• Assessment & outcomes based education handbook

      Butler, Cathal; University of Prishtina; University of Bedfordshire (University of Prishtina, 2018-02-21)
      A guidance document produced as part of the TEMPUS project Modernizing Teacher Education at the University of Prishtina
    • Assessment or referral tool: the unintended consequences of a dual purpose common assessment framework form

      Nethercott, Kathryn; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2020-02-03)
      The Common Assessment Framework (CAF) was designed to facilitate early intervention through multi-agency working and the active involvement of families. The underlying principle was to move away from a risk-focused, needs-led or service-led culture to assess need and match needs to identified services. It was anticipated that services and assessments would become more evidence-based, and a common language between professionals and agencies would evolve. Taking a social constructionist approach this study explored professionals’ experiences of the use of the Common Assessment Framework form. Forty-one professionals from four different local authorities and a variety of agencies took part in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed utilizing thematic analysis. Findings suggest the unintended consequences of the use of the CAF were influenced by local authority policy. As the local authorities adopted the policy of utilizing the CAF as a referral mechanism, rather than to assess needs, profes-sionals unintentionally perceived the CAF form as a referral tool, to refer families to existing service provision. Further to this, professionals referred to the CAF form itself, as a ‘means to an end’, implying that this was a step that had to be overcome in order to access services.
    • Becoming a home-educator in a networked world: towards the democratisation of education alternatives?

      Fensham-Smith, Amber; University of Bedfordshire (Other Business, 2019-06-09)
      The internet is assumed to play a special role in UK home-education and has apparently fuelled an increase its prevalence. This paper reports the place and purpose of the internet, online networks and offline communities in the decision to home-educate amongst parents in England, Scotland and Wales. The research formed part of a mixed-method doctoral study that included: an online survey of 242 home-educators; 52 individual and group interviews with 85 parents, children and young people and a week-long participant observation with families. The sample included a range of both ‘new’ and ‘experienced’ home-educators. The findings show that online and offline networking helped prospective parents to learn of home-education as a viable and positive alternative to schooled provision. For parents, socialising with existing home-educators was pivotal for cultivating a sense of identity, belonging and commitment to an education without school. At the same time, becoming a legitimate home-educator was a complex achievement; hinged upon social and economic resources and cultural competencies. Evidence of exclusionary practices among home-educators both online and offline, challenges the extent to which home-education is truly more ‘open’ now than it once was. In the decision to home-educate, it is concluded that the democratising potential of the internet points to ‘old wine in new bottles’.
    • Becoming a learner in the workplace: a student’s guide to practice–based and work-based learning in health and social care

      Wareing, Mark; University of Bedfordshire (Quay Books, 2016-04-01)
      This student guide has been written to help support you to engage in practice-based and work-based learning in a range of health and social care settings. An increasing number of students are undertaking health and social care studies that include placement learning including those studying at higher apprenticeship and foundation degree level who are seeking to use clinical workplaces and practice areas for learning. This book has also been written for those studying traditional undergraduate health professions such as nursing and midwifery, and will be useful for those undertaking practice-based learning in radiography, social work and the therapies. It provides the reader with a through understanding of the challenges and opportunities of practice and work-based learning that requires a range of skills, strategies, techniques and attitudes to empower readers to be fully equipped to engage in participatory workplace learning. Each chapter contains a range of activities that will require the reader to think about their own experience and the skills required to engage in practice-based or work-based learning. The purpose of the activities is to bring each chapter to life and enable the reader to engage with the text actively rather than passively
    • Black supplementary school leaders: community leadership strategies for successful schools

      Maylor, Uvanney; University of Bedfordshire (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2020-08-25)
      Long established in the United Kingdom, Black supplementary schools are valued by Black parents for their ability to nurture the academic potential of Black students and achieve positive educational outcomes where mainstream schools sometimes fail. Through exploratory qualitative interviews conducted with a small group of African-Caribbean supplementary school leaders, this article seeks to understand Black supplementary school leaders’ perceptions of educational leadership and supplementary school success. Utilising Yosso’s perspective on ‘community cultural wealth’, in particular the ways in which Black communities provide and are rich in cultural/educational resources, the article examines the extent to which the leadership perceptions of Black supplementary school leaders are rooted in notions of community and serving, along with the leadership strategies they employ in creating successful schools. Such insights are especially important at a time when mainstream education continues to deliver poor educational outcomes for Black students.
    • Black supplementary school leaders: community leadership strategies for successful schools

