• Approaches to studying and perceptions of the academic environment among university students in China

      Price, Linda; Richardson, John T.E.; Robinson, Bernadette; Ding, Xia; Sun, Xiaoling; Han, Cuiling; Open University (Routledge, 2011-06-24)
      It has been claimed that students from 'Confucian-heritage' cultures approach studying in higher education differently from Western students. This study investigated the experiences and the approaches to studying of students at a university in China. A total of 356 students completed both the Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) and the Revised Approaches to Studying Inventory (RASI). Their responses to the CEQ yielded two factors concerned with student support and course demands. Their responses to the RASI yielded two factors: a deep/strategic approach and a surface approach. Students who rated their courses positively in terms of student support were more likely to adopt a deep/strategic approach. Students who rated their courses positively in terms of course demands were less likely to adopt a surface approach. In broad terms, the students' perceptions and approaches to studying were similar to those of Western students, though with some specific differences. The findings add to the literature on Chinese students' approaches to learning and also have practical implications for teachers seeking to promote more desirable forms of studying in their students.
    • Busting the myth of gender bias: views from men and women primary-school trainees and teachers

      Mistry, Malini Tina; Sood, Krishan; University of Bedfordshire; Nottingham Trent University (Routledge, 2014-06-01)
      We explore the ideology associated with gender equality that despite primary schools and initial teacher education (ITE) institutions doing all they can to recruit men into primary education, a huge gender imbalance still exists. We frame our study around the notions of gender equality and professional responsibility. Using a multi-case study approach, this inquiry examined views of men and women from 12 English primary schools and one ITE institution regarding the cause and effect of gender bias. Findings show a differentially large gender gap in the sample schools and that there is good practice where schools are successful in attracting and retaining men teachers. Implications of these findings suggest that leaders in primary schools need to take a more active role to help change and shape the perceptions of men teachers in education. We conclude that leaders also need to help close the teacher gender gap in schools and ITE institutions through collaborative dialogue.
    • Constructing the university student in British documentary television

      Calver, Kay; Michael-Fox, Bethan (Routledge, 2021-03-18)
      As the number of university students in Britain has expanded so has public interest in them, expressed across a range of media. This chapter investigates how university students are conceptualised and represented in recent British documentary television. Conceiving of television as a space in which people experience and engage with complex social understandings, this chapter explores how these televisual representations reflect and negotiate a range of prominent socio-cultural concerns about students. We examine how excessive, distorted and caricatured notions of the student have led to representations that are often polarised, with students positioned as either ‘at risk’ and in need of protection or as posing ‘a risk’ to themselves, to other students, and to the university sector. In a context of shifting understandings about university students in Britain and when the expansion, cost, ‘worth’ and ‘value’ of higher education are all under scrutiny, this chapter analyses the ways in which media representations can both serve to highlight and evade the complex lived realities of university students. The documentaries examined here offer sometimes contradictory constructions of the higher education student that correspond to broader social and cultural shifts in the ways in which the university student is understood in contemporary Britain.
    • Culturally responsive approaches to challenging behaviour of minority ethnic students

