• Middle eastern extinctions: building a religious motivation for species protection

      Almontaser, Tariq; Atkins, Jill; Elfadli, Ali; Eskandrany, Abdullah; Hassan, Abeer; Mowafi, Omar; Norton, Simon; Saeudy, Mohamed (Routledge, 2022-05-30)
      The extinction and biodiversity accounting literature focused initially on developed economies including the UK and Europe, spreading recently to research on Africa, especially South Africa, China and other countries in the Far East. This chapter addresses species extinctions in Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Libya to provide insights into the situation in these countries, problems and issues arising, as well as potential solutions. It presents the causes of species extinctions in the Middle East and provides information on some of the initiatives underway to prevent extinctions. The chapter builds a religious rationale, indeed imperative, for species protection and biodiversity conservation. It discusses the status of threatened species in Saudi Arabia, providing an understanding of the importance of religion as a rationale for species protection.
    • Accounting perspectives on the business value ‎of big data during and beyond the Covid-19 ‎pandemic

      Saeudy, Mohamed; Gerged, Ali Meftah; Albitar, Khaldoon; University of Bedfordshire; De Montfort Universit; Misurata University; University of Portsmouth (Editura ASE, 2022-04-22)
      Research Question: How can business organizations develop accounting practices to use big data to create competitive intelligence advantages to survive during and beyond the Covid-19 conditions? Motivation: We aim to provide new accounting perspectives for using big data techniques in business organizations beyond the covid-19. Idea: We argue that the massive reduction in business capacity and operations will interpose the accounting and financial practices beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a crucial need to uncover the underlying business practices and market circumstances toward the radical shifts in business and society. Date: Our paper uses a desk study method to investigate companies' possible challenges and opportunities to use big data analytics as a survival method during and beyond the Covid-19 conditions. Tools: Critical contingencies represent one of the leading business strategies to manage the shift in customer demand and business risks. Big data can be used in this sense as a valuable intangible asset to create these critical contingencies and help a business survive beyond this pandemic. Findings: This study provides policy and practitioner implications in relation to establishing new accounting perspectives on big data analytics in the context of achieving economic sustainability for corporations during and beyond the Covid-19 pandemic. It offers new forms of trust, accountability and governance practices to integrate big data into accounting practices to create more competitive intelligence for businesses.
    • Collaborating across disciplines for climate change education

      Pritchard, Diana J.; Worsfold, Nicholas T.; Connolly, Helen; Rowinski, Paul; Egbe, Amanda; Saeudy, Mohamed; Bishop, James; Ashley, Tamara; University of Bedfordshire; Brunel University (2021-11-22)
      Academics with a shared purpose for climate change education have come together from across the University of Bedfordshire to create a bottom-up Sustainability Forum, where each member defines their own contribution and purpose. This collaboration facilitates mass ‘learn-in’ events on climate change and social justice themes, where students cross disciplinary boundaries and engage with external stakeholders as professionals.
    • Emergent themes of social and environmental ‎reporting in the UK retail banks ‎

      Saeudy, Mohamed; Hussainey, Khaled; University of Bedfordshire; University of Portsmouth (Inderscience Publishers, 2021-11-24)
      We examine current practices in the development and communication of social and environmental reporting (SER) in the UK retail banks. Empirical data was triangulated between semi-structured interviews with bank executives, bank sustainability reports, and third-party sustainability entrepreneur initiatives (termed ‘SEIs’) to identify current practices and growth areas. We use social contract theory to examine how these social and environmental retail banks developed their SER practices. Our findings reveal that SER practices are crucial for pursuing more positive social and environmental values. We clarify the role of SER as a form of integrated reporting (IR) to assess and improve the usefulness of the IR reporting practices. The SER practices also appear to have benefited from the presence of a number of SEIs in the sampled banks who specialise in commercialising social and environmental projects. In addition, methodical analyses of SER components assist managers and regulators in determining which components are meaningful to stakeholders.
    • Large shareholding and firm value in the Alternative Investment Market (AIM)

      Mortazian, Mona; Tabaghdehi, Seyedeh Asieh H.; Mase, Bryan (Springer, 2018-11-30)
      This paper investigates the impact of non-managerial and managerial blockholders on the value of the firms listed in the Alternative Investment Market (AIM). This study mainly investigates whether the effect of blockholders on firm value is due to the AIM high ownership concentration and low investor protection. The primary empirical finding, using GMM, justifies that non-managerial and managerial blockholders in the AIM affect the firm value in different ways. Non-managerial blockholders in the AIM improve the firm value by monitoring managers when their block sizes are up to 32%. However, when their block sizes exceed 32%, the blockholders expropriate other shareholders.
    • Liquidity and volatility of stocks moved from the Main Market to the Alternative Investment Market (AIM)

