• Adaptation for a changing environment: developing learning and teaching with information and communication technologies

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Open University (Athabasca University, 2006-01-01)
      This article examines the relationship between the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and learning and teaching, particularly in distance education contexts. We argue that environmental changes (societal, educational and technological) make it necessary to adapt systems and practices that are no longer appropriate. However, the need to adapt can be perceived as being technology-led and primarily concerned with requiring academic staff to develop their skills in using ICT. We provide a critique of continuing professional development (CPD) for using ICT in teaching and learning that does not entail examining the impact of environmental changes upon the assumptions, goals and strategies which underlie and shape an organisation's educational practices. In particular, we oppose CPD that concentrates on the individual teacher and their use of ICT. Instead, we contend that professional development should focus upon the scholarship of teaching and learning and must also reflect the wider organisational context within which ICT is managed and used.
    • "Am I still doing a good job?" : conceptions of tutoring in distance education

      Jelfs, Anne; Macdonald, Janet; Price, Linda; Richardson, John T.E.; Cannell, Pete; Rust, C; Open University (Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development, 2007-01-01)
    • Approaches to studying and perceptions of the academic environment among university students in China

      Price, Linda; Richardson, John T.E.; Robinson, Bernadette; Ding, Xia; Sun, Xiaoling; Han, Cuiling; Open University (Routledge, 2011-06-24)
      It has been claimed that students from 'Confucian-heritage' cultures approach studying in higher education differently from Western students. This study investigated the experiences and the approaches to studying of students at a university in China. A total of 356 students completed both the Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) and the Revised Approaches to Studying Inventory (RASI). Their responses to the CEQ yielded two factors concerned with student support and course demands. Their responses to the RASI yielded two factors: a deep/strategic approach and a surface approach. Students who rated their courses positively in terms of student support were more likely to adopt a deep/strategic approach. Students who rated their courses positively in terms of course demands were less likely to adopt a surface approach. In broad terms, the students' perceptions and approaches to studying were similar to those of Western students, though with some specific differences. The findings add to the literature on Chinese students' approaches to learning and also have practical implications for teachers seeking to promote more desirable forms of studying in their students.
    • Conceptions of learning in adult students embarking on distance education

      Makoe, Mpine; Richardson, John T.E.; Price, Linda; Open University (Springer Verlag (Germany), 2007-02-18)
      A 60-item questionnaire on conceptions of learning was mailed to students taking preparatory courses by distance learning with The Open University in the United Kingdom. Complete data were provided by 372 respondents. Their scores on six factor-based scales showed satisfactory internal consistency, cluster analysis identified five groups of students with distinct patterns of scores, and discriminant analysis identified the scales that served to distinguish among the clusters. Three groups had conceptions of learning based on critical thinking, personal development, and personal change, but the other groups had conceptions that were defined in largely negative terms. Adult learners embarking on distance education seem to hold distinctive conceptions of learning, which suggests that conceptions of learning are culturally and contextually dependent.
    • Distance education via the Internet: the student experience

      Carswell, Linda; Thomas, Pete; Petre, Marian; Poniatowska, Barbara; Price, Blain; Emms, Judy; Open University (Wiley-Blackwell, 2000-01-01)
    • E-portfolio: a practical tool for self-directed, reflective, and collaborative professional learning

      Daunert, Anna Liza; Price, Linda; Harteis, Christian; Ruasch, Andreas; Seifried, Jurgen; University of Paderborn; Open University (Springer Netherlands, 2014-01-01)
      This chapter discusses the role of an e-portfolio in professional learning and development. We begin by providing a better understanding of the concept of a portfolio by discussing its meaning, purpose and uses in different contexts as well as the role of technological innovations, which paves the way for new practices in developing portfolios. This is followed by a comprehensive discussion about the use of electronic portfolios in light of recent research in order to provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of using e-portfolios. Current research suggests that e-portfolios are practical tools for supporting self-directed and reflective learning. In addition, e-portfolios have the potential to support collaborative learning among learners who are interested in sharing their works and in gaining feedback. At the end of the chapter, we discuss an approach to designing professional learning and development plans, which serves as a guide for
    • Enhancing learning and teaching through technology: a guide to evidence-based practice for academic developers

