• The use of objects to enhance online social research interviews

      Zakher, Maged Sobhy Mokhtar; Wassif, Hoda (University of Bristol: Policy Press, 2021-09-28)
      The ongoing COVID-19 health emergency, and the restrictions that it has placed on research, led many researchers to the re-evaluation of how social research interviews need to go online and how these can be enhanced. The online space presents a platform that brings participants and researchers together in an environment owned by both regardless of who hosts the online session. Online methods are likely to continue through emergencies and crises in general and beyond, and this calls for innovative ways to enhance online research interviews. This chapter discusses a study of a series of online interviews where interviewees were invited to bring an object of personal value with the aim to facilitate a discussion on ‘happiness in lockdown.’ The selected topic served as a vehicle to explore this approach to online interviews while contextualising it in a crisis situation. It also helped to anchor the discussion around a positive theme in the middle of a global crisis. The study aimed at exploring the dynamics observed and the type of thematic materials gathered in this research context. The focus is to investigate the research technique and explore the benefits and challenges of using objects in social research interviews online. As participants select objects related to the research, they are given some control to steer the discussion. Hennigar (1997) discussed the shift in thinking when artefacts are placed at the center of the conversation, and the participant’s own values, beliefs and views about the world could be explored in more depth resulting in what Rubin and Rubin (2012: 95) call an ‘extended conversation.’ The purpose of such a conversation is to explore in depth some themes of relevance to the interviewee through their choice of objects. Using Thematic Analysis (Braun and Clarke, 2006), we explored the richness, depth and genuineness of the materials gathered in object-based online research interviews. The chapter details the research process, discussing the benefits and challenges of using objects as enhancing tools in social research interviews conducted online. It considers how participants chose their items, how the tool compares with other enhancing tools, and some methodological implications. The chapter concludes with our reflection as interviewers offering advice to researchers who may choose to use this enhancing technique in their online interviews.
    • Review of: Building systems that work for young children: international insights from innovative early childhood systems

      Mistry, Malini Tina (Taylor and Francis, 2021-07-16)
      Book review of: Building systems that work for young children: international insights from innovative early childhood systems, edited by Sharon Lynn Kagan, 2019, Columbia University: Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 248 pp., £24.99 (paperback), ISBN: 978-0-8077-6129-8
    • Race and educational leadership: the influence of research methods and critical theorising in understanding representation, roles and ethnic disparities

      Maylor, Uvanney; Roberts, Lorna; Linton, Kenisha; Arday, Jason; University of Bedfordshire; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Greenwich; Durham University (SAGE, 2021-06-29)
      Editorial. The special issue offers new knowledge about racialised educational experiences by shedding light on racialised leadership in school and higher education in diverse geographical and educational contexts in England, Canada, America and South Africa through a mix of research methods (phenomenological, longitudinal, documentary, semi-structured interviews), analytical (content and textual analysis) and theoretical approaches (critical race theory [CRT], critical ecological). This special issue prioritises the centring of educational leaders’ lived experiences and their voices alongside the research methods used to illuminate the nuances associated with race and educational leadership in schools and higher education. The prism of race enables us to add new educational leadership insights to the field associated with ethnicity, gender, culturally constructed notions of leadership, intersectionality and/or geographical location. The findings highlight implications for researching race and educational leadership.
    • Impacts of COVID-19 and social isolation on academic staff and students at universities: a cross-sectional study