      Maylor, Uvanney; University of Bedfordshire (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2020-08-25)
      Long established in the United Kingdom, Black supplementary schools are valued by Black parents for their ability to nurture the academic potential of Black students and achieve positive educational outcomes where mainstream schools sometimes fail. Through exploratory qualitative interviews conducted with a small group of African-Caribbean supplementary school leaders, this article seeks to understand Black supplementary school leaders’ perceptions of educational leadership and supplementary school success. Utilising Yosso’s perspective on ‘community cultural wealth’, in particular the ways in which Black communities provide and are rich in cultural/educational resources, the article examines the extent to which the leadership perceptions of Black supplementary school leaders are rooted in notions of community and serving, along with the leadership strategies they employ in creating successful schools. Such insights are especially important at a time when mainstream education continues to deliver poor educational outcomes for Black students.
    • BNCI systems as a potential assistive technology: ethical issues and participatory research in the BrainAble project

      Carmichael, Patrick; Carmichael, Clare; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2013-12-06)
      This paper highlights aspects related to current research and thinking about ethical issues in relation to Brain Computer Interface (BCI) and Brain-Neuronal Computer Interfaces (BNCI) research through the experience of one particular project, BrainAble, which is exploring and developing the potential of these technologies to enable people with complex disabilities to control computers. It describes how ethical practice has been developed both within the multidisciplinary research team and with participants. Results: The paper presents findings in which participants shared their views of the project prototypes, of the potential of BCI/BNCI systems as an assistive technology, and of their other possible applications. This draws attention to the importance of ethical practice in projects where high expectations of technologies, and representations of “ideal types” of disabled users may reinforce stereotypes or drown out participant “voices”. Conclusions: Ethical frameworks for research and development in emergent areas such as BCI/BNCI systems should be based on broad notions of a “duty of care” while being sufficiently flexible that researchers can adapt project procedures according to participant needs. They need to be frequently revisited, not only in the light of experience, but also to ensure they reflect new research findings and ever more complex and powerful technologies.
    • Busting the myth of gender bias: views from men and women primary-school trainees and teachers

      Mistry, Malini Tina; Sood, Krishan; University of Bedfordshire; Nottingham Trent University (Routledge, 2014-06-01)
      We explore the ideology associated with gender equality that despite primary schools and initial teacher education (ITE) institutions doing all they can to recruit men into primary education, a huge gender imbalance still exists. We frame our study around the notions of gender equality and professional responsibility. Using a multi-case study approach, this inquiry examined views of men and women from 12 English primary schools and one ITE institution regarding the cause and effect of gender bias. Findings show a differentially large gender gap in the sample schools and that there is good practice where schools are successful in attracting and retaining men teachers. Implications of these findings suggest that leaders in primary schools need to take a more active role to help change and shape the perceptions of men teachers in education. We conclude that leaders also need to help close the teacher gender gap in schools and ITE institutions through collaborative dialogue.
    • The challenge of achieving transparency in undergraduate honours-level dissertation supervision

      Malcolm, Mary; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis (Routledge), 2020-06-11)
      The undergraduate honours-level dissertation is a significant component of many UK undergraduate programmes, as a key stage in the longer-term intellectual and career development of potential researchers and knowledge-workers, and also a critical contributor to immediate award outcome. This study aims to identify how dissertation supervisors balance and deliver on these expectations. Qualitative analysis of twenty interviews conducted with supervisors at two post-1992 UK universities identifies how supervisors construct supervision as a multi-stage process. Supervisors describe how their individual supervisory practices enable them to maintain initial control of the dissertation, to extend supervisee autonomy at a central stage, and to distance supervisors further from the written output at a final stage in the process. This study questions whether this approach is satisfactory either in an institutional context where the supervisor is also first marker of work they may have shaped substantially, or as a pedagogic approach to developing research skills.
    • A comparison of staff perceptions and student experiences of issues associated with university