      Wearmouth, Janice; Berryman, Mere; Glynn, Ted (Routledge, 2018-07-02)
      Different ways of conceptualizing the human mind, the development of learning and how learning and behaviour are interrelated lead to different approaches for dealing with issues schools have in relation to behaviour experienced as challenging or otherwise difficult. As Bruner (1996) notes, there are two ‘strikingly different’ ways of thinking about how the mind works. One of these is to conceptualize the mind in cognitive terms, as operating like a computer in processing the information it receives. Here, however, we are concerned with the second conceptualization, what Bruner terms ‘culturalism’, which has rather different implications for addressing behavioural issues. ‘Culturalism’ assumes that the development of the human mind depends on its evolution within a society in which the ‘reality’ of individual experience is represented through a shared symbolism, for example verbal or written language, where the community’s way of life is organized and understood. The cultural context in which a child is reared shapes his or her thinking and provides tools, a ‘cultural toolkit’ (Bruner, 1996) for organizing meaning in ways that can be communicated to others. In Bruner’s view, meaning-making is situated in a cultural context as well as in the prior conceptions that learners bring with them into new situations from other contexts. New learning is a product of the ‘interplay’ between them. To understand and respond appropriately to challenging behaviour at school requires us to understand the cultural contexts of both home and school. In this chapter we examine some of the evidence related to the relative under-achievement, disaffection and exclusion from the education system of students from particular minority ethnic groups and investigate a number of theories that attempt to explain these phenomena. We go on to use the communities of practice framework (Wenger, 1998; Wenger,McDermott & Snyder, 2002) to examine how drawing on community values and individuals’ responsibilities within communities can enable movement from retribution to a focus on ‘putting things right’ between all those involved or affected by wrong-doing. The particular examples given here are from Aotearoa New Zealand and relate to restorative practices influenced by traditional Māori cultural values and preferred responses to wrongdoing. The process associated with hui whakatika (hui: meeting; whakatika: to put things right) emphasizes restoration of harmony between the individual, the victim and the collective (Berryman & McFarlane, in press; Wearmouth et al, 2007a, 2007b). 
    • Democracy and the curriculum: English and Finnish Perspectives

      Hopkins, Neil; Tarnenen, Mirja (Routledge, 2016-09-29)
    • Evaluating and assessing student oral presentations: a limited but effective role for employers in the geography curriculum

      Church, Andrew; Bull, Paul (Routledge, 1995-05-01)
      Employers were involved in assessing students’ presentations, giving feedback and in the development of staff skills for providing feedback. The curriculum context to the oral presentations is described and the problems and benefits of employer involvement are considered. It is argued that it is possible to develop an effective small‐scale approach to employer involvement as an alternative to major schemes.
    • Face-to-face versus online tutoring support in distance education

      Price, Linda; Richardson, John T.E.; Jelfs, Anne; Open University (Routledge, 2007-02-14)
      The experiences of students taking the same course by distance learning were compared when tutorial support was provided conventionally (using limited face-to-face sessions with some contact by telephone and email) or online (using a combination of computer-mediated conferencing and email). Study 1 was a quantitative survey using an adapted version of the Course Experience Questionnaire and the Revised Approaches to Studying Inventory. Study 2 was another quantitative survey using the Academic Engagement Form. Study 3 was an interview-based examination of the students? conceptions of tutoring and tuition. In all three studies, the students receiving online tuition reported poorer experiences than those receiving face-to-face tuition. Study 3 showed that tutoring was seen not only as an academic activity but also as a highly valued pastoral activity. To make online tuition successful both tutors and students need training in how to communicate online in the absence of paralinguistic cues.
    • Facilitating agency: the change laboratory as an intervention for collaborative sustainable development in higher education

      Englund, Claire; Price, Linda (Routledge, 2018-06-06)
      To cope with the rapidly changing higher education climate, teachers need agency to act proactively in initiating and steering changes in practice. This paper describes an academic development activity in the form of a Change Laboratory, an intervention method based on Cultural-Historical Activity Theory, to facilitate agency among teachers. The results of the study indicate that transformative agency emerges when teachers are given the opportunity to analyse, envision, and redesign their practice collaboratively. This has implications for academic development, suggesting that activities facilitating discussion, analysis, and criticism of current practices are needed to support the development of agency.
    • ‘Give ‘em the old razzle dazzle’: surviving the lesson observation process in further education