      Mortazian, Mona; University of Bedfordshire (Springer, 2021-07-10)
      Companies moving from the Main market of London Stock Exchange to the AIM impair their information environment when entering the AIM; the information environment is measured by the stock’s liquidity and volatility. The primary empirical finding is that movement from the Main Market to the AIM decreases the liquidity and volatility of stocks. After controlling for the effects of factors that are known to affect stock liquidity and for the change in company characteristics after the movement date in the multivariate analysis, it is found that moving to the AIM is associated with a significant increase in Amihud illiquidity and the bid–ask spread and with a decrease in stock return volatility. The documented effects of movement to the AIM are found to be sustained over a long period of time following the movement event. This therefore implies that moving from the Main Market to the AIM is not improving the companies’ liquidity and volatility.
    • Interpreting banks’ sustainability initiatives as reputational ‎risk management and mechanisms for coping, re-‎embedding and rebuilding soceital trust ‎

      Saeudy, Mohamed; Atkins, Jill; Barone, Elisabetta A.V.; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald Publishing, 2021-06-09)
      The financial crisis and increasing concerns around climate change and global warming have combined to shatter societal trust in the banking sector worldwide. Consequently, there is an urgent need for banks to rebuild trust among their stakeholders and enhance their reputations. This paper contributes to a growing literature in sustainable and green banking by exploring the views of senior banking representatives towards the implementation of sustainability initiatives through extensive interview research. We explore the extent to which such initiatives are embedded within the banking industry, whether they represent risk management mechanisms and whether they are imbued with reputational risk management rather than a genuine response to ethical societal concerns. The interviewees’ utterances are interpreted through a sociological theoretical lens derived from the work of Giddens and Beck, allowing us to conclude that external initiatives such as the Equator Principles seem to be adopted as re-embedding mechanisms that can rebuild societal trust, as well as representing mechanisms of reputational risk management. Further, the analysis suggested that internal sustainability initiatives were interpreted as coping mechanisms whereby bank employees can recreate their protective cocoon, reinstating their ontological security in response to the high consequence risks of climate change and other related systemic factors that create overwhelming feelings of engulfment.
    • Four approaches to accounting for diversity in global organisations

      Özbilgin, Mustafa F.; Tatli, Ahu; Ipek, Gulce; Sameer, Muhammad; Brunel University London; Université Paris-Dauphine; Koç University; Queen Mary University of London; University of Bedfordshire (Academic Press, 2015-05-07)
      This paper examines four distinct approaches to accounting for diversity outcomes in global organisations: shareholder, stakeholder, regulation and global value chain. Drawing on a study of 22 globally significant organisations, our analyses show that there is a need to move beyond narrow framing of benefits of diversity management based on shareholder and stakeholder perspectives. Our study demonstrates that regulation as well as global value chain is pertinent new perspectives that organisations need to move towards if they are to seriously account for diversity outcomes. Yet, our study shows that such a development is not likely to happen easily due to a number of significant challenges in accounting for diversity outcomes in global organisations.
    • Young people and police making "Marginal Gains": climbing fells, building relationships and changing police safeguarding practice

      Factor, Fiona; Ackerley, Elizabeth; University of Bedfordshire; University of Manchester (Emerald, 2019-09-05)
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe a youth work model of participatory research practice which utilises a range of methods within non-traditional research settings, highlighting the importance of trust, risk-taking and the creation of mutually respectful and non-hierarchical relationships. The paper suggests that such methods enable the development of new insights into previously intractable challenges when working with adolescents needing a safeguarding response from professionals. Design/methodology/approach The paper reflects on the challenges and successes of a project which brought police officers and young people together to develop solutions to improving safeguarding responses to young people affected by sexual violence and related forms of harm in adolescence. In particular, this paper focuses on a residential held in October 2016 in the Lake District involving 7 officers and 15 young people. Findings Despite a number of ethical challenges throughout the project, this paper makes the case that potentially high-risk participatory research projects can be supported and managed by university research centres. However, for these to be successful, staff need to work in trauma-informed ways, and possess high-level expertise in group work facilitation. Transparency, honesty, constancy and a range of different and creative activities, including mental and physical challenges, all contributed to the success of the project. Originality/value By detailing the empirical steps taken to develop, support and realise this project, this paper advances a youth work model of participatory research practice, filling an important gap within the methodological literature on participatory work with young people affected by sexual violence.
    • Microfinance governance: a systematic review and future research directions