      Filho, Walter Leal; Wall, Tony; Rayman-Bacchus, Lez; Mifsud, Mark; Pritchard, Diana J.; Lovren, Violeta; Farinha, Carla; Petrovic, Danijela S.; Balogun, Abdul-Lateef; Hamburg University of Applied Sciences; et al. (Biomed Central, 2021-06-24)
      The impacts of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the shutdown it triggered at universities across the world, led to a great degree of social isolation among university staff and students. The aim of this study was to identify the perceived consequences of this on staff and their work and on students and their studies at universities. The study used a variety of methods, which involved an on-line survey on the influences of social isolation using a non-probability sampling. More specifically, two techniques were used, namely a convenience sampling (i.e. involving members of the academic community, which are easy to reach by the study team), supported by a snow ball sampling (recruiting respondents among acquaintances of the participants). A total of 711 questionnaires from 41 countries were received. Descriptive statistics were deployed to analyse trends and to identify socio-demographic differences. Inferential statistics were used to assess significant differences among the geographical regions, work areas and other socio-demographic factors related to impacts of social isolation of university staff and students. The study reveals that 90% of the respondents have been affected by the shutdown and unable to perform normal work or studies at their institution for between 1 week to 2 months. While 70% of the respondents perceive negative impacts of COVID 19 on their work or studies, more than 60% of them value the additional time that they have had indoors with families and others. . While the majority of the respondents agree that they suffered from the lack of social interaction and communication during the social distancing/isolation, there were significant differences in the reactions to the lockdowns between academic staff and students. There are also differences in the degree of influence of some of the problems, when compared across geographical regions. In addition to policy actions that may be deployed, further research on innovative methods of teaching and communication with students is needed in order to allow staff and students to better cope with social isolation in cases of new or recurring pandemics.
    • Book review: Your booksmart, school- savvy, stress-busting primary teacher training companion

      Mistry, Malini Tina (Taylor and Francis, 2021-03-29)
      review of: Your booksmart, school- savvy, stress-busting primary teacher training companion by Elizabeth Malone, 2020, London, Sage, 178 pp., £16.99 (paperback), ISBN: 978-1-5264-9419-1
    • Tackling anxiety in primary mathematics teachers

      Wicks, Karen; University of Bedfordshire (Critical Publishing, 2021-02-15)
      This book provides teacher educators with an understanding of the issues around mathematics anxiety and a framework of teaching strategies to support undergraduates, trainee teachers and established professionals in primary settings in developing confidence in learning and teaching mathematics.
    • Implementing reading interventions to support disadvantaged children in England: insights from a process evaluation

      Wood, Audrey B.; Price, Jayne; Salter, Emma; Woodhouse, Fiona; Zsargo, Liz (Taylor & Francis, 2021-01-28)
      In this paper we present insights from the qualitative data collected during a process evaluation of a reading intervention project carried out in primary and secondary schools in West Yorkshire, England. Commercially available reading interventions, financed by the Strategic School Improvement Fund, were delivered by school staff to disadvantaged pupils over a period of four half-terms, and a team of university-based researchers carried out qualitative interviews with members of school staff in order to discover factors that affect the sustainability of school-based reading interventions after the initial funding period, and identify good practice in planning for and meeting sustainability objectives. The data from the interviews enabled the researchers to compare and contrast the experiences of the staff following the different interventions. The findings presented in this paper have generated some helpful guidance about the process of implementing reading interventions in schools successfully, and factors such as staff training, fidelity of implementation and organisational context are discussed.
    • Interactive study of multimedia and virtual technology in art education

      Liu, Quan; Chen, Haiyan; Crabbe, M. James C. (International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 2021-01-16)
      Art education an important part of aesthetic education. It is indispensable for the comprehensive and healthy development of human beings. The basic task is to cultivate creative ability, human aesthetics, and appreciation. Art education is conducive to improving the humanistic cultivation of young students, enhancing the spiritual realm of human beings, and cultivating the creative ability of young people. It has irreplaceable social, cultural, and anthropological significance for promoting the comprehensive and healthy development of people. The development of multimedia information technology provides a new teaching method for art education and teaching in a contemporary setting. This teaching method can guide students to optimize or change the methods and concepts of traditional art creation and aesthetic value. However, traditional art education multimedia technology has poor teaching effects due to limited teaching conditions. This requires the use of multimedia technology and other technologies for interactive fusion. Therefore, this paper proposes an interactive fusion model of multimedia and virtual technology, which is verified by the model. It was found that this integrated education method could not only simulate the real environment and expand the cognitive scope of students, but also could promote students’ learning motivation as well as situational and authentic learning experiences.
    • Optimization analysis and implementation of online wisdom teaching mode in cloud classroom based on data mining and processing

