Practical design of optimal wireless metropolitan area networks: model and algorithms for OFDMA networks
AuthorsGordejuela Sánchez, Fernando
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AbstractThis thesis contributes to the study of the planning and optimisation of wireless metropolitan area networks, in particular to the access network design of OFDMAbased systems, where different parameters like base station position, antenna tilt and azimuth need to be configured during the early stages of the network life. A practical view for the solution of this problem is presented by means of the development of a novel design framework and the use of multicriteria optimisation. A further consideration of relaying and cooperative communications in the context of the design of this kind of networks is done, an area little researched. With the emergence of new technologies and services, it is very important to accurately identify the factors that affect the design of the wireless access network and define how to take them into account to achieve optimally performing and cost-efficient networks. The new features and flexibility of OFDMA networks seem particularly suited to the provision of different broadband services to metropolitan areas. However, until now, most existing efforts have been focused on the basic access capability networks. This thesis presents a way to deal with the trade-offs generated during the OFDMA access network design, and presents a service-oriented optimization framework that offers a new perspective for this process with consideration of the technical and economic factors. The introduction of relay stations in wireless metropolitan area networks will bring numerous advantages such as coverage extension and capacity enhancement due to the deployment of new cells and the reduction of distance between transmitter and receiver. However, the network designers will also face new challenges with the use of relay stations, since they involve a new source of interference and a complicated air interface; and this need to be carefully evaluated during the network design process. Contrary to the well known procedure of cellular network design over regular or hexagonal scenarios, the wireless network planning and optimization process aims to deal with the non-uniform characteristics of realistic scenarios, where the existence of hotspots, different channel characteristics for the users, or different service requirements will determine the final design of the wireless network. This thesis is structured in three main blocks covering important gaps in the existing literature in planning (efficient simulation) and optimisation. The formulation and ideas proposed in the former case can still be evaluated over regular scenarios, for the sake of simplicity, while the study of latter case needs to be done over specific scenarios that will be described when appropriate. Nevertheless, comments and conclusions are extrapolated to more general cases throughout this work. After an introduction and a description of the related work, this thesis first focuses on the study of models and algorithms for classical point-to-multipoint networks on Chapter 3, where the optimisation framework is proposed. Based on the framework, this work: - Identifies the technology-specific physical factors that affect most importantly the network system level simulation, planning and optimization process. - It demonstrates how to simplify the problem and translate it into a formal optimization routine with consideration of economic factors. - It provides the network provider, a detailed and clear description of different scenarios during the design process so that the most suitable solution can be found. Existing works on this area do not provide such a comprehensive framework. In Chapter 4: - The impact of the relay configuration on the network planning process is analysed. - A new simple and flexible scheme to integrate multihop communications in the Mobile WiMAX frame structure is proposed and evaluated. - Efficient capacity calculations that allow intensive system level simulations in a multihop environment are introduced. In Chapter 5: - An analysis of the optimisation procedure with the addition of relay stations and the derived higher complexity of the process is done. - A frequency plan procedure not found in the existing literature is proposed, which combines it with the use of the necessary frame fragmentation of in-band relay communications and cooperative procedures. - A novel joint two-step process for network planning and optimisation is proposed. Finally, conclusions and open issues are exposed.
PublisherUniversity of Bedfordshire
TypeThesis or dissertation
DescriptionA thesis submitted to the University of Bedfordshire, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Ph.D.
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Cross-validation based man-in-the-middle attack protectionCui, Xiaofei (University of Bedfordshire, 2017-03)In recent years, computer network has widely used in almost all areas of our social life. It has been profoundly changing the way of our living. However, various network attacks have become an increasingly problem at the same time. In local area networks, Man-in-the-Middle attack, as one kind of ARP attack, is the most common attack. This research implemented a cross-validation based Man-in-the-Middle attack protection method (CVP). This approach enables a host to check whether another host that responds the initialising host with an ARP reply packet is genuine. It then allows the ARP cache table of the initialising hosts to be updated with the MAC address and IP address pairs of the genuine host and to place the MAC address of inauthentic hosts into a blacklist. This research introduced ARP and ICMP firstly, including the structure of ARP and ICMP packets, and their workflows. Secondly, this research discussed the types of ARP attacks and the existing ARP attacks protection methods, including their principles, applicable environment, advantages and disadvantages. Then, this research proposed and implemented a cross-validation based Man-in-the-Middle attack protection method. Simulations and experiments were performed to examine the effect of CVP method. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed cross-validation based method in protecting network from Man-in-the-Middle attack. Compared with the existing Man-in-the-Middle attack protection methods, CVP requires no extra devices and administration, leading to more secure local area networks and low cost. It also has made a “tabu” to attackers. That is, it places the MAC address of attackers into a blacklist. So they will be identified immediately if they try to attack the network again.
