• A psychophysiological investigation of laterality in human emotion elicited by pleasant and unpleasant film clips

      Kaviani, Hossein; Kumari, Veena; Wilson, Glenn D (2012-05-25)
      Background Research on laterality in emotion suggests a dichotomy between the brain hemispheres. The present study aimed to investigate this further using a modulated startle reflex paradigm. Methods We examined the effects of left and the right ear stimulation on the modulated startle reflex (as indexed by eyeblink magnitude, measured from the right eye) employing short (2 min) film clips to elicit emotions in 16 right-handed healthy participants. The experiment consisted of two consecutive sessions on a single occasion. The acoustic startle probes were presented monaurally to one of the ears in each session, counterbalanced across order, during the viewing of film clips. Results The findings showed that eyeblink amplitude in relation to acoustic startle probes varied linearly, as expected, from pleasant through neutral to unpleasant film clips, but there was no interaction between monaural probe side and foreground valence. Conclusions Our data indicate the involvement of both hemispheres when affective states, and associated startle modulations, are produced, using materials with both audio and visual properties. From a methodological viewpoint, the robustness of film clip material including audio properties might compensate for the insufficient information reaching the ipsilateral hemisphere when using static pictures. From a theoretical viewpoint, a right ear advantage for verbal processing may account for the failure to detect the expected hemispheric difference. The verbal component of the clips would have activated the left hemisphere, possibly resulting in an increased role for the left hemisphere in both positive and negative affect generation.
    • Academics' experiences of a respite from work: effects of self-critical perfectionism and perseverative cognition on postrespite well-being

      Flaxman, Paul E.; Ménard, Julie; Bond, Frank W.; Kinman, Gail (American Psychological Association, 2012-07)
      This longitudinal study examined relations between personality and cognitive vulnerabilities and the outcomes of a respite from work. A sample of 77 academic employees responded to week-level measures of affective well-being before, during, and on 2 occasions after an Easter respite. When academics were classified as being either high or low in a self-critical form of perfectionism (doubts about actions), a divergent pattern of respite to postrespite effects was revealed. Specifically, during the respite, the 2 groups of academics experienced similar levels of well-being. However, during postrespite working weeks, the more perfectionistic academics reported significantly higher levels of fatigue, emotional exhaustion, and anxiety. The greater deterioration in well-being experienced by perfectionist academics when first returning to work was mediated by their tendency for perseverative cognition (i.e., worry and rumination) about work during the respite itself. These findings support the view that the self-critical perfectionist vulnerability is activated by direct exposure to achievement-related stressors and manifested through perseverative modes of thinking.
    • Altered early visual processing components in hallucination-prone individuals

      Schwartzman, David; Maravic, Ksenija; Kranczioch, Cornelia; Barnes, Jim (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2008)
      Of the nonpathological general population, 0.5% experience one or more visual hallucinations on a regular basis without meeting the criteria for clinical psychosis. We investigated the relationship between a proneness to visual hallucinations in 'normal' individuals and early visual event-related potentials during the perception of faces, Mooney faces and scrambled Mooney faces. Findings indicated that individuals prone to visual hallucinations displayed significantly reduced early event-related potential components (P1, P2, but not N170) over parieto-temporal regions. These findings support previous suggestions that individuals who experience visual hallucinations exhibit abnormal early visual processing resulting from degraded visual input, in this case owing to disruption of low level visual processes.
    • Applying social psychology to contemporary society

      Kinman, Gail (British Psychological Society, 2015)
    • Be brave: psychology needs you!