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Higher Education Academy; Open University (Higher Education Academy, 2011-01-01)
      This is a guide to help academic-developers support academics in developing scholarly and evidence-based approaches to learning and teaching with technology. This has guide been peer reviewed by the Higher Education Academy.
    • Enhancing learning and teaching through technology: a guide to evidence-based practice for academics

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Higher Education Academy; Open University (Higher Education Academy, 2011-01-01)
      This is a guide to help support academics develop scholarly and evidence-based approaches to learning and teaching with technology. This guide has been peer reviewed by the Higher Education Academy.
    • Enhancing learning and teaching through technology: a guide to evidence-based practice for policy makers

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Higher Education Academy; Open University (Higher Education Academy, 2011-01-01)
      This is a guide to help Policy-makers support academics in developing scholarly and evidence-based approaches to learning and teaching with technology. This has guide been peer reviewed by the Higher Education Academy.
    • Enhancing learning and teaching through technology: a table of resources for policy makers

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian; Higher Education Academy; Open University (Higher Education Academy, 2011-01-01)
      This is a resource that provides a listing of studies that have been reviewed that may be of use to policy makers who are supporting academics who are using technology in their learning and teaching activities. The studies have been examined in relation to an evidence-based approach as reported in the studies. A framework has been used to report the studies and interpret variations between them. The resources are listed by media types to help orient readers.
    • Enhancing professional learning and teaching through technology: a synthesis of evidence-based practice among teachers in higher education

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian; Institute of Educational Technology; Open University (Institute of Educational Technology, The Open University, 2011-01-01)
      This synthesis provides a review of evidence-based practice to learning and teaching with technology in higher education. The evidence was considered in relation to the three levels of purpose of identified in the HEFCE e-Learning Strategy namely: efficiency, enhancement and transformation gains in student learning. A further framework was devised in this synthesis to determine where evidence might be of use and the extent of its impact. This was to support a range of stakeholders (practitioners, educational developers and policy makers) in making the best use of evidence in their particular roles. The synthesis is limited to scrutinising the application of technology in learning and teaching. It focused on a demonstration of the use of evidence in the practices of professional teachers in higher education, and how this evidence might change practice.
    • Face-to-face versus online tutoring support in distance education

      Price, Linda; Richardson, John T.E.; Jelfs, Anne; Open University (Routledge, 2007-02-14)
      The experiences of students taking the same course by distance learning were compared when tutorial support was provided conventionally (using limited face-to-face sessions with some contact by telephone and email) or online (using a combination of computer-mediated conferencing and email). Study 1 was a quantitative survey using an adapted version of the Course Experience Questionnaire and the Revised Approaches to Studying Inventory. Study 2 was another quantitative survey using the Academic Engagement Form. Study 3 was an interview-based examination of the students? conceptions of tutoring and tuition. In all three studies, the students receiving online tuition reported poorer experiences than those receiving face-to-face tuition. Study 3 showed that tutoring was seen not only as an academic activity but also as a highly valued pastoral activity. To make online tuition successful both tutors and students need training in how to communicate online in the absence of paralinguistic cues.
    • Gender differences and similarities in online courses: challenging stereotypical views of women

      Price, Linda; Open University (Wiley-Blackwell, 2006-09-05)
      This paper considers gender differences in online contexts and examines current trends in women's performance, access and experience of online courses. It uses supportive case study examples and specific research into student' academic engagement, conceptions and perceptions of learning support in online environments. The analysis shows that women studying online are confident independent learners who may outperform their male counterparts. They do not have reduced computer and Internet access compared with men, nor are they disinclined to enrol on online courses. They attach greater value to the pastoral aspect of tutoring and have different interaction styles from men, which may have implications for online tutoring support. The gender debate needs to move on from access and performance to the differences and similarities in the degree of importance that men and women place on different interaction and tutoring styles online.
    • A holistic approach to supporting distance learning using the Internet: transformation, not translation

      Thomas, Pete; Carswell, Linda; Price, Blain; Petre, Marian; Open University (Wiley-Blackwell, 1998-01-01)
    • Individual differences in learning: cognitive control, cognitive style and learning style