Attack graph approach to dynamic network vulnerability analysis and countermeasuresHamid, Thaier K.A. (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2014-03)It is widely accepted that modern computer networks (often presented as a heterogeneous collection of functioning organisations, applications, software, and hardware) contain vulnerabilities. This research proposes a new methodology to compute a dynamic severity cost for each state. Here a state refers to the behaviour of a system during an attack; an example of a state is where an attacker could influence the information on an application to alter the credentials. This is performed by utilising a modified variant of the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS), referred to as a Dynamic Vulnerability Scoring System (DVSS). This calculates scores of intrinsic, time-based, and ecological metrics by combining related sub-scores and modelling the problem’s parameters into a mathematical framework to develop a unique severity cost. The individual static nature of CVSS affects the scoring value, so the author has adapted a novel model to produce a DVSS metric that is more precise and efficient. In this approach, different parameters are used to compute the final scores determined from a number of parameters including network architecture, device setting, and the impact of vulnerability interactions. An attack graph (AG) is a security model representing the chains of vulnerability exploits in a network. A number of researchers have acknowledged the attack graph visual complexity and a lack of in-depth understanding. Current attack graph tools are constrained to only limited attributes or even rely on hand-generated input. The automatic formation of vulnerability information has been troublesome and vulnerability descriptions are frequently created by hand, or based on limited data. The network architectures and configurations along with the interactions between the individual vulnerabilities are considered in the method of computing the Cost using the DVSS and a dynamic cost-centric framework. A new methodology was built up to present an attack graph with a dynamic cost metric based on DVSS and also a novel methodology to estimate and represent the cost-centric approach for each host’ states was followed out. A framework is carried out on a test network, using the Nessus scanner to detect known vulnerabilities, implement these results and to build and represent the dynamic cost centric attack graph using ranking algorithms (in a standardised fashion to Mehta et al. 2006 and Kijsanayothin, 2010). However, instead of using vulnerabilities for each host, a CostRank Markov Model has developed utilising a novel cost-centric approach, thereby reducing the complexity in the attack graph and reducing the problem of visibility. An analogous parallel algorithm is developed to implement CostRank. The reason for developing a parallel CostRank Algorithm is to expedite the states ranking calculations for the increasing number of hosts and/or vulnerabilities. In the same way, the author intends to secure large scale networks that require fast and reliable computing to calculate the ranking of enormous graphs with thousands of vertices (states) and millions of arcs (representing an action to move from one state to another). In this proposed approach, the focus on a parallel CostRank computational architecture to appraise the enhancement in CostRank calculations and scalability of of the algorithm. In particular, a partitioning of input data, graph files and ranking vectors with a load balancing technique can enhance the performance and scalability of CostRank computations in parallel. A practical model of analogous CostRank parallel calculation is undertaken, resulting in a substantial decrease in calculations communication levels and in iteration time. The results are presented in an analytical approach in terms of scalability, efficiency, memory usage, speed up and input/output rates. Finally, a countermeasures model is developed to protect against network attacks by using a Dynamic Countermeasures Attack Tree (DCAT). The following scheme is used to build DCAT tree (i) using scalable parallel CostRank Algorithm to determine the critical asset, that system administrators need to protect; (ii) Track the Nessus scanner to determine the vulnerabilities associated with the asset using the dynamic cost centric framework and DVSS; (iii) Check out all published mitigations for all vulnerabilities. (iv) Assess how well the security solution mitigates those risks; (v) Assess DCAT algorithm in terms of effective security cost, probability and cost/benefit analysis to reduce the total impact of a specific vulnerability.