      Briggs, Steven G.; Pritchett, Norma; University of Bedfordshire (Association for Learning Development in Higher Education (ALDinHE), 2010-05-31)
      A significant body of research (Yorke, 1999a; 1999b; 2000a; 2000b) has examined difficulties experienced by students who withdraw from university. However, less work has been undertaken around students who experience difficulties but choose to remain in their studies. Similarly, limited work has addressed how tutors and university support staff perceive difficulties associated with the student experience and whether these are in line with student accounts. The lack of research around university staff perceptions is surprising given that tutors must have a good knowledge of the student experience in order to be able to understand and support learning. The purpose of this study was twofold. Firstly, to examine what difficulties students reported experiencing during university and secondly, to ascertain if university staff knowledge of student difficulties were in line with student accounts. Using semi-structured interviews and an online questionnaire, staff and student perceptions of university difficulties were examined. Results showed that all students experienced difficulties whilst studying. It was generally found that university staff had a good knowledge of student difficulties. However, two types of difficulty were identified (related to university systems and experience of teaching) of which staff were less aware. Possible explanations for findings are offered along with recommendations as to how findings might influence a learning developer.  
    • Constructive friction? charting the relation between educational research and the scholarship of teaching and learning

      Larsson, Maria; Martensson, Katarina; Price, Linda; Roxå, Torgny; Lund University; University of Bedfordshire (International Society for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (ISSOTL) / University of Calgary, 2020-03-15)
      While educational research and the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) are overlapping fields, over time there has appeared considerable friction between the two. There are claims that educational research has been tainted by SoTL’s emergence and that those engaged in SoTL lack adequate training. They maintain that those engaged in SoTL would benefit from a better understanding of educational research theories and methods. Some engaged in SoTL perceive educational research as too distanced from practice. What underpins these perceived differences between the two fields? How might this friction be explained? The study described in this article explored empirical, interview-based viewpoints from new and experienced educational researchers and SoTL scholars, respectively. Participants were purposefully drawn from attendees at two European conferences specializing in educational research and SoTL. The data was examined using thematic analysis and focused mainly on the perceived differences between these communities. The central themes that emerged where differences occurred are community membership and governance, scope and purpose of inquiry, and intended recipients of inquiry results. Some differences include what and who determines the value of the contribution to the field and why it is valuable. This article provides an empirically based understanding of the relative attributes of both communities. We hope that it leads to future discussions about further developing fruitful and constructive interrelationships.
    • Contested territories: English teachers in Australia and England remaining resilient and creative in constraining times

      O’Sullivan, Kerry-Ann; Goodwyn, Andrew; Macquarie University; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2020-07-23)
      Globally teachers are experiencing reductions to their autonomy and constraints on their professional practice through legislative impositions of limiting standards, external testing and narrowing curricula. This study explores the ways English educators find a balance between these external expectations, contemporary pressures, professional aspirations, and personal values. It was a qualitative investigation into the perceptions shared by thirty-three English teachers from New South Wales, Australia and across England. A significant gap now exists between the ways English teachers conceive their subject, their purposes and the nature of their work, and that determined by regulation, formalised curriculum and accreditation requirements. The enduring resilience of these teachers is revealed but also the corrosive structural effects produced by narrowly focused, neoliberal policies especially in relation to high stakes testing. However, the research demonstrates how certain English teachers remain remarkably resilient–retaining autonomy where they can–and we define this attribute as ‘adaptive agency’.
    • Creating communities: developing, enhancing and sustaining learning communities across the University of Bedfordshire

      Atlay, Mark; Coughlin, Annika; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2010)
      Creaton in Northamptonshire was the venue for the writing retreat that contributed to this volume of articles – the University’s second writing retreat. Hard on the heels of the success of the first event (Creating Bridges) a group of staff from across the University met during Easter week 2010 to discuss, review and write the various chapters in this volume. A wider cross-section of staff was involved this time extending beyond the CETL to encompass staff involved in research informed teaching and teaching and learning projects or those who just wanted to write about their own teaching and learning practices. Not forgetting our guest external, Jamie Thompson, a National Teaching Fellow at the University of Northumbria, who has been working with us on various projects.
    • A critical evaluation of recent progress in understanding the role of the research-teaching link in higher education