      Price, Linda; Open University (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2004-01-01)
      This paper assesses the value of three learning style tests when used to examine the design of educational materials for teaching computer science at a distance. The paper presents three studies where three different learning styles were used to discriminate preference and performance in different contexts. The studies indicate that the Learning Style Questionnaire and the Group Embedded Figures Test are of little value. However the Cognitive Style Analysis proved useful in discriminating performance on imagery-rich materials in a simulated learning context. The paper argues that it may be necessary to match the theoretical basis of learning style with the context in which it is used in order to gain useful information. On the whole the studies showed that the value of learning style tests may be limited.
    • The influence upon design of differing conceptions of teaching and learning with technology

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Olofsson, Anders D.; Lindberg, J. Ola; Open University (IGI Global, 2012-01-01)
      This chapter considers some of the theoretical foundations of teaching and learning in higher education and how these are reflected in practice. We consider how varying conceptions of teaching and learning with technology have an impact upon how teachers design teaching and learning. This chapter reviews why these variations are important and how they can affect the design of the curriculum and ultimately what and how students learn. We conclude that promoting increased use of technology does little, if anything, to improve student learning. It is only by attending to higher education teachers? conceptions of teaching and learning with technology and supporting change in this area that significant progress will be achieved. In this chapter we advocate that informed design in the use of technology is underpinned by beliefs about (conceptions of) teaching and learning with technology. To this end the chapter explores some of the theoretical underpinnings of these conceptions and argues that they are fundamental to driving well-informed practice in the use of technology to support student learning.
    • Informed design of educational technology for teaching and learning? Towards an evidence-informed model of good practice

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian; Open University (Routledge, 2014-08-11)
      The aim of this paper is to model evidence-informed design based on a selective critical analysis of research articles. We draw upon findings from an investigation into practitioners? use of educational technologies to synthesise and model what informs their designs. We found that practitioners? designs were often driven by implicit assumptions about learning. These shaped both the design of interventions and the methods sought to derive evaluations and interpret the findings. We argue that interventions need to be grounded in better and explicit conceptualisations of what constitutes learning in order to have well-informed designs that focus on improving the quality of student learning.
    • Innovations in large-scale supported distance teaching: transformation for the Internet, not just translation

      Petre, Marian; Carswell, Linda; Price, Blain; Thomas, Pete; Eisenstadt, Marc; Vincent, Tom; Open University (Kogan Page, 1998-01-01)
    • Learners and learning in the twenty first century: what do we know about students' attitudes towards and experiences of information and communication technologies that will help us design courses?

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda; Open University (Routledge, 2005-01-01)
      This article reports on issues relevant for teachers and instructional designers anticipating using information and communication technologies (ICTs) in higher education, particularly those wishing to adopt a flexible learning approach aimed at improving the quality of the student experience. The data that are reported on span more than five years, and have been gathered from a range of large quantitative postal surveys and smaller qualitative surveys, with total respondents numbering around 80,000. The large-scale surveys cover annual course reviews, computer access, students? use of media, access to media technologies and ICT access and use. The smaller qualitative studies include students? use of CD-ROMs and online tuition. This article describes the students? backgrounds and how this can affect their studies. It discusses students? access to media technologies and what their perceptions of media are in the context of independent learning. The conclusion is that, although ICTs can enable new forms of teaching and learning to take place, they cannot ensure that effective and appropriate learning outcomes are achieved. It is not technologies, but educational purposes and pedagogy, that must provide the lead, with students understanding not only how to work with ICTs, but why it is of benefit for them to do so. Knowing about students? use of media as well as their attitudes and experiences can help teachers and instructional designers develop better courses.
    • Lecturers' vs. students' perceptions of the accessibility of instructional materials

      Price, Linda; Open University (Springer Netherlands, 2006-10-26)
      The goal of this study was to examine the differences between lecturers and students? perceptions of the accessibility of instructional materials. The perceptions of 12 mature computing distance education students and 12 computing lecturers were examined using the knowledge elicitation techniques of card sorting and laddering. The study showed that lecturers had pedagogical views while students tended to concentrate on surface attributes such as appearance. Students perceived instructional materials containing visual representations as most accessible. This has two implications for the professional development of computing lecturers designing instructional materials. First, lecturers need to appreciate the differences between expert and novice views of accessibility and how students will engage with the materials. Second, lecturers need to understand that learners perceive instructional materials containing visual representations as more accessible compared to ?text only? versions. Hence greater use of these may enable students to engage more readily in learning. Given that print is the ubiquitous teaching medium this is likely to have implications for students and lecturers in other disciplines.