupils, including those who have special educational needs and disabilities. Schools, colleges and other settings have clear duties under the statutory guidance of the new Code and must ‘have regard’ to its contents. They should do what it says or be able to explain why they have not done so and explain the alternative provision that has been made. It is no longer sufficient, however, simply to ensure that young people with SEND have access to an appropriate education. Instead, Section 19(d) of Part 3 of the 2014 Children and Families Act specifies access that enables young people to ‘achieve the best possible’ educational and other outcomes. This reflects a new and higher level of outcome required by law. Effective co-ordination of SEND provision therefore continues to be high priority for senior management teams, governors, parents and politicians. School governors also have particular responsibilities towards young people with SEND in schools. Section 66 of the 2014 Act contains a key duty on the governing body of a school – and this includes the proprietors or management committee where relevant – to use their ‘best endeavours’ to secure special educational provision for all children or young people for whom they are responsible. It is essential that all involved understand what ‘having’ a special educational need or disability means for the young person and his or her family, and what addressing such needs and disabilities entails in schools. At the same time the requirement for all new special educational needs and disability co-ordinators (SENCOs) to take the National Award for SEN Co-ordination (NASC) has remained in place. Included in the new learning outcomes of the NASC which have been revised in light of the recent amendments to the law is a revision of what is required in terms of professional knowledge and understanding for the SENCO role. This book was therefore designed as an accessible, well-theorised and practical resource to help new and experienced SENCOs and those in training to carry out their duties in supporting the development and improvement of SEND provision from a thoughtful and confident position that is very well informed in current legislation, practice, theory and critical understanding of the issues in the field. It therefore provides a well-balanced and accessible overview of the following: * the new (2014) legislation related to SEND provision and the new SEND Code of Practice and the implications for schools and colleges, and the role of the SENCO in particular; * key challenges of the SENCO role, as identified by experienced, effective, practising SENCOs, and how these might be addressed; * what SENCOs really need to know and what they can and should do in order to co-ordinate provision for SEND properly and effectively. It also comprehensively covers the (2014) learning outcomes of the National Award for Special Educational Needs Co-ordination. Current legislation promotes the inclusion of (almost) all young people in mainstream schools and colleges. However, this has to be implemented within a national context of school and college ‘improvement’ and competition and market-oriented practices where young people with SEND may not be able to contribute positively to a school’s position on league tables of achievement. Such challenges are not necessarily insurmountable, however, and the book discusses the debates and dilemmas and offers practical suggestions to address these.
    • Employing culturally responsive pedagogy to foster literacy learning in schools

      Wearmouth, Janice (Taylor & Francis, 2017-03-16)
       In recent years it has become increasingly obvious that, to enable students in schools from an increasingly diverse range of cultural backgrounds to acquire literacy to a standard that will support them to achieve academically, it is important to adopt pedagogy that is responsive to, and respectful of, them as culturally situated. What largely has been omitted from the literature, however, is discussion of a relevant model of learning to underpin this approach. For this reason this paper adopts a socio-cultural lens (Vygotsky, 1978) through which to view such pedagogy and refers to a number of seminal texts to justify of its relevance. Use of this lens is seen as having a particular rationale. It forces a focus on the agency of the teacher as a mediator of learning who needs to acknowledge the learner’s cultural situatedness (Kozulin, 2003) if school literacy learning for all students is to be as successful as it might be. It also focuses attention on the predominant value systems and social practices that characterize the school settings in which students’ literacy learning is acquired. The paper discusses implications for policy and practice at whole-school, classroom and individual student levels of culturally-responsive pedagogy that is based on a socio-cultural model of learning. In doing so it draws on illustrations from the work of a number of researchers, including that of the author.
    • Enhancing learning and teaching through technology: a table of resources for academics

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian; Higher Education Academy (Higher Education Academy, 2011-01-01)
      This is a resource that provides a listing of studies that have been reviewed that may be of use to HE practitioners interested in using technology in their learning and teaching activities. The studies have been examined in relation to an evidence-based approach as reported in the studies. A framework has been used to report the studies and interpret variations between them. The resources are listed by media types to help orient readers.
    • Freedom as non-domination, standards and the negotiated curriculum

      Hopkins, Neil; University of Bedfordshire (Wiley Blackwell, 2015-03-18)
      This article investigates the application of Philip Pettit's concept of freedom as non-domination to the issues of educational standards and the negotiated curriculum. The article will argue that freedom as non-domination (and the connected concept of debating contestations as part of a legitimate democratic state) shines a critical light on governmental practice in England over the past two decades. Joshua Cohen's proposal of an ideal deliberative procedure is offered as a potential mechanism for the facilitation of debating contestations between stakeholders over the curriculum. Cohen places particular importance on the participants being ‘formally and substantively equal’ in the proceedings and being able to ‘recognize one another as having deliberative capacities’. It will be argued that formal and substantive equality between children and responsible adults is highly problematic due to the ‘considerable interference’ (Pettit) teachers and adults have to make in children's lives. However, the article does offer examples of children's deliberative capacities on the issue of the curriculum (in response to Cohen).
    • Gypsy and traveller education: engaging families - a research report

      Fensham-Smith, Amber; Welsh Government (Welsh Government Social Research, 2014-11-25)
      The research aimed to identify what works in engaging Gypsy and Traveller families in education with a specific focus on attainment, attendance, transition and retention. The research provides an account of good practice by drawing on the experiences of Traveller Education Service (TES) workers. It draws upon literature, a survey of Local Authorities and in-depth interviews with staff working in Traveller Education Services. It also offers a deeper insight into the complexities of engaging with families to inform other providers, practitioners and policy makers.
    • Improving quality and validity in research and evaluation studies of learning technologies

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda (IATED Academy, 2014-01-01)
      A critical reading of research literature relating to teaching and learning with technology in higher education reveals a number of shortcomings in how investigations are conceptualised, conducted and reported. Projects often lack clarity about the nature of the enhancement that technology is intended to bring about. Frequently there is no explicit discussion of assumptions and beliefs that underpin research studies and the approaches used to investigate the educational impact of technologies. This presentation summarises a number of the weaknesses identified in published studies and considers the implications. Some ways in which these limitations could be avoided through a more rigorous approach to undertaking research and evaluation studies are then outlined and discussed.
    • Inclusion and democracy in England and Finland

      Butler, Cathal; Naukkarinen, Aimo (Routledge, 2016-09-29)
    • ‘I’d worry about how to teach it’: British values in English classrooms

      Maylor, Uvanney (Routledge, 2016-05-25)
      What is meant by fundamental British values? How are they constructed and can they be taught in schools? In trying to address these questions, this paper revisits a small-scale research study commissioned by the UK’s previous New Labour government. The research was concerned to understand the extent to which schools delivered a diverse curriculum (reflecting the composition of Britain as an ethnically diverse society) as well as teacher and student conceptions of British values and contentions of shared British identities which could be explored in schools as part of the secondary citizenship curriculum. Drawing on interviews with teachers and head teachers in six case study schools across England, this paper examines school and government conceptions of shared ‘British’ values. It explores how current government promotion of British values is embedded in sociopolitical historical contexts in Britain. Using social construction theory, the paper aims to challenge conceptions of British values being shared by teachers. The paper examines the implications of this for initial teacher education given that qualifying teachers standards require teachers not to undermine British values, yet some teachers do not buy into contentions of British values, and consequently worry about how to teach them. The teacher discourses highlighted also present challenges for teacher education in developing teacher understanding and practice, especially where student teachers bring uninformed views about particular ethnic groups to the classroom.