      Kinman, Gail (British Psychological Society, 2015)
      Cary Cooper tells Gail Kinman about his efforts to change occupational culture through wide dissemination of psychological theory and research.
    • Behavioural coping patterns in Parkinson’s patients with Visual Hallucinations

      Barnes, Jim; Connelly, Vince; Boubert, Laura; Maravic, Ksenija (Wiley-Blackwell, 2013)
      Visual Hallucinations are considered to affect about 20%–40% of patients with Parkinson's disease. They are generally seen as a side effect of this long-term illness and can severely affect the daily quality of life of patients. The aim of this study was to determine the coping patterns or strategies used by patients and establish whether the phenomenology and behaviours used by patients enabled control of the phenomenon. Demographic and clinical variables were recorded, including motor measures, cognitive status, and depressive symptoms. Patient with hallucinations were at a more advance stage of the disease and displayed more depressive symptoms than their non-hallucinating counterparts. Most patients used more than one constructive coping strategy, the most common were simple behavioural strategies based around motor action or cognitive approaches resulting in visual modification. In addition, humour was a common technique used by the patients to deal with the phenomenon. Emotional responses varied between patients, but it was found that the actual content of the hallucination was not directly associated with whether it caused trouble to the patient, but perceived stress was strongly correlated with the subjective disturbing nature of visual hallucinations (VHs). This study gives insight into the role of cognitive-behavioural approaches when dealing with VHs and opens up avenues for future studies in helping patient to deal with hallucinations.
    • Can young children develop better communication strategies through collaboration with a more popular peer?

      Faulkner, Dorothy; Murphy, Suzanne (Instituto Superior De Psicologia Aplicada, 2000)
      Investigates whether pairing unpopular five- to six-year old children with more popular peers would promote more effective collaboration. Examines the differences in verbal and nonverbal communication of the popular and unpopular children. Explains that the children were filmed playing a collaborative game. (CMK)
    • Complement set focus without explicit quantity

      Ingram, Joanne; Moxey, Linda M. (2012-05-21)
    • The cost of caring? emotional labour, wellbeing and the clergy

      Kinman, Gail; McFall, Obrene; Rodriguez, Joanna; University of Bedfordshire (Springer, 2011-10-01)
      Although members of the clergy experience working conditions that have been associated with “emotional labour”, little is known about the impact of this aspect of the job role on wellbeing. This study examined relationships between emotional labour and psychological distress and intrinsic job satisfaction in 188 UK-based clergy. Also investigated were the potential moderating effects of social support and training in counselling skills. Findings revealed significant associations between emotional labour and both psychological distress and job satisfaction. Evidence was found that counselling training and a wider social network may protect clergy from the negative impact of emotional labour, but social network size may also be a risk factor for wellbeing. Further research should examine the impact of emotional labour on clergy, and the factors that might help them manage this more effectively.
    • The cost of kindness? emotional labour, empathy and wellbeing in nursing

      Kinman, Gail; Leggetter, Sandra (The British Psychological Society, 2014)
    • Creating fair lineups for suspects with distinctive features

      Zarkadi, Theodora; Wade, Kimberley A.; Stewart, Neil (American Psychological Association, 2012-07-24)
    • Crossover of occupational stress in dual-career couples

      Crossfield, Sophie; Kinman, Gail; Jones, Fiona (Taylor and Francis, 2005)
      This study considers the source, nature and direction of ‘crossover’ of occupational stressors and strains in a sample of 74 dual-career couples. It examines patterns and habits of discussion about work between partners and investigates the role of partner communication and job commitment in the crossover process. Contrary to previous research findings which suggest that the direction of crossover is predominantly from men to their female partners, positive relationships were found between women's work stressors and the anxiety and depression reported by their male partners. Only modest evidence of crossover from men to women was found. Work demands were linked to the crossover process for both men and women but, unlike the findings of previous studies, supportive features of the working environment failed to predict crossover between partners. The nature and frequency of marital communication about work was associated with crossover, as was job commitment and satisfaction. The implications of these findings for the psychological health and functioning of dual-career couples are discussed, and recommendations for future research that might further elucidate the crossover process are made.
    • Deciding to use the law in social work practice

