University of Bedfordshire Masters by research degree dissertations

Recent Submissions

  • Investigating the influence of tape application on static assessments of foot posture (clinical biomechanics)

    Stewart, Sarah Louise (University of Bedfordshire, 2019-12)
    The aim of this study is to investigate foot posture pre- and post-tape application using static assessments and pressure plate analysis. Fifteen healthy participants [male n= 9, female n= 6, 28.50 ± 11.00 years, 1.71 ± 0.10 m, 80.50 ± 18.00 kg] were conveniently sampled to take part in this study. Participants were assessed statically in a seated, bipedal and unipedal stance through pressure plate analysis and measurements of the navicular drop, medial longitudinal arch angle (MLA) and tibiocalcaneal angle (TCA). Measurements were taken pre- and post-tape applications which included no tape application, Sham, Zinc Oxide (Z/O), Elastic Adhesive Bandage (EAB) and two K-tape applications. There was a statistically significant difference between MLA and tape application [F (5,10) = 282.90, p=<.001, ηp2 = 0.122]. Significant increase in MLA was found between the following results; Zinc Oxide vs. K-tape 1 [p=<0.001], Zinc Oxide vs. K-tape 2 [p=<.001] and Sham vs K-tape 2 [p=0.022]. Whilst significant decrease in MLA was found between the following results; EAB vs. Zinc Oxide [p=<.001] and EAB vs Sham [p=0.025]. There were no statistically significant results found between MLA and change in body position [F (2,10) = 90.65, p=0.101, ηp2 = 0.016]. Additionally, there was a statistically significant difference between TCA and position [H (2) = 37.21, p=<.001] as well as TCA and tape application [H (5) = 27.79, p=<.001]. Significant decrease in TCA was found between the following results; Bipedal vs. Unipedal [p=<.045], ε2 = -0.337], Bipedal vs. Seated [p=<.001], EAB vs. No Tape [p=<.035], EAB vs. Sham [p=<.001] and EAB vs. Zinc Oxide [p=<.001]. There was a significant increase in TCA in the following conditions; Sham vs. K-tape 1 [p=<.026] and Zinc Oxide vs. K-tape 1 [p=0.032]. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant difference between total contact area and position [H (2) = 207.269, p=<.001]. Significant decrease in total contact area were found in the following conditions; Seated vs. Unipedal [p=<.001] and Bipedal vs. Unipedal [p=<.001]. Significant increase in total contact area was observed when comparing Bipedal vs. Seated [p=<.001]. In conclusion, the MLA results suggests that clinicians could justify the use Zinc Oxide tape application over other taping conditions due to the results showing that application typically increased the angle, indicating a better postural support being given which could assist individuals with a pronated foot posture. In contrast, EAB and K-tape applications were seen to reduce the angle of the MLA which justifies a clinician in using these tape applications for an individual with supinated foot posture over other applications, in order to reduce the MLA. Furthermore, the TCA seen across all conditions provided values which indicated a hindfoot valgus/pronated position, it could be suggested that EAB tape application reduces the TCA result and therefore brings the hindfoot angle more towards a neutral position. Additionally, results have also shown how the change in body position influence total contact area of the foot. These results provide clinicians with a greater understanding as to how the foot posture changes under different loading conditions based on body position which hasn’t previously been reported in literature.
  • Exploring the B. hominis TPI-GAPDH fusion enzyme glycolytic activity and stability