      Thompson, Carol; Wolstencroft, Peter; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2014-07-07)
      This paper examines the key role that graded lesson observations have within the measurement of quality in the post-compulsory education sector. Using semi-structured interviews, it looks at their impact on participants and also their execution in light of their stated purpose to ‘improve teaching and learning’. The sample selected included teachers, quality managers and initial teacher educators and covers a geographical spread from the north Midlands to London. The findings suggest that the lessons observed bore scant resemblance to the day-to-day teaching of participants. Instead teachers talked of the need to ‘put on a show’ and how they treated the annual observation with a mixture of trepidation and cynicism. The realisation that observations failed to measure what they were designed to measure was shared by other participants with quality managers, ostensibly the people who were employed to raise standards, also acknowledging the limitations of the process. The observation process was designed to reward outstanding practitioners, however, teachers talked about their reluctance to strive for outstanding grades due to the perceived onerous duties associated with achieving a top grade. Instead teachers talked about the way in which they aimed for a grade two in order to maintain a low profile. Despite the widespread cynicism amongst all participants, there was a universal belief that some form of measurement was needed to ensure that standards were maintained.
    • Handling difficulties in social, emotional and behaviour development

      Wearmouth, Janice; Cunningham, Laura; Cremin, Teresa; Burnett, Cathy; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2018-03-14)
      This chapter focuses on difficulties experienced by children who demonstrate features of social, emotional and behavioural problems in schools, and ways to minimise the incidence of problematic behaviour. Schools play a critical part in shaping a young child’s identity as a learner (Bruner, 1996). Use of the terms ‘emotional and behavioural difficulties’ (EBD) (Warnock, 1978), or ‘social, emotional and behavioural difficulties’ (SEBD), as a label for some students who behave inappropriately is not always helpful. Poulou and Norwich (2002: 112) conclude, from a review of international studies, that the more teachers think student behaviour stems from problems within those students, such the ‘child’s innate personality’, ‘the more [teachers] may experience feelings of “stress” and even “helplessness” ’, and the less they may feel able to cope with difficult behaviour. The new Teachers’ Standards for Qualified Teacher Status, introduced in England from September 2012 (DfE, 2013), require teachers to take responsibility for promoting good behaviour in classrooms and elsewhere, have high expectations and maintain good relationships with pupils. Teachers can minimise the possibility of poor behaviour in classrooms if they recognise that appropriate behaviour can be taught (Rogers, 2013). Children can learn to make conscious choices about behaviour, even where it is associated with a genetic or neurological condition (Wearmouth, Glynn and Berryman, 2005). The chapter aims to familiarise teachers-in-training with * frames of reference commonly used in schools to research and understand social, emotional and behavioural difficulties, and form the basis for effective responses; * a range of effective responses in relation to these frames of reference; * an understanding that learning environments that are designed to support children to engage with their learning will reduce the possibility of undesirable behaviour in the first place.
    • Identity formation among novice academic teachers–a longitudinal study

      McLean, Neil; Price, Linda (Routledge, 2017-12-03)
      This study reports findings from an in-depth, longitudinal investigation of the formation of 13 novice tutors’ professional identities as academic teachers. The study spanned tutors’ first two years in-service, while they were also participating in a teacher development course. Discourse was analysed across 65 time-series coursework texts, completed as part of the tutors’ reflection on their teaching practice. The analysis captured the use of explicit identity positioning cues by tutors across the texts. Four discreet identity positions were catalogued: academic insider, class teacher, teaching course participant and young academic. The study illustrates how these tutors developed more complex identity narratives with enriched coherence over time as they reported negotiating challenges and dissonance between initial expectations and actual teaching experiences. This finding offers explanatory support for previous research regarding the value of longer term teacher development programmes and illuminates existing theoretical models with practitioner perspectives.
    • Inclusion and democracy in England and Finland

      Butler, Cathal; Naukkarinen, Aimo (Routledge, 2016-09-29)
    • Informed design of educational technology for teaching and learning? Towards an evidence-informed model of good practice

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian; Open University (Routledge, 2014-08-11)
      The aim of this paper is to model evidence-informed design based on a selective critical analysis of research articles. We draw upon findings from an investigation into practitioners? use of educational technologies to synthesise and model what informs their designs. We found that practitioners? designs were often driven by implicit assumptions about learning. These shaped both the design of interventions and the methods sought to derive evaluations and interpret the findings. We argue that interventions need to be grounded in better and explicit conceptualisations of what constitutes learning in order to have well-informed designs that focus on improving the quality of student learning.
    • ‘I’d worry about how to teach it’: British values in English classrooms

