Football fandom: football fan identity and identification at Luton Town Football Club
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AbstractThis study examines football fan identity and identification within the Nationwide football league in England. A preliminary examination of the literature concludes that research on fan identity with sports teams in general, focuses primarily upon the behavioural consequences of fan identification. More specific research on the football fan concentrates predominantly upon either the F.A. Premier League or the deviant fan. The research thus attempts to fill a void in knowledge by examining football fan identification of fans of less successful football teams, using a social identity theory framework. Employing a mixed-methods research design, and an embedded case study approach, the study investigates those factors that influence fan identification at Luton Town Football Club. Methods used were those of observation/participant observation, a large scale fan survey, and indepth semi-structured interviews with fans. As part of the fan survey, the sport spectator identification scale (Wann and Branscombe, 1993), revealed a fan population that was highly identified with Luton Town. Levels of fan identification were similar across age, gender, and length of support of the club. Subsequent survey and interview data allowed six themes related to this fan identification to emerge: these being the extent of fan identification; the antecedents of fan identification; the maintenance of fan identification; the effects of fan identification upon behaviour; the influence of the cultural identity within which fan identities are enacted; and the relationship between the fan and the football club. Analysis of these themes yields a model of football fan identification which can be adapted to fans of other football clubs, or fans within other contexts. It was concluded that whenever such identification provides positive social and psychological consequences for fans, levels of identification with the club remain high. For these fans, it is the process of identification with the club that is the most important component of fandom. By contrast, where the individual derives fewer benefits from fandom, identification remains low. For such less identified fans, other factors, such as the quality of facilities or team performance, become more meaningful. The findings from the study indicate that social identity theory is an appropriate framework with which to explore the concept of football fan identification.
CitationJones, I. (1998) 'Football fandom: football fan identity and identification at Luton Town Football Club'. PhD thesis. University of Bedfordshire.
PublisherUniversity of Bedfordshire
TypeThesis or dissertation
DescriptionA thesis submitted to Luton Business School, University of Luton, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
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Laboratory and field-based assessments to determine the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of elite soccer playersMorris, Tessa E. (University of Bedfordshire, 2015-02)This thesis investigated the anthropometric, aerobic and anaerobic characteristics of elite male and female soccer players. Forty-three male (age, 23.6 ± 5.5 years; stature, 1.86 ± 0.13 m; body mass, 89.5 ± 16.5 kg) and eighteen female soccer players (age, 29.7 ± 9.5 years; stature, 1.69 ± 0.68 m; body mass, 64.6 ± 9.7 kg) from the highest respective English domestic leagues participated in the studies. The male soccer players were assessed on three occasions; End of Season (EOS), Prior to Pre-season (PTP) and Post Pre-season (PPS), performing a motorised treadmill incremental test to determine O2max and sum of eight skinfolds to estimate body fat. Female soccer players were assessed on a single occasion at the start of pre-season, performing repeat sprint ability (RSA) assessment (7 x 30m in 20 sec intervals) and sum of eight skinfolds; as well as friendly matches monitored for physical loading using global positioning satellite system (GPS) devices. The elite male players’ estimated body fat was lowest EOS, however O2max values were also lower (55.5 ± 4.8 ml•kg-1•min-1) than PTP (56.7 ± 6.5 ml•kg-1•min-1) and significantly lower than EOP (61.7± 6.1 ml•kg-1•min-1) (r =0.70, R2 = 0.32; p < 0.01). Females’ estimated body fat correlated significantly with RSA performance (r = 0.71, R2 = 0.32; p < 0.01). RSA was also significantly correlated to the number of match-based high intensity efforts performed (speeds≥ 4.1 m•s-1) (r = -0.77, R2 = 0.52; p < 0.01). This study demonstrates that in elite male soccer players, O2max values observed after pre-season are significantly greater than the preceding post-season results, illustrating a decline in aerobic capacity toward the end of a competitive season. Additionally, body fat and anaerobic capability (RSA) appear to be interrelated within elite female soccer, as well as the RSA results being associated with players’ capability to perform repeated high intensity efforts during match-play.