      Malcolm, Mary; University of Bedfordshire (Springer, 2014-03-01)
      Research into the relationship between research and teaching in higher education has flourished over several decades, and the most recent research phase has focused particularly on how the research-teaching nexus can enhance the quality and outcomes of the learning experience for both students and academics. On the basis of bibliographic review, this article concludes that progress in answering the fundamental questions posed by researchers in the early 1990s and earlier has been limited. Diverse practice has been categorised, shared and evaluated against broad criteria, while questions about the inherent nature and value of the nexus in higher education remain as yet unanswered within the research theme and within the broader consideration of higher education policy and practice. Recent research provides an enriched evidence base on which earlier questions of principle and policy might usefully be reconsidered.
    • The democratic curriculum: concept and practice

      Hopkins, Neil; University of Bedfordshire (Wiley Blackwell, 2014-06-20)
      Dewey continues to offer arguments that remain powerful on the need to break down the divisions between ‘academic’ and ‘vocational’ in terms of his specific theory of knowledge. Dewey's writings are used to argue that a democratic curriculum needs to challenge such divisions to encompass the many forms of knowledge necessary in the contemporary classroom. Gandin and Apple's investigation of community participation (Orçamento Participativo or Participatory Budgeting) in the curriculum of the Citizen School in Porto Alegre, Brazil, will be explored as an example of democratic structures informing educational planning. The work of Paul Hirst, Atli Harđarson and Chris Jane Brough is analysed regarding the issue of curriculum aims and student negotiation. Dewey's emphasis on learning as a collective enterprise will resonate here. Brough offers innovative research on student-centred curriculum integration that suggests even very young children are able to participate in debate over their own learning. Hirst and Harđarson provide contrasting views on the issue of curriculum aims—Hirst arguing that a curriculum cannot exist without definable aims while Harđarson challenges the very notion of settled aims if students are to be reflexive regarding their education. The article also refers to the work of Alexander on the use of dialogic questioning in the classroom. Such questioning, it is suggested, enhances and encourages collaborative forms of enquiry necessary for a democratic curriculum through discussion between teachers, students and other stakeholders.
    • Developing a mission for further education: changing culture using non-financial and intangible value

      Hadawi, Ali; Crabbe, M. James C.; Central Bedfordshire College; University of Northampton; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2018-01-29)
      In his keynote lecture at the Reimagining Further Education conference in Birmingham in June 2016, Sir Frank McLoughlin was clear that the sector ‘needed a mission’ to unite around, and to let people know where it is going’ (McLoughlin 2016). This was endorsed by the attendees, who felt that it would enable the sector to regain ownership of what it stands for nationally, regionally, and locally. Such a vision is needed to create a TVET (Technical and Vocational Education and Training) sector that is targeted to develop an effective shared culture in the further education sector, close skills shortages and skills gaps in education, enhance community cohesion and improve productivity. This vision needs to have a robust measure of impact that aligns with the vision. One possibility is to explore a non-financial and intangible value metric where social value is aligned to the sector mission. A robust measure will enable key stakeholders to agree on areas of focus in a specific geographical location or a specific time. Such a measure might challenge the need for the existence of regulatory bodies such as Ofsted in the way they operate now. With such a robust measure of social value/impact, Government will not need to issue a white paper every time a response to a localised issue is required. We suggest that the Social Earnings Ratio (S/E or SERatio) is such a robust measure. For example, if the need in a certain locality is to address skills gaps/shortages or to focus on community cohesion, all that is needed is a change in the weighting of the various components of such a measure. This will allow development of a Further Education mission which can be utilised nationally, regionally and locally. In this article we develop this idea and provide an illustration of how the SERatio could be applied to an FE college.  The example we use is that of a small FE college with an annual budget of £12m. We demonstrate, using SERatio, that this college produces an intangible value of approximately £40m per annum. Such an approach will enable Further Education to become the strong owner of its mission and vision in the future, and allow it to develop its own culture and expertise to the maximum of its potential.
    • Developing the capacity to recognise the capabilities of pupils with PMLD, to promote learning opportunities and to reduce isolation