    McNerney, Daniel (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-12-17)
    Protist parasites cause deadly diseases and huge financial losses to crops. Eukaryotic organisms share similar cell structure and function. This makes novel drug targets difficult to find, and treating protist diseases very challenging. Studies have demonstrated a novel mitochondrial targeted glycolytically active TPI-GAPDH fusion enzyme as a potential drug target. This enzyme has been located in a variety of pathogenic Stramenopiles, including B. hominis and P. infestans. Additionally, the mitochondrial targeting of the enzyme suggests a retention of glycolysis originating from the mitochondrial precursor endosymbiont. This study explores the glycolytic function and enzyme stability of the TPI-GAPDH fusion protein when compared to its segregated subunits. Enzymatic assays demonstrated that GAPDH functions more effectively as a part of the intact fusion enzyme, and that GAPDH may compete for GAP with TPI. This is contrary to the canonical understanding that TPI is a perfect diffusion rate-controlled enzyme that is not rate-limiting. Additional assay data suggests that L-GAP may interact with GAPDH as a competitive inhibitor of glycolytic function. Higher initial rates of enzymatic activity were observed by GAPDH and TPI-GAPDH when isomerically pure D-GAP was used as substrate compared to DL-GAP. Lastly, thermal shift data suggests that the TPIGAPDH fusion enzyme may be far less stable than its subunits. TPI may have a destabilising effect on the GAPDH moiety of the fusion enzyme resulting in dissociation at approximately 25°C lower temperature than GAPDH by itself. Incubation of GAPDH and TPI subunits appeared to stabilise TPI and show potential evidence of protein-protein binding.
  • A model to offer reliable data transmissions in vehicular ad hoc network

    Jameel, Meharaj (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-06-18)
    Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is one of the widely used networks across various intelligent transport applications in order to support the autonomous driving, reduce network congestion and overcome any kind of the accidents occurring on the road. This report involves in focusing on the safety applications where the vehicles involve in broadcasting the safety messages that are highly time critical and reliability sensitive. The importance of delivering the broadcasted safety messages of VANET in highly timely and reliable manner has resulted in undertaking this research work. In order to support the reliable delivery of the broadcasted safety messages, this research has developed a model called Reliable Vector Clustering (RVC) which involves in neighbour node identification, vehicle cluster formation and broadcasting the coded data using the network coding method. In order to evaluate this developed model, analytical model developed and simulation studies have been carried out in this report. The analytical model has developed a criterion that helps in choosing the best vehicle as the cluster head node and the simulation studies have compared the effectiveness of the developed method. These simulation studies have revealed the effectiveness of proposed RVC method in improving the packet error recovery probability and packet delivery ratio when compared to the existing methods.
  • Smart cites forensics - evaluating the challenges of MK Smart City Forensics

    Okai, Ebenezer (University of Bedfordshire, 2019-06-18)
    The purpose of this research identifies what challenges are associated with MK Smart Data Hub forensics. MK Smart project holds its place as one of the Smart Cities’ projects in the United Kingdom and central to this project is the MK Data Hub which holds a vast amount of data from various data sources. The first phase of the project involves looking at the MK Smart project ultimately emphasising on the projects aims, objectives, achievements and some of the trial projects that have been carried on. The second phase involves in-depth research into the MK Data Hub which is the integral of the project. There will be an evaluation of data received from the different data sources such as sensors on the Data Hub. This will also examine how data is stored, types of data stored, data structure and finally evaluate these data with current digital forensic tools and techniques to see the challenges associated with MK Smart forensics. The project objectives are to perform detailed research into the MK Smart project focusing on the aims, current achievement, detailed research into the MK Data Hub which is the central infrastructure of the MK Project, analysis of different types of datasets available on the Data Hub, evaluation of the existing digital forensics tools and techniques and its limitations to Smart city forensics, evaluation of the current challenges facing Smart city forensics and evaluation of the MK Data hub and detailed research into its forensic investigation challenges. Once the objectives are met, a result will be generated to determine the proposed solution to forensically collect evidence from the MK Data Hub.
  • Factors of hypertension, metabolic syndrome and musculoskeletal injury risk in the Bedfordshire Police.

