Browsing CRELLA Centre for Research in English Language Learning and Assessment by Publisher "Wiley Blackwell"
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Adapting or developing source material for listening and reading testsThe ability to understand spoken or written language cannot be observed directly but must be inferred. In tests of reading and listening, test takers are given input in the form of texts or recordings of spoken language and are asked to perform tasks as evidence of their comprehension. This chapter traces how the choice of texts or recordings for use in such tests has been shaped by trends in language education. The last century saw a decisive movement away from translation and reading aloud toward the use of comprehension questions as evidence of understanding. Considerations in selecting and preparing material are outlined. Methods that have been used by developers to gauge the difficulty of texts and recordings are described. The role of item writers in shaping or adapting material for use in tests is discussed, and predictions are made about future developments, including a growing role for technology in the selection of material.