      Rasel, Md. Ali; Win, Sandar (Emerald, 2020-04-20)
      Purpose The purpose of this article is to systematically review extant research on the corporate governance (CG) of microfinance institutions (MFIs) from a global perspective. In the process, it discusses scholarly contributions and highlights key issues from the findings of past studies on several governance attributes, in particular, their interconnections and influence on different institutional outcomes of the sector. Design/methodology/approach Although academic work on microfinance governance is substantial, prior studies lack a comprehensive approach to reviewing the literature on this topic. We adopted a systematic method to review past studies on microfinance CG by applying particular inclusion and exclusion criteria. In this regard, the study developed specific questions and sought to find their answers from the existing literature. Findings The findings from our research indicate that microfinance governance-performance relationship is the central focus of the majority of our reviewed papers, although a few attempts have been made to explain the interconnection between CG mechanisms at the firm and institutional level. Our findings also show that existing studies have used a variety of techniques to measure MFI performance vis-à-vis their hybrid mission, such as profitability and outreach. Moreover, the study found that common topics discussed in the mainstream literature include board structure, CEO characteristics, audit quality, external governance, disclosure and MFI ownership type. Research limitations/implications This review has some limitations that warrant further research. First, we considered only peer-reviewed scientific publications for our systematic review. Second, we omitted non-English journal papers from our sample. In light of these limitations, we provide some future research directions that may shed further light on our current inquiry. Originality/value This paper evaluates past relevant studies using a systematic approach (in preference to the commonly used narrative approach) for a span of over eighteen years; thereby contributing significantly to the sectoral governance literature. This study is novel in that it offers new incentives and opportunities for further research in order to meet the shortcomings of reviewed papers from various theoretical, empirical, methodological and geographical standpoints.
    • Intraday and interday distribution of stock returns and their asymmetric conditional volatility: firm-level evidence

      Balaban, Ercan; Ozgen, Tolga; Karidis, Socrates; University of Bedfordshire; Craig Associates; Coventry University London (Elsevier, 2018-02-21)
      This paper is a pioneering effort to jointly analyze the intraday and interday distribution of stock returns and their asymmetric time varying volatility using firm level data from an emerging stock market, namely, the Bourse Istanbul. The joint intraday and interday distribution analysis is based on the two trading sessions with a two-hour lunch break and the trading days of week. The asymmetric time varying volatility is based on the Threshold Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity-in-Mean [TGARCH(1,1)-M] model with systematic risk entering the return generating process. This is a unique framework to simultaneously test (i) the weak-form informational efficiency, (ii) the conditional total risk-return relationship and the systematic risk effects, and (iii) volatility persistence and asymmetry in volatility. The firm level intraday data sets are used for the period 1995 to 2015. Firstly, a strong result can be pronounced for a positive return effect for the second trading session of Thursdays followed by the second session of Fridays. The first session of Wednesdays is more associated with a stock price decline. The volatility is the highest in the second session of Mondays. Although the second session of Thursdays sees a volatility increase referring to a positive risk-return relationship, Fridays do not have any significant volatility increase. This can be seen as a true anomaly where we could observe higher returns with lower volatility. Secondly, it can be concluded that only the systematic risk is priced for the great majority of the selected firms. In addition, we cannot observe a significant asymmetry in the volatility in most cases. Finally, it is found that the financial companies have a significantly higher systematic risk than the industrial companies.
    • Impact of board gender diversity on dividend payments: evidence from some emerging economies

      Saeed, Abubakr; Sameer, Muhammad; COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan; University of Bedfordshire (Science direct, 2017-05-06)
      This study investigates the impact of board gender diversity on dividend payments in the context of emerging economies. Using a dataset of listed firms from India, China and Russia over the period 2007–2014, we find strong and robust evidence indicating that board gender diversity is negatively related to cash dividend payments in all emerging economies. Moreover, we find that state-ownership positively moderates the relationship between gender diversity and dividend payments. However, this effect is observed only for China and Russia. In additional analyses, we find that the negative link between board gender diversity and dividend payments is more pronounced during the financial crisis. However, the moderating role of state-ownership does not remain significant during the financial crisis.
    • What are the possible future research directions for bank’s credit risk assessment research? A systematic review