    Yates, James (University of Bedfordshire, 2019-03-22)
    Rationale: Compromises in individual’s health (Elliott-Davies et al., 2016) and absenteeism rate increases are resultant from reduced operational police numbers (Houdmont and Elliot-Davies, 2016). Performing police work is known to be deleterious to health due to the sudden bursts of high intensity activity performed (Kales et al. 2009). Reduced staff numbers places individuals under greater strain operationally (Arnott, Emmerson and Singer, 2001), and may also increase threats to health through longer working hours compromising lifestyle (Gu et al., 2012). By surveying the health status of a police organisation, it is possible to understand what impact reduced operational numbers may have had in order to critically inform future preventative interventions. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess Bedfordshire Police with particular focus on three main health themes; hypertension, metabolic syndrome and musculoskeletal injury risk. Method: 137 Bedfordshire police employees completed a variety of physiological, lifestyle and occupational measures. The sample was divided by gender and into non-operational and operational personnel, for comparisons between groups. Results: A significant main effect of gender existed for systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05). A significantly higher (P < 0.001, 95%CI: 8 to 25 mmHg) SBP was observed in males (136 ± 11 mmHg) compared with females (119 ± 13 mmHg) in non-operational personnel. No significant main effect of job type existed in systolic blood pressure. No significant main effect of job type or interaction effect existed between gender and job type in musculoskeletal injury, metabolic syndrome and diastolic blood pressure. Metabolic syndrome was significantly greater in males than females (P < 0.05). Conclusion: High prevalence of the main health themes existed. A significantly higher SBP was observed in males compared to females in non-operational personnel (P < 0.001). Increased trends of METSYN and MSK were observed in operational personnel although non-significant. Risk factors; HDL, WHR, PSQ-ORG and PSQ-OP were significantly different in operational personnel (P < 0.05). Future interventions should be focus on physical activity and dietary changes to improve body composition. Future research should be directed toward the impact of stress, shift work and dietary habits in this population.
  • Developing a network storage device using a single board computer

    Maguire, Christopher (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-10-16)
    The aim of this project was to continue the work of the previous project “Developing a Network Storage Device Using a Single Board Computer” using the lessons learned to develop a new device for a different use case. This projects aim was to determine the viability of a portable storage solution that could be powered by batteries. The hardware was a key area of this as a balance needed to be found between performance and power consumption. After researching different hardware options the Raspberry Pi Zero W was selected for this project as it included features that were needed, such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi, and used the same operating system as the original device and would support the same code. Bluetooth audio receiver capabilities were later added as a required feature. Due to the hardware selection an audio output needed to be added. This was done using a Hardware Attached on top, HAT, called the pHAT DAC this added a 3.5mm audio jack to the PI Zero W. The device was tested at varying locations to determine the how much interference factored into the user experience of the device. Multiple tests were run on different devices, due to the application used for testing the tests were only done on Windows devices.
  • An examination of the recontextualisation of national sport policy when implemented into practice: a case study of Sport England’s ‘This Girl Can’

    Price, Rianna (University of Bedfordshire, 2016-11-04)
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the recontextualisation of a sport policy into the local level, through a case study of Sport England’s ‘This Girl Can’ (TGC) campaign in order to examine the implementation gap currently in UK sport policy. Bernstein’s pedagogical approach (1996) is used as the theoretical framework to analyse how intended outcomes are not implemented in practice. A Case Study research design facilitated the use of multiple qualitative methods: semistructured interviews (n=7) with participants in the field of Sport Development. They were asked to share their perspectives on policy and delivery, specifically TGC, and their experiences of delivery ‘on the ground’. An online questionnaire gathered information about respondents’ (n=41) sport and PA participation and their experience of TGC. Analysis of the data was conducted using a combination of content and thematic analysis. The research findings indicate that there is an implementation gap in sport policy to practice regarding TGC. The intention of the TGC campaign was to encourage women to think differently about sport and PA, in part through a model of behaviour change. Sport England claims that the campaign had an impressive influence as a result of the use of television and public space advertisements which enhanced public and media attention. At a local level, however, national organisations (such as Sport England) failed to facilitate development of the knowledge or resources required by practitioners to effectively implement the strategy. Provider’s recontextulaised the policy to fit their understanding or the needs in their local environment and in so doing did not follow the intentions of TGC. It is essential that the relationship between the national (policy makers) and local (implementation) be rebuilt in order for sport policies, campaigns and programmes to be more effective and suit the needs and resources available for practitioners. Rebranded solutions may be provided for recurring problems, where the implementation gap affects policy being accurately implemented because there is limited connection with specific needs on the ground.
  • Help-seeking for perinatal mental health: South Asian women’s experiences in Luton

