• Tackling anxiety in primary mathematics teachers

      Wicks, Karen; University of Bedfordshire (Critical Publishing, 2021-02-15)
      This book provides teacher educators with an understanding of the issues around mathematics anxiety and a framework of teaching strategies to support undergraduates, trainee teachers and established professionals in primary settings in developing confidence in learning and teaching mathematics.
    • Implementing reading interventions to support disadvantaged children in England: insights from a process evaluation

      Wood, Audrey B.; Price, Jayne; Salter, Emma; Woodhouse, Fiona; Zsargo, Liz (Taylor & Francis, 2021-01-28)
      In this paper we present insights from the qualitative data collected during a process evaluation of a reading intervention project carried out in primary and secondary schools in West Yorkshire, England. Commercially available reading interventions, financed by the Strategic School Improvement Fund, were delivered by school staff to disadvantaged pupils over a period of four half-terms, and a team of university-based researchers carried out qualitative interviews with members of school staff in order to discover factors that affect the sustainability of school-based reading interventions after the initial funding period, and identify good practice in planning for and meeting sustainability objectives. The data from the interviews enabled the researchers to compare and contrast the experiences of the staff following the different interventions. The findings presented in this paper have generated some helpful guidance about the process of implementing reading interventions in schools successfully, and factors such as staff training, fidelity of implementation and organisational context are discussed.
    • Interactive study of multimedia and virtual technology in art education

      Liu, Quan; Chen, Haiyan; Crabbe, M. James C. (International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 2021-01-16)
      Art education an important part of aesthetic education. It is indispensable for the comprehensive and healthy development of human beings. The basic task is to cultivate creative ability, human aesthetics, and appreciation. Art education is conducive to improving the humanistic cultivation of young students, enhancing the spiritual realm of human beings, and cultivating the creative ability of young people. It has irreplaceable social, cultural, and anthropological significance for promoting the comprehensive and healthy development of people. The development of multimedia information technology provides a new teaching method for art education and teaching in a contemporary setting. This teaching method can guide students to optimize or change the methods and concepts of traditional art creation and aesthetic value. However, traditional art education multimedia technology has poor teaching effects due to limited teaching conditions. This requires the use of multimedia technology and other technologies for interactive fusion. Therefore, this paper proposes an interactive fusion model of multimedia and virtual technology, which is verified by the model. It was found that this integrated education method could not only simulate the real environment and expand the cognitive scope of students, but also could promote students’ learning motivation as well as situational and authentic learning experiences.
    • Optimization analysis and implementation of online wisdom teaching mode in cloud classroom based on data mining and processing

      Gao, Jing; Yue, Xiao-Guang; Hao, Lulu; Crabbe, M. James C.; Manta, Otilia; Duarte, Nelson (International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning., 2021-01-16)
      The rapid development of Internet technology and information technology is rapidly changing the way people think, recognize, live, work and learn. In the context of Internet + education, the emerging learning form of a cloud classroom has emerged. Cloud classroom refers to the process in which learners use the network as a way to obtain learning objectives and learning resources, communicate with teachers and other learners through the network, and build their own knowledge structure. Because it breaks the boundaries of time and space, it has the characteristics of freedom, high efficiency and extensiveness, and is quickly accepted by learners of different ages and occupations. The traditional cloud classroom teaching mode has no personalized recommendation module and cannot solve an information overload problem. Therefore, this paper proposes a cloud classroom online teaching system under the personalized recommendation system. The system adopts a collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm, which helps to mine the potential preferences of users and thus complete more accurate recommendations. It not only highlights the core position of personalized curriculum recommendation in the field of online education, but also makes the cloud classroom online teaching mode more intelligent and meets the needs of intelligent teaching.
    • Working with/in institutions: how policy enactment in widening participation is shaped through practitioners' experience

      Rainford, Jon; (Routledge, 2021-01-12)
      Widening participation in higher education is driven by policy which is then enacted by individual practitioners. Practitioners bring with them a wealth of personal and employment experiences which shape their interpretations and enactments. Drawing on sixteen in-depth semi structured interviews with practitioners across seven universities in England, a classification is developed in order to conceptualise their orientations to policy enactment. Whilst nationally focused, this study has international resonance especially in marketised HE systems where policies are similarly enacted. The model developed within the paper proposes that personal and professional experience can cause practitioners to orient towards the interests of the institution or the individuals they work with. This orientation can be in compliance with institutional policy or adopt a more transgressive stance. Through deeper theorisation of practitioner positions we can better understand how to ensure work in this area better serves the individuals which it is targeted at.
    • Emotions and professional reflections in a post-war community: teachers’ perspectives from Kosovo