      Win, Sandar; University of Bedfordshire (Springer Verlag (Germany), 2018-03-11)
      Banking prudence and efficiency to manage their risks in different business cycle and environment would help to alleviate crises and losses. Hence, the effective assessment of credit risk is an essential component of a comprehensive technique to credit risk assessment and critical to the long-run of not only banking institutions but also the economy as a whole. Therefore, it has received a great interest from scholars across finance and economics to investigate such assessments by banks in different countries using diverse theoretical underpinnings and methodologies. Hence, this paper is developed to review analytical conceptualisations of credit risks assessments that have been developed in the academic literature. By means of a systematic review, it provides a comprehensive analysis that encompasses approaches used in research papers. There has been no prior review on analytical conceptualisations in this area. Moreover, this review is done in a systematic manner, i.e. categorising journal articles into different categories such as purposes, perspectives and methodologies through a transparent and thorough process. Thus, it will be able to provide an objective review. Finally, the paper will outline the evolution of methodologies and theoretical underpinnings in credit risk management research and a landscape for possible future research directions
    • A SERVQUAL approach to identifying the influences of service quality on leasing market segment in the German financial sector

      Ramanathan, Usha; Win, Sandar; Wien, Andreas (Emerald, 2017-06-19)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to determine the nature of the relationship between service quality and desired customer behaviours in the leasing market using an appropriate service quality measurement model. We take a step further by recognising the possible differences in influence of service quality in private and corporate customers, and those business dealings with low, medium and high lease values. Design/methodology/approach – We use deduction method to test the SERVQUAL in the German leasing market and the relationship between customer satisfaction and desired behavioural outcomes. The developed questionnaire is based on the 22 item scale of the SERVQUAL approach. Samples are selected based on convenience sampling. Findings – We found differences in the levels of inflence by SERVQUAL dimensions on corporate and private customers as well as among those customers with different leasing contract values. From the regression analyses, it is clear that ‘assurance’ from the leasing company is the most common SERVQUAL dimension that has significant impact on overall service quality perceptions and obtaining customers satisfaction and loyalty (behavioural outcomes). Originality/Value –We recognised that all financial services are not created equally to meet customer demands. Hence, the customer expectations of service quality from these services will be different. We contributed to the marketing literature by studying customer perceptions of service quality by specifying financing aspects of financial services, i.e. leasing. We further contributed to the literature of SERVQUAL model in financial services by dividing customers into two different types of customers and those with diverse leasing contract values. We found that priorities given on service quality dimensions by them are different. These concepts were never considered in the literature. This also implies that future studies on financial services marketing need to recognise such differences in the research.
    • Banks’ lending behaviour under repressed financial regulatory environment: in the context of Myanmar

      Win, Sandar (Emerald, 2017-05-04)
      In an ideal world, banking operations should ensure that there is a match between business strategy and loan assessment behaviour (Berger and Udell, 2004). However, in reality, banks are confined within a highly institutionalised environment which shapes their lending behaviour. Banks operate between two spectra in terms of regulatory environment, with policies based either on financial repression or liberalisation. Repressive policies are more common in the banking sector than capital markets. According to McKinnon (1973), financial repression is defined by various policies whereby the state influences credit allocation in channelling financial resources to priority areas identified by the government and micromanaging banks’ lending behaviour through interest-rate caps, collateral requirements and capital controls. Financial liberalisation, on the other hand, is regarded as an efficient means of fostering competition and inviting growth impulses from abroad (Bartolini and Drazen, 1997). After a series of decisions supporting financial liberalisation which took place from the 1970s to the 1990s, this type of policy has been intensively studied by scholars. However, there is still no consensus on whether it has positive or negative impacts.
    • Boundary management practices in youth work relationships between young people and practitioners on online social network sites

      Conradie, Liesl; University of Bedfordshire (2015-01-01)
      A report published by the National Youth Agency (NYA) in England during 2008 found that the majority of social network site on-line interaction between youth work practitioners and young people took place 'under the radar'. 'Under the radar' or 'unsanctioned', in this context was defined as outside the relevant guidance and without the line manager's agreement. My research set out to find why and how this is taking place, and the meaning attached to this practice to the different role players. As part of my qualitative research I interviewed twenty-one youth work practitioners (paid and voluntary) from a variety of backgrounds and fourteen young people over the age of 16, who are accessing universal youth work. Youth work practitioners and young people differ in their reasons for wanting to 'friend' each other on social media and what this signifies; is it a professional or personal relationship or a hybrid of the two? Boundaries and expectations of the 'audience' become blurred and perforated. Combined with the ever-changing nature of the technology itself, maintaining or developing professional relationships through social network sites becomes challenging. This article explores the boundary management techniques used by young people and practitioners in online social network sites to maintain developed relationships. The study uncovered limited dissemination of existing policies which resulted in diverse practice. Most unsanctioned connections took place with the best intentions and in order to support rather than with malicious intent