      Gao, Jing; Yue, Xiao-Guang; Hao, Lulu; Crabbe, M. James C.; Manta, Otilia; Duarte, Nelson (International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning., 2021-01-16)
      The rapid development of Internet technology and information technology is rapidly changing the way people think, recognize, live, work and learn. In the context of Internet + education, the emerging learning form of a cloud classroom has emerged. Cloud classroom refers to the process in which learners use the network as a way to obtain learning objectives and learning resources, communicate with teachers and other learners through the network, and build their own knowledge structure. Because it breaks the boundaries of time and space, it has the characteristics of freedom, high efficiency and extensiveness, and is quickly accepted by learners of different ages and occupations. The traditional cloud classroom teaching mode has no personalized recommendation module and cannot solve an information overload problem. Therefore, this paper proposes a cloud classroom online teaching system under the personalized recommendation system. The system adopts a collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm, which helps to mine the potential preferences of users and thus complete more accurate recommendations. It not only highlights the core position of personalized curriculum recommendation in the field of online education, but also makes the cloud classroom online teaching mode more intelligent and meets the needs of intelligent teaching.
    • Working with/in institutions: how policy enactment in widening participation is shaped through practitioners' experience

      Rainford, Jon; (Routledge, 2021-01-12)
      Widening participation in higher education is driven by policy which is then enacted by individual practitioners. Practitioners bring with them a wealth of personal and employment experiences which shape their interpretations and enactments. Drawing on sixteen in-depth semi structured interviews with practitioners across seven universities in England, a classification is developed in order to conceptualise their orientations to policy enactment. Whilst nationally focused, this study has international resonance especially in marketised HE systems where policies are similarly enacted. The model developed within the paper proposes that personal and professional experience can cause practitioners to orient towards the interests of the institution or the individuals they work with. This orientation can be in compliance with institutional policy or adopt a more transgressive stance. Through deeper theorisation of practitioner positions we can better understand how to ensure work in this area better serves the individuals which it is targeted at.
    • Emotions and professional reflections in a post-war community: teachers’ perspectives from Kosovo

      Berisha Kida, Edona; Butler, Cathal; University of Pristine; University of Bedfordshire (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2020-11-05)
      Background: Teaching is more complex than dealing with the cognitive aspects of learning alone and is also influenced by affective states. Because of this, more research is needed into the role of teachers’ emotions in classroom interaction. Of special importance is research into reflective thinking and the extent to which it may be disturbed by the prior experience of trauma. Purpose: This study aimed to shed light on these issues by analysing reports of Kosovan teachers’ emotional arousal when speaking about and/or teaching topics related to war experiences, their beliefs about these experiences, their opinions about students’ reactions and their reports on professional reflective practices. Methods: Descriptive study. Data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire completed by 70 teachers. Results: Teachers reported strong emotions were triggered by discussion of topics linked to the war. Their beliefs influenced how they engaged with sensitive and emotionally charged topics, but they interpreted their professional behaviour using reflective and critical thinking. Conclusion: Both external and internal factors affect post-war teachers cognitively and emotionally. Further research is needed to identify the extent to which this impacts teachers’ ability to use critical reflection and critical emotional reflexivity in school-based practice.
    • Media literacy, curriculum and the rights of the child