      Berisha Kida, Edona; Butler, Cathal; University of Pristine; University of Bedfordshire (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2020-11-05)
      Background: Teaching is more complex than dealing with the cognitive aspects of learning alone and is also influenced by affective states. Because of this, more research is needed into the role of teachers’ emotions in classroom interaction. Of special importance is research into reflective thinking and the extent to which it may be disturbed by the prior experience of trauma. Purpose: This study aimed to shed light on these issues by analysing reports of Kosovan teachers’ emotional arousal when speaking about and/or teaching topics related to war experiences, their beliefs about these experiences, their opinions about students’ reactions and their reports on professional reflective practices. Methods: Descriptive study. Data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire completed by 70 teachers. Results: Teachers reported strong emotions were triggered by discussion of topics linked to the war. Their beliefs influenced how they engaged with sensitive and emotionally charged topics, but they interpreted their professional behaviour using reflective and critical thinking. Conclusion: Both external and internal factors affect post-war teachers cognitively and emotionally. Further research is needed to identify the extent to which this impacts teachers’ ability to use critical reflection and critical emotional reflexivity in school-based practice.
    • Media literacy, curriculum and the rights of the child

      Cannon, Michelle; Connolly, Steve M.; Parry, Rebecca (Routledge, 2020-10-09)
      Engaging with digital media is part of everyday living for the majority of children, yet opportunities to learn about, through and with media are denied many pupils in compulsory schooling. Whilst Media Studies in the UK is internationally reputed to be well established, changes made to the primary and secondary national curriculum in 2014 included removal of existing media study elements. We demonstrate what is lost by these actions in relation to the United Nations Rights of the Child and, in particular, the right of the child to express identity. We demonstrate how media literacy had previously been included in curriculum, enabling opportunities to address children’s rights, and propose that the absence of media education is part of an overall trend of the non-prioritisation of children’s rights in England and Northern Ireland. The paper calls for media literacy to be reintroduced into primary and secondary curriculum
    • Young British African and Caribbean men achieving educational success: disrupting deficit discourses about Black male achievement

      Wright, Cecile; Maylor, Uvanney; Pickup, Thomas; University of Bedfordshire; University of Nottingham (Routledge, 2020-10-05)
      In contrast to research that focuses on the underperformance of young Black males in the British education system, the dominant notion of this volume is educational success. By aiming to understand how young, Black—notably African and Caribbean—male education plays out in different educational spaces, this book provides new insights around intersections between, and across, different structural forces and educational contexts.
    • Praxis, pedagogy and teachers’ professionalism in England Praksa, pedagogika in učiteljska strokovnost v Angliji

      Raiker, Andrea; University of Bedfordshire (University of Ljubljana, 2020-09-29)
      The article considers current teachers’ participation in educational research in England and whether Stenhouse’s perception that such involvement was necessary to stall the political undermining of democratic teacher professionalism has been addressed. Stenhouse instigated the emergence of the teacher-as-researcher movement, whereby teachers engaged with a process that created knowledge and practice. From 1979, when the Conservative Margaret Thatcher became Prime Minister, the increasing dominance of globalised knowledge economies turned knowledge away from being a process into a product. Teacher and student education became controlled and consumed by increasingly competitive educational institutions. Learning became aimed at assuring the attainment of higher grades to increase the country’s economic growth and profit, leading to democratic teacher professionalism being undermined. However, contemporary research by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development has indicated that teacher professionalism should involve teachers in conducting classroom-based individual or collaborative research. In addition, a recent academic inquiry by the British Education Research Association has con-cluded that teachers as researchers, in both literate and practical terms, will have a positive impact on learner outcomes by developing an education system that has the internal capacity to direct its own progress. At the same time, the Department for Education in England commissioned a two-year study to assess progress towards an evidence-informed teaching system. Taking a systematic literature approach, the present article considers the extent to which current teacher education and practice encourage teacher research as a form of developing pedagogical practice, in other words, praxis, in order to re-establish democratic teacher professionalism in Eng-land. It also explores whether there are alternative practices to create the same, or a similar, outcome.
    • Black supplementary school leaders: community leadership strategies for successful schools

