Recent Submissions

  • Permeating the social justice ideals of equality and equity within the context of Early Years: challenges for leadership in multi-cultural and mono-cultural primary schools

    Mistry, Malini Tina; Sood, Krishan; University of Bedfordshire; Nottingham Trent University (Routledge, 2014-01-08)
    This paper explores the ideology of social justice through links between equality and equity within Early Years and what remain the challenges for leadership. Questionnaires and interviews in English multi-cultural and mono-cultural schools with Early Years age phases were conducted. The findings showed that the ideology of social justice, equality and equity was interpreted differently in each Early Years setting. The multi-cultural schools used a variety of activities to embed social justice principles that involved their diverse communities more to enrich the curriculum in contrast to the mono-cultural schools. In mono-cultural schools however, leadership had to be more creative in promoting equality and equity, given the smaller proportion of their diverse pupil and staff population. Our conclusions suggest that most schools are struggling initially with implementing the current changes in Early Years, therefore their vision for permeating this curriculum with an equality and equity focus is at the early stages.
  • Busting the myth of gender bias: views from men and women primary-school trainees and teachers

    Mistry, Malini Tina; Sood, Krishan; University of Bedfordshire; Nottingham Trent University (Routledge, 2014-06-01)
    We explore the ideology associated with gender equality that despite primary schools and initial teacher education (ITE) institutions doing all they can to recruit men into primary education, a huge gender imbalance still exists. We frame our study around the notions of gender equality and professional responsibility. Using a multi-case study approach, this inquiry examined views of men and women from 12 English primary schools and one ITE institution regarding the cause and effect of gender bias. Findings show a differentially large gender gap in the sample schools and that there is good practice where schools are successful in attracting and retaining men teachers. Implications of these findings suggest that leaders in primary schools need to take a more active role to help change and shape the perceptions of men teachers in education. We conclude that leaders also need to help close the teacher gender gap in schools and ITE institutions through collaborative dialogue.
  • How can the skills of Early Years leaders support other leaders in a primary school setting?

    Mistry, Malini Tina; Sood, Krishan; University of Bedfordshire; Nottingham Trent University (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2017-07-31)
    This study investigated the leadership skills Early Years leaders demonstrated through their daily practice of teaching, assessing and teamwork within their setting. It explored how revealing the potential of Early Years leaders could have a positive impact on the leadership practice of other leaders in the same setting to improve pupil outcomes. A qualitative approach using interviews with Early Years leaders in 20 primary settings from the East Midlands and Bedfordshire areas was undertaken by two academics from two different UK based universities. Ethical guidelines ensuring anonymity and trustworthiness were followed. Using verbatim comments, data were analysed in themes against contemporary Early Years literature. Findings showed the skills of Early Years leaders could support pedagogy and practice but some of these skills were not utilized beyond this age phase. Our conclusion suggested that Early Years leaders had a range of leadership skills which were deemed specialist as they were unique to the success of the age phase, but needed to be exposed beyond Early Years for wider success and impact.
  • Why are there still so few men within Early Years in primary schools: views from male trainee teachers and male leaders?

    Mistry, Malini Tina; Sood, Krishan (Routledge, 2013-01-29)
    One of the challenges facing the Early Years (EY) sector is how to encourage more male practitioners to counterbalance a largely feminised workforce. Using case studies of male trainees at different stages of their primary undergraduate Initial Teacher Training course at one university, we attempt to consider data why there is under-representation of men within the leadership strata in EY settings. Questionnaires and interviews were conducted with the male sample groups and male leaders in primary schools to gain an overview regarding gender stereotyping. Our findings suggest that male trainees enjoy working in the EY sector, but they need mentoring by strong leaders to help them overcome the perceived contextual barriers of male stereotypes in that setting. In conclusion, we consider some of these barriers of stereotypes, attitudes, values, beliefs existing and the actions needed in addressing such stereotypes if a long-lasting change is to happen.
  • Operationalizing physical literacy: special issue editorial

    Durden-Myers, Elizabeth; Whitehead, Margaret; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Bedfordshire (Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., 2018-12-31)
    Physical literacy has been described as a "longed for concept" and has in turn gained much interest worldwide. This interest has also given rise for calls for physical literacy to be operationalized, providing clarity and guidance on developing physical literacy informed practice. Operationalizing physical literacy is crucial in moving the concept forward by providing "substance to the claims made by (physical literacy) advocates." This special issue aims to respond to calls for research to "unpack" physical literacy across a number of areas in pursuit of operationalizing physical literacy in practice. Nine articles are included within this special issue.
  • Physical literacy: throughout the lifecourse