      Butler, Cathal; University of Bedfordshire (Harpur Trust, 2018-09-12)
      This research focused on exploring whether Quest for Learning materials, developed originally in Northern Ireland, could be used as a basis for understanding the capacities of learners with Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties in a Special School in England. This research is occurring at an opportune time as the results of a recent government report, the Rochford Review on statutory assessment arrangements for learners operating below the standard of the national curriculum has provided an impetus to explore alternatives to the P-Scales, which have been used to report on the progress of these learners. The Quest for Learning Materials offer an opportunity to potentially work towards a broader range of more relevant learning goals for learners, and identify and celebrate the capacities and progress that these learners can make in educational settings. The research, was conducted in a class catering for learners with Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties. Video recordings were made of regular activities with 5 learners in the classroom, to assess whether the 43 milestones detailed in Quest for Learning could be meaningfully used to explore the capacities of these learners. Over 40 videos of each learner, recorded across an entire school year, were coded by the researcher. A subset of 10 videos for each learner was also independently coded by a member of staff in the School. Findings indicated that a variety of Milestones could be identified for each learner, with individual profiles emerging that showed the capacities of learners. A comparison of the coding between the researcher and the member of staff demonstrated a high degree of inter-rater reliability. These findings provide clear evidence that the Quest for Learning materials could be a useful tool to use for schools to address the recommendations from the Rochford review.
    • Development of the ALDinHE recognition scheme: Certifying the ‘Learning Developer’ title

      Briggs, Steven G.; University of Bedfordshire (Association for Learning Development in Higher Education (ALDinHE), 2018-05-30)
      Over the last fifteen years, the pedagogy of learning development has become increasingly established within UK universities (Hilsdon, 2018). As such, there have never been more individuals who professionally identify with the ‘learning developer’ title. Self-identification with a professional title is always going to be problematic as there will be significant variation in background, experience, qualifications and values amongst practitioners. This will result in confusion and ambiguity around the meaning of a title (such as learning developer), which in turn can undermine practitioners’ professional status and career development opportunities. It is therefore unsurprising that over the last five years there has been a growing call amongst the learning development community to introduce greater consistency around how the learning developer title is used (Webster, 2015; Webster, 2017; Johnson, 2018). The Association for Learning Development in Higher Education (ALDinHE) has responded to this call to action by developing a recognition scheme for learning developers. This has two levels - certified practitioner (CeP) and certified leading practitioner (CeLP). Unlike other educational development recognition schemes - for example, Higher Education Academy (HEA) fellowships or Staff and Educational Development Association (SEDA) fellowships) - the CeP/CeLP scheme involves evidencing core values associated with practicing learning development. As such, it provides the first bespoke recognition opportunity for the learning development community. This article outlines how the ALDinHE recognition scheme was conceived, piloted and launched at the 2018 Learning Development Conference.
    • Dewey, Democracy and Education and the school curriculum

      Hopkins, Neil; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2018-03-04)
      This paper will investigate Dewey’s Democracy and Educationin relation to the curriculum. There are two overarching themes to the paper: the concept of the democratic curriculum and the academic/vocational divide. Dewey is seen as a pivotal thinker in relation to collaborative learning and the child as a vital voice in any learning that takes place in the classroom and beyond. The paper explores whether issues such as school governance and pupil voice facilitate Dewey’s notion of democratic education. Alongide this is the issue of the academic/vocational divide within English education. Acknowledgement will be made of Dewey’s theory of knowledge which emphasises the connection between concept and application and how this can influence the incorporation of the theoretical and the practical as part of children’s learning in a given curriculum.
    • Distinguishing between ‘macro’ and ‘micro’ possibility thinking: seen and unseen creativity

      Clack, Jim; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier Ltd, 2017-06-16)
      This paper proposes a model that describes potential ways in which creativity may be manifest in the classroom. Building on the work by Craft and her colleagues (e.g. Chappell, Craft, Burnard, & Cremin, 2008; Craft, Cremin, Burnard, Dragovic, & Chappell, 2012), this paper uses empirical evidence from the author's PhD study (Clack, 2011), to propose further developments in the ‘Possibility Thinking’ model. It is argued that it is possible to characterise ‘types’ of Possibility Thinking activity. The first ‘type’ identified is ‘macro’ Possibility Thinking, characterised by ‘large’, observable events in the classroom. The second type, ‘micro’ Possibility Thinking, may be characterised as 'smaller’, more thoughtful, personal moments that are less visible to an observer. Developing the existing model in this way helps provide insights into the creative process and as a result helps provide insights into how we may foster and develop creativity in the classroom and indeed in everyday life.