    Moghul, Fariha (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-09-06)
    The objective was to identify the current care pathway for Perinatal Mental Health (PMH) in Luton, and to explore South Asian women’s views on factors that influence help-seeking with a view to making recommendations to local service development (LBC, BLMK). Method Focus groups were used to explore the factors (barriers and enablers) that influenced the help-seeking of local South Asian women for perinatal mental health. 5 focus groups (FG) were conducted with n=17 women, from various South Asian countries and ethnic subgroups, all of whom had children who had been born locally. Luton has a large ethnic population in areas of high social and material deprivation, with a fast growing birth rate, placing them at increased risk of perinatal mental illness (PMI), but conversely has low levels of reported mental illness from within these areas. Findings The findings indicate that community; extended family, religious and cultural beliefs have a significant impact on the development, recognition and treatment of PMI, forming a complicated mesh of considerations that need to be integrated when designing local PMH services for differing populations. Conclusion Improving healthcare engagement may require a three pronged approach of; developing more culturally attuned services; a community social awareness programme endorsed by community leaders and; a socio-healthcare programme to sustain healthy spousal and familial relationships and change cultural attitudes towards motherhood to help prevent the development of PMI. These changes may reduce stress in the post-partum year, where caring for a new baby means that illnesses are more likely to develop and contribute to healthy and positive family relationships, with long-term health, social and life trajectory benefits for the family, community and society in general.
  • The resilience of alternative community states driven by priority effects: a microcosm investigation

    Bright, Emma (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-11)
    Within an ecosystem, there are a variety of interactions between species which affect the overall community. One of the strongest influences of community structure within a habitat is the order in which species arrive and establish; resulting in populations either coexisting or excluding one another to extinction. This can either be invading species excluding residents (competitive exclusion) or residents excluding invaders (priority effects), often due to freely depleting any shared resources before invaders arrive. Priority effects are predicted to be weaker when the invasion occurs simultaneously with warming towards and above the thermal tolerance of one species as the pressure put on the species can be too much to allow a population to grow or establish to survive. This experiment investigated whether an 8°C temperature range altered protist ability to invade or be invaded in simple aquatic microcosms, where the order of invasion of Colpidium and Tetrahymena was varied. I measured the changes to population density of both species over time, to identify changes in maximum population density and time to extinction. Results showed very strong priority effects between the two species, but this was never affected by temperature. In all treatments, resident Tetrahymena could never be invaded by Colpidium. However, Tetrahymena can invade resident Colpidium and populations can coexist for weeks, but Colpidium always eventually exclude Tetrahymena to extinction. The only factors temperature affected were maximum population density and time to extinction in single species microcosms, with earlier extinction and lower maximum population densities at warmer temperatures. This study suggests that arrival of species into an environment is vital in determining the final habitat composition. Although temperature does not affect priority effects, it does alter the duration species may be able to survive and coexist, which could be fundamental in conservation work in a world with changing habitats and climates.
  • Testing academic literacy in reading and writing for university admissions

    Holland, Martine (University of Bedfordshire, 2019-07)
    Currently university entrance decisions are heavily reliant on further education qualifications and language proficiency tests, with little focus on academic literacy skills that are required to succeed at university. This thesis attempts to define what academic literacy skills are and to what extent they correlate with three measures of university success. To answer these two research questions, I first investigated what academic literacy skills are through a survey of the literature, university study skills websites and existing academic literacy tests, and from these results drew up a checklist for academic literacy test validation. I then attempted to validate a new academic literacy test through a mixed methods study: first by calculating the correlations between performance in this test and university grades, self-assessment and tutor assessment, then through a case study approach to investigate these relationships in more detail. My tentative findings are that, within the humanities and social sciences, the academic literacy test is likely to correlate strongly with university grades, both in the overall results and in two of the four marking criteria: coherence and cohesion, and engagement with sources, with some possibility of correlation in the argument criterion. The fourth criterion – academic language use – did not correlate, but this may be an effect of this particular participant sample rather than the test itself. I also suggest two areas that may be difficult to elicit under timed exam conditions: eliciting appropriate source use when sources are provided, and eliciting synthesis of ideas across two or more given sources.
  • Practical cooling manoeuvres during simulated soccer in the heat