    Whitehead, Margaret (Routledge, 2010-04-07)
    What is physical literacy? What are the benefits of being physically literate? The term 'physical literacy' describes the motivation, confidence, physical competence, understanding and knowledge that individuals develop in order to maintain physical activity at an appropriate level throughout their life. Physical literacy encompasses far more than physical education in schools or structured sporting activities, offering instead a broader conception of physical activity, unrelated to ability. Through the use of particular pedagogies and the adoption of new modes of thinking, physical literacy promises more realistic models of physical competence and physical activity for a wider population, offering opportunities for everyone to become active and motivated participants. This is the first book to fully explore the meaning and significance of this important and emerging concept, and also the first book to apply the concept to physical activity across the lifecourse, from infancy to old age. Physical Literacy - explaining the philosophical rationale behind the concept and also including contributions from leading thinkers, educationalists and practitioners - is essential reading for all students and professionals working in physical education, all areas of sport and exercise, and health.
  • Learning to teach physical education in the secondary school: a companion to school experience

    Capel, Susan; Whitehead, Margaret (Routledge, 2010-09-13)
    What skills are required of secondary student physical education teachers? What are the key areas that these student teachers need to understand? How can current challenges be addressed by these student teachers? Learning to Teach Physical Education in the Secondary School combines underpinning theory and knowledge with suggestions for practical application to support student physical education teachers in learning to teach. Based on research evidence, theory and knowledge relating to teaching and learning and written specifically with the student teacher in mind, the authors examine physical education in context. The book offers tasks and case studies designed to support student teachers in their school-based experiences and encourages reflection on practice and development. Masters level tasks and suggestions for further reading have been included throughout to support researching and writing about topics in more depth. This fully-updated third edition has been thoroughly revised to take into account changes in policy and practice within both initial teacher education and the National Curriculum for Physical Education. The book also contains a brand new chapter on the role of reflective teaching in developing expertise and improving the quality of pupil learning. Other key topics covered include; lesson planning, organisation and management; observation in physical education; developing and maintaining an effective learning environment; inclusive physical education; assessment; developing wider community links; using ICT to support teaching and learning in physical education. Learning to Teach Physical Education in the Secondary School is an invaluable resource for student physical education teachers.
  • Implications for promoting physical literacy

    Durden-Myers, Elizabeth; Green, Nigel R.; Whitehead, Margaret; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Bedfordshire (Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., 2018-12-31)
    This study considers the implications for teachers of physical education of adopting physical literacy as the focus of their work. These implications arise from the philosophical underpinning of the concept, from the definition of physical literacy and are in line with the mission of the International Physical Literacy Association. In the first section of this study, recommendations stemming from the philosophical roots of the concept will be outlined in brief. The other three sections will demonstrate how this philosophical basis and the definition of physical literacy should inform, first, lesson and unit content; second, teaching approaches; and, finally, curriculum planning. Unpacking the implications and what physical literacy looks like in practice is essential if teachers are to begin to incorporate physical literacy within their practice.
  • The value of fostering physical literacy

    Whitehead, Margaret; Durden-Myers, Elizabeth; Pot, Niek; University of Bedfordshire; Liverpool John Moores University; Windesheim University of Applied Sciences (Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., 2018-12-31)
    This article considers the value of physical literacy. Unequivocal support for aspects of the concept can be found in philosophy, neuroscience, social justice, the nature of human development, psychology, and sociocultural studies. These areas of support will be outlined and then related to the practical value of physical literacy in the school context. This article will close with a discussion centered on claims that physical literacy is an end in itself rather than predominantly ameans to other ends. It is the aim of this article to communicate the unique value of fostering physical literacy within the school context, including the support and relationship to other interrelated disciplines.
  • Physical literacy and human flourishing

    Durden-Myers, Elizabeth; Whitehead, Margaret; Pot, Niek; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Bedfordshire; Windesheim University of Applied Sciences (Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., 2018-12-31)
    This article explores the relationship between physical literacy and human flourishing. Understanding the contribution physical literacy may have in nurturing human flourishing extends the philosophical rationale and importance of physical literacy in relation to maximizing human potential. This article proposes that the concept of physical literacy is being embraced worldwide, in part due to the contribution physical literacy may make in nurturing human flourishing. Therefore, this article discusses the relationship between physical literacy and human flourishing in detail, unveiling what value this connection may hold in promoting physical literacy as an element integral in enhancing quality of life. Aspects of human flourishing are presented and examined alongside physical literacy. Synergies between physical literacy and human flourishing are not hard to find, and this gives credence to the growing adoption of physical literacy as a valuable human capability.
  • From the creation of a concept to the globalisation of physical literacy