      Maylor, Uvanney; University of Bedfordshire (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2020-08-25)
      Long established in the United Kingdom, Black supplementary schools are valued by Black parents for their ability to nurture the academic potential of Black students and achieve positive educational outcomes where mainstream schools sometimes fail. Through exploratory qualitative interviews conducted with a small group of African-Caribbean supplementary school leaders, this article seeks to understand Black supplementary school leaders’ perceptions of educational leadership and supplementary school success. Utilising Yosso’s perspective on ‘community cultural wealth’, in particular the ways in which Black communities provide and are rich in cultural/educational resources, the article examines the extent to which the leadership perceptions of Black supplementary school leaders are rooted in notions of community and serving, along with the leadership strategies they employ in creating successful schools. Such insights are especially important at a time when mainstream education continues to deliver poor educational outcomes for Black students.
    • Black supplementary school leaders: community leadership strategies for successful schools

      Maylor, Uvanney; University of Bedfordshire (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2020-08-25)
      Long established in the United Kingdom, Black supplementary schools are valued by Black parents for their ability to nurture the academic potential of Black students and achieve positive educational outcomes where mainstream schools sometimes fail. Through exploratory qualitative interviews conducted with a small group of African-Caribbean supplementary school leaders, this article seeks to understand Black supplementary school leaders’ perceptions of educational leadership and supplementary school success. Utilising Yosso’s perspective on ‘community cultural wealth’, in particular the ways in which Black communities provide and are rich in cultural/educational resources, the article examines the extent to which the leadership perceptions of Black supplementary school leaders are rooted in notions of community and serving, along with the leadership strategies they employ in creating successful schools. Such insights are especially important at a time when mainstream education continues to deliver poor educational outcomes for Black students.
    • "First meetings": constructive first encounters between pre-service teachers and their mentors

      Connolly, Steve M.; Bates, Gareth; Shea, James (Emerald, 2020-07-30)
      Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the findings from an action research project in which the researchers sought to develop a set of questions for use by mentors (experienced teachers) and mentees (pre-service teachers) on a course of initial teacher education (ITE) when they first met – the “initial encounter”. Design Methodology/Approach: The researchers used an action research approach to address the lower retention rate of pre-service teachers from different backgrounds, such as Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME), and the issues around mentoring which may exacerbate this problem. Discussions between the course team and participating mentors and mentees suggested that the initial encounter between mentor and mentee was significant, and an action research methodology would allow for developing questions that might structure such encounters. Findings: The researchers found that a useful and effective set of questions could be developed and used by mentors and mentees. Additionally, this process gave researchers insights into the nature of the first encounters between mentors and mentees on an ITE course and how both groups see their roles. In several cycles of action research, the participants produced a number of iterations of such questions, which were refined across a two-year period. Research Limitations/Implications: While it is too early to tell if the issues leading to the lower retention rate of pre-service teachers that prompted the project have been reduced in any significant way, the researchers suggest that thinking about these initial encounters can impact the way a mentor and mentee goes on to build a relationship. Originality/Value: The authors found very little research in the field of teacher education which looks at initial encounters between mentors and mentees and thus make an original contribution to the mentoring literature.
    • Contested territories: English teachers in Australia and England remaining resilient and creative in constraining times

      O’Sullivan, Kerry-Ann; Goodwyn, Andrew; Macquarie University; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2020-07-23)
      Globally teachers are experiencing reductions to their autonomy and constraints on their professional practice through legislative impositions of limiting standards, external testing and narrowing curricula. This study explores the ways English educators find a balance between these external expectations, contemporary pressures, professional aspirations, and personal values. It was a qualitative investigation into the perceptions shared by thirty-three English teachers from New South Wales, Australia and across England. A significant gap now exists between the ways English teachers conceive their subject, their purposes and the nature of their work, and that determined by regulation, formalised curriculum and accreditation requirements. The enduring resilience of these teachers is revealed but also the corrosive structural effects produced by narrowly focused, neoliberal policies especially in relation to high stakes testing. However, the research demonstrates how certain English teachers remain remarkably resilient–retaining autonomy where they can–and we define this attribute as ‘adaptive agency’.
    • Special issue: English teaching and teacher expertise

      Goodwyn, Andrew; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2020-07-20)
      Editorial
    • Building the foundations for academic success: learning from the experiences of part-time students in their first semester of study