    McDonald, Peter (University of Bedfordshire, 2019-03)
    The globalisation of soccer match-play has meant that major international and domestic competitions typically occur in hot environments with ambient temperature exceeding 28°C (Taylor and Rollo, 2014). Previous simulated (Aldous et al., 2016) and soccer match-play data (Mohr et al., 2012) in the heat (30 - 43°C) have reported significant reductions in physical performance measures when compared to a temperate environment (18 - 21°C). Practical strategies to reduce these heat-mediated decrements in physical performance whilst fitting in with the time constraints practitioners are faced with in soccer are warranted (Taylor and Rollo, 2014; Russel et al., 2015). Therefore, the aim of the present investigation is to examine the efficacy of practical cooling manoeuvres which can be actively worn during a pre-match warmup and whilst conducting general changing room preparatory tasks (downtime prior to kick off and half-time) on simulated soccer performance in a hot environment (32°C and 60% rH; WBGT: 28°C). Seven male university level soccer-players completed one Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1, two familiarization sessions, one peak speed assessment and four randomized, counterbalanced experimental trials of the intermittent Soccer Performance Test (iSPT) at 32°C. Four experimental trials consisted of cooling during a soccer-specific prematch warm-up (~24 min), downtime prior to kick-off (12 min) and half-time interval (10 min) via (1) Ice Vest (VEST); (2) Neck Cooling (NECK); (3) VEST and NECK (VEST+NECK) used concurrently; or with no-cooling (CON). Physical performance [total distance (TD), highspeed distance (HSD), sprint distance, variable run distance (VRD) and low-speed distance (LSD) covered], body temperatures [rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk) and neck temperature (neckTsk)], physiological [heart-rate (HR) and change in body-mass] and perceptual response [rate of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort (TC), thermal sensation (TS) and neck thermal sensation (TSneck)] were all measured. When compared to CON, sprint distance covered was significantly improved (P < 0.05) during the first and last 15 min in NECK, final 15 min in VEST, and final 30 min in VEST+NECK during iSPT, respectively. In xvi VEST, Tsk was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) until 15 min of iSPT compared to CON. In NECK and VEST+NECK, TSneck and neckTsk were significantly reduced (P < 0.01) prior to the start of iSPT with neckTsk also significantly lower post half-time cooling, compared to CON. Furthermore, VEST+NECK also significantly reduced (P < 0.05) TS prior to the start of iSPT, compared to CON. No further significance (P > 0.05) was observed for physical performance, physiological or perceptual responses during iSPT for all conditions. Pre- and half-time cooling via VEST+NECK was most ergogenic and significantly improved sprint performance during the final 30 min of iSPT in 32°C, important given the prominence of sprinting prior to goals and assists during soccer match-play (Faude et al., 2012). Further research with a larger sample size is warranted to further elucidate the mechanisms for the enhanced performance.
  • Pro inflammatory cytokine production by polymorphonuclear neutrophils following a 12-day period of intensified training