      Maylor, Uvanney (Routledge, 2016-05-25)
      What is meant by fundamental British values? How are they constructed and can they be taught in schools? In trying to address these questions, this paper revisits a small-scale research study commissioned by the UK’s previous New Labour government. The research was concerned to understand the extent to which schools delivered a diverse curriculum (reflecting the composition of Britain as an ethnically diverse society) as well as teacher and student conceptions of British values and contentions of shared British identities which could be explored in schools as part of the secondary citizenship curriculum. Drawing on interviews with teachers and head teachers in six case study schools across England, this paper examines school and government conceptions of shared ‘British’ values. It explores how current government promotion of British values is embedded in sociopolitical historical contexts in Britain. Using social construction theory, the paper aims to challenge conceptions of British values being shared by teachers. The paper examines the implications of this for initial teacher education given that qualifying teachers standards require teachers not to undermine British values, yet some teachers do not buy into contentions of British values, and consequently worry about how to teach them. The teacher discourses highlighted also present challenges for teacher education in developing teacher understanding and practice, especially where student teachers bring uninformed views about particular ethnic groups to the classroom.
    • Laying the foundations for physical literacy in Wales: the contribution of the Foundation Phase to the development of physical literacy

      Wainwright, Nalda; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Whitehead, Margaret; Williams, Andy; Kirk, David (Routledge, 2018-03-27)
      Background: The Foundation Phase in Wales is a play-based curriculum for pupils aged 3–7 years old. Children learn through more holistic areas of learning in place of traditional subjects. As such, the subject of physical education in its traditional form no longer exists for pupils under the age of 7 in Wales. In light of the role of physical education in developing physical literacy and in particular the importance of this age group for laying the foundations of movement for lifelong engagement in physical activity, the disappearance of physical education from the curriculum could be deemed to be a concern. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the Foundation Phase as a naturalistic intervention and examine its contribution to the development of physical literacy. Participants and setting: Participants included year 1 pupils (N = 49) aged 5 and 6 from two schools in contrasting locations. A smaller group within each class was selected through purposive sampling for the repeated measures assessments (N = 18). Research design and methods: A complementarity mixed-method design combined quantitative and qualitative methods to study the Foundation Phase as a naturalistic intervention. Quantitative data were generated with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 administered to the sample group of children from both schools as a quasi-repeated measure, the physical competence subscale of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance and the Leuven Involvement Scale for Young Children. Qualitative data were generated throughout the study from the analysis of video and field notes through participant observation. Data from the mixed methods were analysed through complementarity to give a rich insight into pupils’ progress and experiences in relation to physical literacy. Results: Overall analysis of the data from TGMD-2 showed significant improvements in the Gross Motor Quotient and Locomotor skills from T1 to T3, but no significant improvement in object control. Data from qualitative methods were analysed to explore processes that may account for these findings. Video and field notes complement the quantitative data highlighting that children were developing their locomotor skills in many aspects of their learning. Observations using the Leuven Involvement Scale indicated that children had high levels of involvement in their learning and apparent in video and field notes was pupils’ motivation for movement. Paired sample t-tests (N = 18) conducted on the Harter and Pike perceived physical competence six-item score subscales (T1 and T3) indicated a significant difference in the mean perceived physical competence scores on the six-item scale between T1and T3. Qualitative data explored pupils’ confidence for movement in many areas of learning. Conclusion: The combination of quantitative and qualitative data indicates that the Foundation Phase is an early childhood curriculum that lays the foundations of physical literacy with the exception of aspects of the physical competence, specifically object control skills. Although these skills only contribute to psychomotor aspects of physical literacy they are strongly associated with later engagement in physical activity. The development of specific physical skills such as object control skills may need more specialist input with early childhood pedagogy teachers trained in motor development to see significant improvements.
    • Learners and learning in the twenty first century: what do we know about students' attitudes towards and experiences of information and communication technologies that will help us design courses?

