• Magic wand or museum piece? the future of the interactive whiteboard in education

      Bax, Stephen; University of Bedfordshire (IGI Global, 2010)
    • Normalisation revisited: the effective use of technology in language education

      Bax, Stephen; University of Bedfordshire (IGI Global, 2011)
      This article revisits the issue of the normalisation of technology in language education, defined as the stage at which a technology is used in language education without our being consciously aware of its role as a technology, as an effective element in the language learning process (Bax, 2003). It draws on the literature relating to the history of sociotechnical innovation (Bijker, 1997) to develop the theoretical basis of the concept and examines normalisation in the light of a neo-Vygotskian conceptual framework, in order to establish a set of central principles by which to understand and interpret the normalisation process. It then considers the implications for the language teacher and other change agents, with proposals for how to introduce new technologies into language education settings with maximum impact.