      Braye, Suzy; Preston-Shoot, Michael; Wigley, Veronica; University of Sussex; University of Bedfordshire (SAGE, 2011-12)
      Summary: This article reviews evidence on how social workers incorporate legal rules in their decision-making. It draws on a small empirical study in which practitioners shared with each other, in peer interviews, examples of their own casework, followed by individual interviews with a researcher. Taken together, the conversations cast light on the extent to which legal knowledge is foregrounded in practitioners’ accounts of their work. • Findings: The findings show that references to law are more likely to be implicit than explicit, particularly in adult social care, and that absence of legal references is a striking feature of the social workers’ narratives. The article draws on related literature to interrogate the potential reasons for the relatively low profile of ‘law talk’ and identifies four factors – lack of legal knowledge and confidence, reliance on organizational and procedural approaches, assumptions about the role of law in different service contexts, and individual orientations to practice – as significant factors in determining whether and how legal rules are relied upon. Thus it presents a more nuanced analysis of the relationship between law and practice than has hitherto been available. • Applications: The findings are significant in casting light on the complex range of factors that present barriers to the robust and consistent implementation of legal rules in social work. They have implications – in particular for the role of organizational management in the audit, development and supervision of practice – that are particularly topical in the context of the work in England of the Social Work Reform Board.
    • Depressiogenic cognition and insecure attachment: a motivational hypothesis

      Sochos, Antigonos; Tsalta, Assi (Asociación de Análisis del Comportamiento, 2008-06)
      A number of studies suggest that dysfunctional and depressiogenic cognitive styles have their origin in insecure attachment relationships between child and caregiver and may be further consolidated in unsupportive adult relationships. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify potential associations among preoccupied and fearful attachment styles, recollections of parental caregiving, and three types of dysfunctional cognition. The findings confirmed the hypotheses that preoccupied and fearful attachment in adult relationships, as well as problematic caregiving in childhood, were associated with depressiogenic and other dysfunctional cognition, most notably generalisation. A motivational hypothesis of cognitive dysfunction is discussed: generalisation may constitute a sub-optimal mechanism of achieving stability in a precarious attachment representation at the cost of increasing vulnerability to depression.
    • Developing outcome measures for serious mental illness; using early intervention as an example

      Agius, Mark; Shah, Samir; Ramkisson, Roshelle; Murphy, Suzanne; Zaman, Rashid; Bedfordshire Centre for Mental Health Research; University of Cambridge; University of Bedfordshire (Medicinska naklada Zagreb, 2009)
      Developing useful outcome measures for the treatment of serious mental illness remains an important challenge for the newly re-configured Mental Health Services in the United Kingdom, towards the latter part of the ten year period covered by the National Service Framework. The present authors have taken the opportunity to develop a method for measuring outcomes in psychotic illness while developing a service for Early Intervention in Psychosis. The results are mentioned shown, but will be discussed in detail elsewhere. This article will focus on the development of the method for outcome measurement itself. In particular, we shall argue for the need to use measurements which demonstrate functional improvement and improvement in quality of life. We shall show that, in order to measure outcomes, it is necessary to systematically record information from the first presentation of the case, so as later to be able to demonstrate what change has been accomplished. We shall also demonstrate that this activity is part of a necessary ongoing audit activity for services, but that, since there is no certain knowledge of what outcomes could have been expected prior to the implementation of new service developments, it is necessary to include a control group recruited from previous services, in order to establish meaningful benchmarks or norms to which the outcomes of a new service should be compared and judged. We argue that this methodology, despite the use of such a control group constitutes audit rather than research, but should be still amenable to statistical analysis. In order to be meaningful, and since serious mental illness may well be chronic, it is necessary that outcome measures should be carried out regularly, after specified periods of time. We also argue for the use of appropriate rating scales, which measure both the number and the intensity of symptoms and for computer based notes in order to facilitate regular audit.
    • Developing resilience for social work practice

      Grant, Louise Jane; Kinman, Gail (Palgrave MacMillan, 2014)