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Open University (Routledge, 2005-01-01)
      This article reports on issues relevant for teachers and instructional designers anticipating using information and communication technologies (ICTs) in higher education, particularly those wishing to adopt a flexible learning approach aimed at improving the quality of the student experience. The data that are reported on span more than five years, and have been gathered from a range of large quantitative postal surveys and smaller qualitative surveys, with total respondents numbering around 80,000. The large-scale surveys cover annual course reviews, computer access, students? use of media, access to media technologies and ICT access and use. The smaller qualitative studies include students? use of CD-ROMs and online tuition. This article describes the students? backgrounds and how this can affect their studies. It discusses students? access to media technologies and what their perceptions of media are in the context of independent learning. The conclusion is that, although ICTs can enable new forms of teaching and learning to take place, they cannot ensure that effective and appropriate learning outcomes are achieved. It is not technologies, but educational purposes and pedagogy, that must provide the lead, with students understanding not only how to work with ICTs, but why it is of benefit for them to do so. Knowing about students? use of media as well as their attitudes and experiences can help teachers and instructional designers develop better courses.
    • Learning to teach physical education in the secondary school: a companion to school experience

      Capel, Susan; Whitehead, Margaret (Routledge, 2010-09-13)
      What skills are required of secondary student physical education teachers? What are the key areas that these student teachers need to understand? How can current challenges be addressed by these student teachers? Learning to Teach Physical Education in the Secondary School combines underpinning theory and knowledge with suggestions for practical application to support student physical education teachers in learning to teach. Based on research evidence, theory and knowledge relating to teaching and learning and written specifically with the student teacher in mind, the authors examine physical education in context. The book offers tasks and case studies designed to support student teachers in their school-based experiences and encourages reflection on practice and development. Masters level tasks and suggestions for further reading have been included throughout to support researching and writing about topics in more depth. This fully-updated third edition has been thoroughly revised to take into account changes in policy and practice within both initial teacher education and the National Curriculum for Physical Education. The book also contains a brand new chapter on the role of reflective teaching in developing expertise and improving the quality of pupil learning. Other key topics covered include; lesson planning, organisation and management; observation in physical education; developing and maintaining an effective learning environment; inclusive physical education; assessment; developing wider community links; using ICT to support teaching and learning in physical education. Learning to Teach Physical Education in the Secondary School is an invaluable resource for student physical education teachers.
    • The magic of mentoring: developing others and yourself

      Thompson, Carol (Routledge, 2019-02-01)
      The Magic of Mentoring offers an introduction to the theory and practice of successful mentoring together with a unique focus on how mentors can reflect on the skills they bring to the role, and those they still need to develop. Through the use of scenarios, reflections and stories, the reader is encouraged to apply the content to a real context, demonstrating the importance of reflection for both parties and the benefits derived from this, especially those related to understanding ourselves and others.
    • Media literacy, curriculum and the rights of the child

      Cannon, Michelle; Connolly, Steve M.; Parry, Rebecca (Routledge, 2020-10-09)
      Engaging with digital media is part of everyday living for the majority of children, yet opportunities to learn about, through and with media are denied many pupils in compulsory schooling. Whilst Media Studies in the UK is internationally reputed to be well established, changes made to the primary and secondary national curriculum in 2014 included removal of existing media study elements. We demonstrate what is lost by these actions in relation to the United Nations Rights of the Child and, in particular, the right of the child to express identity. We demonstrate how media literacy had previously been included in curriculum, enabling opportunities to address children’s rights, and propose that the absence of media education is part of an overall trend of the non-prioritisation of children’s rights in England and Northern Ireland. The paper calls for media literacy to be reintroduced into primary and secondary curriculum
    • Mind the gap: the chasm between research and practice in teaching and learning with technology

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian; Richardson, John T.E.; Case, Jennifer M.; Huisman, Jeroen; Open University; University of Cape Town; Ghent University (Routledge, 2016-01-01)