    Whitehead, Margaret; Maude, Patricia (Taylor and Francis, 2016-10-10)
    The growth of ‘physical literacy’ from the insights gained from a PhD study to an internationally recognised concept is a remarkable journey. Advocacy developed from a small group of UK-based professionals, mainly in the field of physical education, to a larger group of colleagues in Europe, Canada and Australia. Physical literacy is now known in very many countries and is generating a re-examination of the goal of physical activity throughout the lifecourse. Interest has also spread to other professionals in related fields such as those in coaching and the leisure industry. That physical literacy has blossomed into a world-wide topic of interest would seem to indicate that the concept is making a timely contribution to the thinking in this area. Throughout this process Margaret Talbot has been unerringly supportive and her national and international advocacy has been highly significant throughout the course of this development. The chapter is divided into three Parts. Part one, ‘The beginnings’, will outline briefly the research which formed the foundation of physical literacy and this will be put into context by setting out what was perceived as the general attitude to physical education and physical activity at the turn of the century. Also included will be mention of some of the projects and programmes that were created at this time, in many ways mirroring the developments concerning physical literacy. Part two is entitled ‘Developmental milestones since 2009’. In the main this will be presented in a series of sections showing the range of activity that developed from the initial interest in the work, namely publications, conferences and the establishment of the International Physical Literacy Association (IPLA). An example of research into an aspect of physical literacy is also outlined here, as well as a diagram setting out examples of Margaret Talbot’s advocacy in her various positions of responsibility. The final Part, ‘Current challenges and future plans’, looks at the challenges facing the International Physical Literacy Association and a sample of future plans.
  • Physical literacy from philosophy to practice

    Pot, Niek; Whitehead, Margaret; Durden-Myers, Elizabeth; Windesheim University of Applied Sciences; University of Bedfordshire; Liverpool John Moores University (Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., 2018-12-31)
    This article aims to give an overview of the philosophical foundations of physical literacy (monism, existentialism, and phenomenology) and to discuss how philosophy can be operationalized in physical education practice. When translated into physical education practice, the physical literacy philosophies give credence to the view that, in schools, physical education should not be considered as a subsidiary subject that is needed merely to refresh the mind for the cognitive subjects. The authors also highlight that the context in which activities take place should be challenging, realistic, and adaptable to the individual preferences and levels of attainment of the different learners. Often, these contexts go beyond the traditional competitive sports context. Drawing on these philosophies, physical education must be learner centered and provide situations in which learners can discover and develop their individual potential to stay motivated, confident, and competent for engagement in physical activities for life.
  • Dilemmas faced by pre-service teachers when learning about and implementing a game-centred approach

    Harvey, Stephen; Cushion, Christopher J.; Sammon, Paul (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2014-12-04)
    Game-centred approaches (GCAs) were designed for the effective integration of skills into contextualized situations. Despite a plethora of research, few studies explore the articulations between pre-service teachers’ experiences, conceptual understanding, pedagogical practices, the wider cultural and political realities of teaching and their impact on the learner. This paper uses Windschitl’s (2002) framework of practice dilemmas to structure an analysis of various dilemmas faced by a cohort of English pre-service teachers on a one-year Postgraduate Certificate in Education learning about and implementing a GCA. Nineteen (6 male; 13 female) postgraduate students based at a university in the East of England agreed to participate in the study. Data were generated through an online discussion board, case study log and from focus group interviews. Data analysis was an inductive iterative process that integrated the multiple data sources. The analysis was conducted through a constant comparison between the different sources to identify themes that were mapped against Windschitl’s (2002) heuristic. Supported by the realization of their own participation in ‘traditional’ physical education programmes, this cohort of pre-service teachers attempted to integrate GCAs into their practice. Significant challenges included the pre-service teachers’ own fragile conceptual understandings and pedagogical expertise in GCAs, exacerbated by current institutionalized practices within most physical education programmes.
  • The role of gender in students' ratings of teaching quality in computer science and environmental engineering

    Price, Linda; Svensson, Ingrid; Borell, Jonas; Richardson, John T.E. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017-05-03)
    Students' ratings of teaching quality on course units in a computer science program and an environmental engineering program at a large Swedish university were obtained using the Course Experience Questionnaire; 8888 sets of ratings were obtained from men and 4280 sets were obtained from women over ten academic years. These student ratings from the two programs showed certain differences; in particular, teachers tended to receive higher ratings in subjects that were less typical for their gender than in subjects that were more typical for their gender. There were differences in the ratings given to male and female teachers, differences in the ratings given by male and female students, and interactions between these two effects. There was no systematic trend for students to give different ratings to teachers of the same gender as themselves than to teachers of the other gender. Nevertheless, without exception, even the statistically significant effects were small in magnitude and unlikely to be of theoretical or practical importance. It is concluded that the causes of differences in the career progression of male and female teachers in engineering education need to be sought elsewhere.
  • Supporting sustainable policy and practices for online learning education