    Thorley, Josh (University of Bedfordshire, 2019-01-15)
    This thesis investigated whether resting and/or exercise-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production by antigen-stimulated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) would alter over a 12-day intensified training period (ITP). Ten physically active males completed seventeen exercise sessions in total, including: two main trials (30-min self-paced treadmill run (RPETR), 10 km time trial), completed before (MTPRE) and after (MTPOST) a twelve day ITP, and two V̇O2max tests completed before (VO2PRE) and after (VO2POST) the ITP. Blood samples were collected via venepuncture before and after the RPETR at MTPRE and MTPOST. PMN were isolated from whole blood and incubated for 18 h with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen. IL-8 and TNF-α production by LPS-stimulated PMN was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. TNF-α production by LPS-stimulated PMN significantly elevated in response to the RPETR at MTPRE (P = 0.004) and MTPOST (P = 0.047). IL-8 production only significantly increased in response to the RPETR at MTPRE (P = 0.033) but not at MTPOST (P = 0.199). The absolute RPETR-induced increase in TNF-α and IL-8 concentrations by LPS-stimulated PMN were lower at MTPOST compared to MTPRE. Blood PMN concentration increased significantly following the completion of RPETR at MTPRE (P = 0.02) and MTPOST (P = 0.016). Resting and RPETR-induced blood PMN concentrations did not significantly differ between MTPRE and MTPOST (P = 0.521). Following the completion of the ITP, V̇O2max (P = 0.696) and 10 km time to completion scores (P = 0.457; d = 0.32) did not change. The severity of upper-respiratory tract symptoms (URTS) increased in six out of ten participants following the ITP. Self-reported general (P = 0.040) and sport-related (P = 0.005) stress scores were higher at MTPOST compared to MTPRE. The identification of increased stress states, more severe URTS, and decreased physical performance capacities in participants indicates that overreaching may have been achieved following the ITP. Reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to acute exercise following a period of intensified training may predispose athletes to impaired inflammatory responses during exercise which may contribute to the pathogenesis of reported URTS in athletes who are overtraining.
  • Effect of aerobic exercise in different environmental temperatures on gut hormones, appetite and energy intake

    Horner, Matthew (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-01)
    Introduction: A strategy that combines both increasing energy expenditure and reducing energy intake (EI) to induce a negative energy balance is key for preventing and managing obesity. Exercise has been shown to reduce EI in a subsequent meal, an increase in temperature has also been shown to decrease appetite stimulation. Exercise in a hot environment may augment the appetite suppressing effect of exercise. However, there is currently little evidence available regarding the effect of environmental temperature during exercise on appetite. This study focused on the effect of exercise in different environmental temperatures on gut hormones and EI. Methods: A total of 8 healthy males completed four 5.5 hour conditions in a counterbalanced order. A preliminary visit consisting of a submaximal and maximal exercise test was conducted prior to experimental visits. For experimental visits, participants arrived in a fasted, euhydrated state at 08:30 and were fitted with a cannula, heart rate monitor, rectal and skin thermistors before completing one of four conditions: exercise in 10°C, 20°C or 30°C or resting control. Participants ran for 60 minutes on a treadmill at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake or rested for 60 minutes before resting for 4.5 hours. Blood samples were taken at 0 (fasted), 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hr. Perceptions of hunger were assessed using visual analogue scales at 0, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5 and 5 h. Ad libitum meals were provided at 1.5 hr and 5 hr. Results: Although there was a significant reduction in relative energy intake in all exercise conditions (p < 0.001), this was not augmented or attenuated by any change in environmental temperature. This decrease was also not supported by any decrease in acylated ghrelin or increase in PYY. Furthermore, the only significant decrease in overall appetite was stimulated by the intake of food in meal 1 (p < 0.001). There was also no significant difference in total energy intake, lending to the notion that the decrease in relative energy intake can be partially, if not completely attributed to the increase in energy expenditure from exercise. Conclusion: These results suggest that exercise produces an energy deficit through a reduction in relative energy intake, regardless of environmental temperature. Further research into the effects of exercise in different environmental temperatures in an overweight and obese population is warranted.
  • Hitchcock, Tati and Leone: style, narrative and directorial approaches in mainstream cinema and their relationship to contemporary screen-dance practice.