      Cannon, Michelle; Connolly, Steve M.; Parry, Rebecca (Routledge, 2020-10-09)
      Engaging with digital media is part of everyday living for the majority of children, yet opportunities to learn about, through and with media are denied many pupils in compulsory schooling. Whilst Media Studies in the UK is internationally reputed to be well established, changes made to the primary and secondary national curriculum in 2014 included removal of existing media study elements. We demonstrate what is lost by these actions in relation to the United Nations Rights of the Child and, in particular, the right of the child to express identity. We demonstrate how media literacy had previously been included in curriculum, enabling opportunities to address children’s rights, and propose that the absence of media education is part of an overall trend of the non-prioritisation of children’s rights in England and Northern Ireland. The paper calls for media literacy to be reintroduced into primary and secondary curriculum
    • Young British African and Caribbean men achieving educational success: disrupting deficit discourses about Black male achievement

      Wright, Cecile; Maylor, Uvanney; Pickup, Thomas; University of Bedfordshire; University of Nottingham (Routledge, 2020-10-05)
      In contrast to research that focuses on the underperformance of young Black males in the British education system, the dominant notion of this volume is educational success. By aiming to understand how young, Black—notably African and Caribbean—male education plays out in different educational spaces, this book provides new insights around intersections between, and across, different structural forces and educational contexts.
    • Praxis, pedagogy and teachers’ professionalism in England Praksa, pedagogika in učiteljska strokovnost v Angliji

      Raiker, Andrea; University of Bedfordshire (University of Ljubljana, 2020-09-29)
      The article considers current teachers’ participation in educational research in England and whether Stenhouse’s perception that such involvement was necessary to stall the political undermining of democratic teacher professionalism has been addressed. Stenhouse instigated the emergence of the teacher-as-researcher movement, whereby teachers engaged with a process that created knowledge and practice. From 1979, when the Conservative Margaret Thatcher became Prime Minister, the increasing dominance of globalised knowledge economies turned knowledge away from being a process into a product. Teacher and student education became controlled and consumed by increasingly competitive educational institutions. Learning became aimed at assuring the attainment of higher grades to increase the country’s economic growth and profit, leading to democratic teacher professionalism being undermined. However, contemporary research by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development has indicated that teacher professionalism should involve teachers in conducting classroom-based individual or collaborative research. In addition, a recent academic inquiry by the British Education Research Association has con-cluded that teachers as researchers, in both literate and practical terms, will have a positive impact on learner outcomes by developing an education system that has the internal capacity to direct its own progress. At the same time, the Department for Education in England commissioned a two-year study to assess progress towards an evidence-informed teaching system. Taking a systematic literature approach, the present article considers the extent to which current teacher education and practice encourage teacher research as a form of developing pedagogical practice, in other words, praxis, in order to re-establish democratic teacher professionalism in Eng-land. It also explores whether there are alternative practices to create the same, or a similar, outcome.
    • Black supplementary school leaders: community leadership strategies for successful schools

      Maylor, Uvanney; University of Bedfordshire (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2020-08-25)
      Long established in the United Kingdom, Black supplementary schools are valued by Black parents for their ability to nurture the academic potential of Black students and achieve positive educational outcomes where mainstream schools sometimes fail. Through exploratory qualitative interviews conducted with a small group of African-Caribbean supplementary school leaders, this article seeks to understand Black supplementary school leaders’ perceptions of educational leadership and supplementary school success. Utilising Yosso’s perspective on ‘community cultural wealth’, in particular the ways in which Black communities provide and are rich in cultural/educational resources, the article examines the extent to which the leadership perceptions of Black supplementary school leaders are rooted in notions of community and serving, along with the leadership strategies they employ in creating successful schools. Such insights are especially important at a time when mainstream education continues to deliver poor educational outcomes for Black students.
    • Black supplementary school leaders: community leadership strategies for successful schools