    Casanova, Diogo; Price, Linda; Avery, Barry (Springer, 2018-12-31)
    This chapter describes an approach to the adoption of online learning in Higher Education. It is particularly relevant for readers interested in Online and Distance Learning initiatives that enact an agenda of climate change education through being sustainable and future proof. We present a pathway for ensuring sustainable educational initiatives, drawing from research that identifies crucial factors in this endeavour. In particular, it addresses how the adoption of Online and Distance Learning can be used as a catalyst for changing the pedagogical paradigm of universities and how this change may impact on the development of new policies and guidelines. In this chapter we report on how policy, guidelines and professional development can be designed for sustainable and consistent learning design and teaching practices.
  • Identity formation among novice academic teachers–a longitudinal study

    McLean, Neil; Price, Linda (Routledge, 2017-12-03)
    This study reports findings from an in-depth, longitudinal investigation of the formation of 13 novice tutors’ professional identities as academic teachers. The study spanned tutors’ first two years in-service, while they were also participating in a teacher development course. Discourse was analysed across 65 time-series coursework texts, completed as part of the tutors’ reflection on their teaching practice. The analysis captured the use of explicit identity positioning cues by tutors across the texts. Four discreet identity positions were catalogued: academic insider, class teacher, teaching course participant and young academic. The study illustrates how these tutors developed more complex identity narratives with enriched coherence over time as they reported negotiating challenges and dissonance between initial expectations and actual teaching experiences. This finding offers explanatory support for previous research regarding the value of longer term teacher development programmes and illuminates existing theoretical models with practitioner perspectives.
  • A longitudinal study of the impact of reflective coursework writing on teacher development courses: a ‘legacy effect’ of iterative writing tasks

    McLean, Neil; Price, Linda (Springer Netherlands, 2018-09-16)
    Studies into the efficacy of teacher development courses for early career academics point to graduates conceiving of their teaching in increasingly complex and student-focussed ways. These studies have used pre- and post-testing of conceptions of teaching to identify this finding. However, these studies do not identify what aspects of these courses contributed to these changes. This exploratory case study investigates this phenomenon through a longitudinal study of 16 academic teachers’ reflective coursework writing. Discourse analysis was used to contrast causal reasoning statements in assignments completed during participants’ first 2 years in-service, while they were completing a UK-based teacher development course. This analysis identified how reasoning about teaching and learning became more complex over time. A key element was the integration of experiences and earlier learning into more nuanced and multi-factorial later reasoning about teaching choices and effects. This ‘legacy effect’ provides new evidence for the efficacy of academic teacher development courses.
  • Advancing cultures of innovation: The change laboratory as an intervention to facilitate agency and collaborative sustainable development among teachers in higher education

    Englund, Claire; Price, Linda (Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education (ASCILITE), 2018-12-31)
    To cope with the rapidly changing Higher Education climate, teachers need the agency to act proactively to initiate and steer changes to meet their needs. The results of this study indicate that transformative agency emerges when teachers are given the opportunity to analyse, envision and redesign their practice collaboratively with the help of mediating conceptual tools. This has implications for academic development, suggesting that activities providing a ‘third space’ for discussion and criticism of current practices is needed to support the development of agency thus creating a culture of innovative practice.
  • Facilitating agency: the change laboratory as an intervention for collaborative sustainable development in higher education

    Englund, Claire; Price, Linda (Routledge, 2018-06-06)
    To cope with the rapidly changing higher education climate, teachers need agency to act proactively in initiating and steering changes in practice. This paper describes an academic development activity in the form of a Change Laboratory, an intervention method based on Cultural-Historical Activity Theory, to facilitate agency among teachers. The results of the study indicate that transformative agency emerges when teachers are given the opportunity to analyse, envision, and redesign their practice collaboratively. This has implications for academic development, suggesting that activities facilitating discussion, analysis, and criticism of current practices are needed to support the development of agency.
  • Moving towards sustainable policy and practice – a five level framework for online learning sustainability / Progresser vers des politiques et des pratiques durables: un cadre à cinq niveaux pour un apprentissage en ligne durable

    Casanova, Diogo; Price, Linda; University of West London; University of Bedfordshire (Canadian Network for Innovation in Education (CNIE), 2018-12-31)
    This paper addresses the issue of sustainability in online learning in higher education. It introduces and discusses a five-level framework for helping higher education institutions to make the transition from enterprise to sustainable policy and practice in online learning. In particular, it responds to evidence in the literature regarding the lack of sustainability in online learning in higher education. Influenced by Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, this framework is characterized by three different clusters: basic needs, institutional motivation, and stakeholders’ motivations. It is presented hierarchically within five different levels. Examples are provided for each of the levels and suggestions are given to how institutions should respond to each level.

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