Exploring images of Indonesia as perceived by Indonesain tourism industry members and UK residents 'Pre-The Bali Bombings' and 'Post-The Bali Bombings'
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AbstractDestination image is an aspect of tourism that requires crisis management (CM) and marketing, because it is vulnerable to crises and media coverage. The literature review identified that potential terrorist attacks and political instability were particularly influential in changing travellers' intentions to visit and perceptions of different destinations. To date, there is no published academic research on the changing images of Indonesia as a result of the prolonged 1997 crises (pre the Bali bombings) and the 2002 and 2005 crises (post the Bali bombings). This study addresses this by examining Indonesia's images from the perspectives of the Indonesian tourist industry and UK residents. This study also addresses gaps identified in the following destination image research areas: image formation, image change and crisis management. The review of current literature revealed that there has been little shift towards a greater use of qualitative or mixed-methods approach for the study of destination image. This research uses a mixed-methods approach to address the limitations that the use of a single, purely quantitative or quantitative approach would impose. Results from the primary research reveal that the images of Indonesia, including the security image is more positive among visitors than non-visitors. The research results suggest that Bali has strong unique images and these have allowed its tourism to continue and survive pre- and post- the crisis period. Furthermore, the results revealed that Indonesia's image has become more complex since 1997, specific factors affected its image during crisis, the critical role of the media in the development of image and tourism demand and why certain crisis management strategies proposed in the tourism literature are not effective. This research contributes to the study of image dimensions, differences, change and formation factors and the use of mixed-methods within a crisis context. The research also contributes within the area of crisis management by suggesting modifications to the current crisis management framework, making it more adaptable in certain contexts and suggests the need for 'knowledge management' and a 'logical incrementalism' approach when developing the CM plan. The implication of the research findings is that mixed-methods approach is compatible and beneficial in destination image research with similar or complementary research objectives.
CitationWeiping (2010) 'Exploring images of Indonesia as perceived by Indonesain tourism industry members and UK residents 'Pre-The Bali Bombings' and 'Post-The Bali Bombings''. PhD thesis. University of Bedfordshire.
PublisherUniversity of Bedfordshire
TypeThesis or dissertation
DescriptionA thesis submitted to the University of Bedfordshire, in fulfilment for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
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