      Goodchild, Allyson; Butler, Cathal (Open University, 2020-07-01)
      This article examines the findings from a mixed methods research study exploring part- time students' perceptions of their transition into higher education. Drawing on wider research in the field of transition and utilising Gale and Parker's (2014) conceptual framework as a means of viewing the transition process, the article identifies how one group of part-time undergraduates experienced the process of becoming an undergraduate. The results highlight the importance of offering a well-framed early learning experience for students, which enables them to learn the skills needed for early academic success and provides continued support as they progress in their own time towards recognition of themselves as undergraduates. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that transition is not time bound, and individual students will need individual approaches. This will require institutions to consider how the support they offer can be tailored to a student's specific needs.
    • The challenge of achieving transparency in undergraduate honours-level dissertation supervision

      Malcolm, Mary; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis (Routledge), 2020-06-11)
      The undergraduate honours-level dissertation is a significant component of many UK undergraduate programmes, as a key stage in the longer-term intellectual and career development of potential researchers and knowledge-workers, and also a critical contributor to immediate award outcome. This study aims to identify how dissertation supervisors balance and deliver on these expectations. Qualitative analysis of twenty interviews conducted with supervisors at two post-1992 UK universities identifies how supervisors construct supervision as a multi-stage process. Supervisors describe how their individual supervisory practices enable them to maintain initial control of the dissertation, to extend supervisee autonomy at a central stage, and to distance supervisors further from the written output at a final stage in the process. This study questions whether this approach is satisfactory either in an institutional context where the supervisor is also first marker of work they may have shaped substantially, or as a pedagogic approach to developing research skills.
    • Newbolt to now: an interpretation of the history of the school subject of English in England

      Goodwyn, Andrew; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2020-06-04)
      2021 marks the 100th anniversary of The Newbolt Report, the first official report about English, in spirit a liberal document, arguing for an emancipatory English. Since 1870 The School Subject of English [SSE] has experienced several historical phases. One phase [1980-92] is presented as a period of ‘harmonious practice’, arguing that it offers a positive view of a future in which SSE and its teachers are at one. SSE is a democratic and emancipatory project, its boundaries constantly expanding to reflect societal change, the needs of its students and a belief in social justice. In the current ‘panopticon’ phase this emancipatory ambition is performatively diminished. The current dominance of ‘The English Literary Heritage’ and terminal examinations are stultifying teachers. This overview seeks to trace historical developments, considering ways to recapture the spirit of Newbolt but in a 21st century model of English, we are ready for a new phase.
    • Towards an epistemology of media education: confronting the problems of knowledge presented by Social Realism

      Connolly, Steve M.; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2020-04-27)
      Recent debates about the status of knowledge in the school curriculum have seen the emergence of attempts to connect curriculum reform to the ideas about "powerful knowledge" articulated by Michael Young and other sociologists. This article argues that for the case of media education, and specifically its application in secondary schools - in the form of Media Studies - these ideas are not adequate to explain the epistemological principles upon which the project of media education is built. The paper takes a threefold approach to developing an epistemology of media education; firstly, by outlining existing work on the nature of knowledge in media education; secondly, by examining social realist arguments about the way that knowledge is manifested in things like school subjects and canonical knowledge and arguing that media education does not fit these manifestations; and finally by offering some alternative ideas upon which an epistemology of media education may be built
    • Creating connections to weather the storm of marketisation

      Rainford, Jon (Taylor and Francis, 2020-04-17)
      Viewpoint
    • Networks of knowledge, students as producers, and politicised inquiry

      Carmichael, Patrick; Tracy, Frances; Dohn, Nina Bonderup; Jandrić, Petar; Ryberg,Thomas; de Laat, Maarten; University of Bedfordshire; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Southern Denmark; Zagreb University of Applied Sciences; et al. (Springer, 2020-03-22)
      This chapter explores the potential for the development of new learning opportunities in higher education, through students being conceptualised not as consumers, recipients or commodities, but rather as co-researchers and co-producers of knowledge. It discusses the implications of new forms of networked knowledge enabled by the emergence of semantic web and linked data technologies, and the reconceptualisation of the Internet as a ‘global data space’. These approaches have the potential to allow students to engage critically with existing data and data practices, generate new data and, perhaps more significantly, to participate in local or global knowledge networks. These activities involve not only the development of specific techno-literacies, but also broader critical digital literacies of which we offer examples and propose a number of dimensions. A critical digital literacies perspective, particularly when combined with the idea of students as co-researchers and co-producers, provides a basis for student to undertake critical and politicised inquiry as part of a broader reframing of the purposes of higher education.