      Maylor, Uvanney; University of Bedfordshire (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2020-08-25)
      Long established in the United Kingdom, Black supplementary schools are valued by Black parents for their ability to nurture the academic potential of Black students and achieve positive educational outcomes where mainstream schools sometimes fail. Through exploratory qualitative interviews conducted with a small group of African-Caribbean supplementary school leaders, this article seeks to understand Black supplementary school leaders’ perceptions of educational leadership and supplementary school success. Utilising Yosso’s perspective on ‘community cultural wealth’, in particular the ways in which Black communities provide and are rich in cultural/educational resources, the article examines the extent to which the leadership perceptions of Black supplementary school leaders are rooted in notions of community and serving, along with the leadership strategies they employ in creating successful schools. Such insights are especially important at a time when mainstream education continues to deliver poor educational outcomes for Black students.
    • "First meetings": constructive first encounters between pre-service teachers and their mentors

      Connolly, Steve M.; Bates, Gareth; Shea, James (Emerald, 2020-07-30)
      Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the findings from an action research project in which the researchers sought to develop a set of questions for use by mentors (experienced teachers) and mentees (pre-service teachers) on a course of initial teacher education (ITE) when they first met – the “initial encounter”. Design Methodology/Approach: The researchers used an action research approach to address the lower retention rate of pre-service teachers from different backgrounds, such as Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME), and the issues around mentoring which may exacerbate this problem. Discussions between the course team and participating mentors and mentees suggested that the initial encounter between mentor and mentee was significant, and an action research methodology would allow for developing questions that might structure such encounters. Findings: The researchers found that a useful and effective set of questions could be developed and used by mentors and mentees. Additionally, this process gave researchers insights into the nature of the first encounters between mentors and mentees on an ITE course and how both groups see their roles. In several cycles of action research, the participants produced a number of iterations of such questions, which were refined across a two-year period. Research Limitations/Implications: While it is too early to tell if the issues leading to the lower retention rate of pre-service teachers that prompted the project have been reduced in any significant way, the researchers suggest that thinking about these initial encounters can impact the way a mentor and mentee goes on to build a relationship. Originality/Value: The authors found very little research in the field of teacher education which looks at initial encounters between mentors and mentees and thus make an original contribution to the mentoring literature.
    • Contested territories: English teachers in Australia and England remaining resilient and creative in constraining times

      O’Sullivan, Kerry-Ann; Goodwyn, Andrew; Macquarie University; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2020-07-23)
      Globally teachers are experiencing reductions to their autonomy and constraints on their professional practice through legislative impositions of limiting standards, external testing and narrowing curricula. This study explores the ways English educators find a balance between these external expectations, contemporary pressures, professional aspirations, and personal values. It was a qualitative investigation into the perceptions shared by thirty-three English teachers from New South Wales, Australia and across England. A significant gap now exists between the ways English teachers conceive their subject, their purposes and the nature of their work, and that determined by regulation, formalised curriculum and accreditation requirements. The enduring resilience of these teachers is revealed but also the corrosive structural effects produced by narrowly focused, neoliberal policies especially in relation to high stakes testing. However, the research demonstrates how certain English teachers remain remarkably resilient–retaining autonomy where they can–and we define this attribute as ‘adaptive agency’.
    • Special issue: English teaching and teacher expertise

      Goodwyn, Andrew; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2020-07-20)
      Editorial
    • Building the foundations for academic success: learning from the experiences of part-time students in their first semester of study

      Goodchild, Allyson; Butler, Cathal (Open University, 2020-07-01)
      This article examines the findings from a mixed methods research study exploring part- time students' perceptions of their transition into higher education. Drawing on wider research in the field of transition and utilising Gale and Parker's (2014) conceptual framework as a means of viewing the transition process, the article identifies how one group of part-time undergraduates experienced the process of becoming an undergraduate. The results highlight the importance of offering a well-framed early learning experience for students, which enables them to learn the skills needed for early academic success and provides continued support as they progress in their own time towards recognition of themselves as undergraduates. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that transition is not time bound, and individual students will need individual approaches. This will require institutions to consider how the support they offer can be tailored to a student's specific needs.