The intra- and inter-rater reliability of the Soccer Injury Movement sscreen (SIMS)McCunn, Robert; Aus Der Fünten, Karen; Govus, Andrew; Julian, Ross; Schimpchen, Jan; Meyer, Tim; Saarland University; University of Bedfordshire (2017-02-28)Background/purpose The growing volume of movement screening research reveals a belief among practitioners and researchers alike that movement quality may have an association with injury risk. However, existing movement screening tools have not considered the sport-specific movement and injury patterns relevant to soccer. The present study introduces the Soccer Injury Movement Screen (SIMS), which has been designed specifically for use within soccer. Furthermore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the SIMS and determine its suitability for use in further research. Methods The study utilized a test-retest design to discern reliablility. Twenty-five (11 males, 14 females) healthy, recreationally active university students (age 25.5 ± 4.0 years, height 171 ± 9 cm, weight 64.7 ± 12.6 kg) agreed to participate. The SIMS contains five sub-tests: the anterior reach, single-leg deadlift, in-line lunge, single-leg hop for distance and tuck jump. Each movement was scored out of 10 points and summed to produce a composite score out of 50. The anterior reach and single-leg hop for distance were scored in real-time while the remaining tests were filmed and scored retrospectively. Three raters conducted the SIMS with each participant on three occasions separated by an average of three and a half days (minimum one day, maximum seven days). Rater 1 re-scored the filmed movements for all participants on all occasions six months later to establish the ‘pure’ intra-rater (intra-occasion) reliability for those movements. Results Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values for intra- and inter-rater composite score reliability ranged from 0.66-0.72 and 0.79-0.86 respectively. Weighted kappa values representing the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the individual sub-tests ranged from 0.35-0.91 indicating fair to almost perfect agreement. Conclusions Establishing the reliability of the SIMS is a prerequisite for further research seeking to investigate the relationship between test score and subsequent injury. The present results indicate acceptable reliability for this purpose; however, room for further development of the intra-rater reliability exists for some of the individual sub-tests.
Drop jump asymmetry is associated with reduced sprint and change-of-direction speed performance in adult female soccer playersBishop, Chris; Turner, Anthony; Maloney, Sean J.; Lake, Jason; Loturco, Irineu; Bromley, Tom; Read, Paul; Middlesex University; University of Bedfordshire; University of Chichester; et al. (MDPI, 2019-01-21)Studies that examine the effects of inter-limb asymmetry on measures of physical performance are scarce, especially in adult female populations. The aim of the present study was to establish the relationship between inter-limb asymmetry and speed and change-of-direction speed (CODS) in adult female soccer players. Sixteen adult players performed a preseason test battery consisting of unilateral countermovement jump (CMJ), unilateral drop jump (DJ), 10 m, 30 m, and 505 CODS tests. Inter-limb asymmetry was calculated using a standard percentage difference equation for jump and CODS tests, and Pearson's r correlations were used to establish a relationship between asymmetry and physical performance as well as asymmetry scores themselves across tests. Jump-height asymmetry from the CMJ (8.65%) and DJ (9.16%) tests were significantly greater (p < 0.05) than asymmetry during the 505 test (2.39%). CMJ-height asymmetry showed no association with speed or CODS. However, DJ asymmetries were significantly associated with slower 10 m (r = 0.52; p < 0.05), 30 m (r = 0.58; p < 0.05), and 505 (r = 0.52⁻0.66; p < 0.05) performance. No significant relationships were present between asymmetry scores across tests. These findings suggest that the DJ is a useful test for detecting existent between-limb asymmetry that might in turn be detrimental to speed and CODS performance. Furthermore, the lack of relationships present between different asymmetry scores indicates the individual nature of asymmetry and precludes the use of a single test for the assessment of inter-limb differences.