    King, Deborah Tiso (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-06)
    This research recommends the style, narrative and directorial approaches of Alfred Hitchcock, Jaques Tati and Sergio Leone as a relevant point of reference for current screen-dance practice. Their specific cinematic authored models were tested in order to determine whether the framework could provide a flexible enough methodology for the making and producing of effective screen-dance, and in the hopes of providing new pathways for the researcher’s screen-dance practice. The cinematic authors selected for scrutiny were Alfred Hitchcock, Jaques Tati, and Sergio Leone. The criterion for this selection was determined by the directors’ stylistic and narrative preferences, and democratic approaches to sound and image making. Five screen-dances were produced for this research between 2004 and 2011 and a further two in 2014 and 2016: Vanishing point (Tiso, 2004), Tippi: Crying Fowl (Tiso, 2007) and Nil desperandum) (Tiso, 2012) were based on the Hitchcock oeuvre, Souvenir (Tiso, 2005) was based on the Tati opus and Crimes (Tiso, 2005) on Sergio Leone’s legacy. Flow (Tiso, 2014) and The big sofa (Tiso, 2016) were developed out of the findings of a completed directorial, stylistic, narrative listing. This thesis is largely a piece of self-enquiry. The researcher has been methodical in how she has approached her own work, so that the work is presented as a heuristic analysis interwoven woven into body of the practical components.
  • Exploration of individuals’ perspectives towards death and dying

    Pinto, Alexandra (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-11)
    This thesis explores people’s attitudes towards death and dying. Humans have the ability to create meaning and attach these meanings to objects or events within their life, which then rouses some form of emotions. In respect of death emotions tend to be negative, but with meaning formation might provide the ability to develop positive emotions. Semi-structured interviews were utilised to explore the participants’ attitude towards death and dying. They comprised of seven women and two men with ages ranging from 21 to 81 years. Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used, providing an explanation of an individual’s lived experience. Data revealed key factors influencing whether death was seen as normal part of life or an object of fear, included faith, meaning and communication, providing a more positive outlook to death and dying; death perceptions, anxiety, media and communication, providing a more negative outlook to death and dying. It is concluded that there is a cross-over between both negative and positive perspectives towards death and dying. Individuals may be both afraid of death but also accept death allowing an individual to find meaning within their everyday life.
  • Interrupting prolonged sitting in overweight, and obese adults and glycaemic responses: a randomised crossover study in free-living conditions

    Stringer, Charlotte Anne (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-01)
    Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate 24 h interstitial glycaemia responses to interrupting prolonged sitting in free-living conditions in inactive and sedentary overweight and obese adults. Methods: Twelve overweight and obese individuals (mean ± SD age 47.5 ± 9.9 y) completed two, four-day conditions in a randomised crossover design; Uninterrupted sitting (SIT): 10 h/day sitting, 7 h/day uninterrupted bouts sitting (7 x 60 min bouts), standing and walking restricted to 1.5 h/day, or interrupting sitting (INT SIT): 3 – 6 min of standing, walking, simple body-weight resistance; half squats, lunges, calf raises, knee lifts, and repeated sit-to-stand transitions every 30 min for 10 h/day. Incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was calculated using the trapezoid method. Results: There were no significant differences observed for iAUC glucose measures between SIT and INT SIT conditions. There was no difference in sedentary behaviour between conditions, but daily stepping time and total steps increased significantly in INT SIT compared with SIT. Conclusion: In overweight and obese participants, it may not be possible to manipulate increases or decreases in sedentary behaviourin free-living conditions. Therefore, it was not possible to compare effects of interrupted sitting versus uninterrupted sitting on glycaemia.
  • Decision making ability and thermoregulation in extreme environments during goal line official-like movement patterns

    Watkins, Samuel L. (University of Bedfordshire, 2013-03)
    Goal line officials (GLO) are exposed to extreme environmental conditions when employed to officiate in European cup competitions. Extreme environments have been shown previously to affect various facets of cognitive function. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of such environments on GLO. 13 male participants were exposed to 3 conditions, cold (-5 oC, 50% RH); temperate (18 oC, 50% RH); and hot (30 oC, 50% RH) for 90 minutes per condition, with a 15 minutes half time break after 45 minutes. Decision making ability was measured; using the Psyche Software Package, prior to each exposure (0 minutes), at the end of the first half (45 minutes), immediately after half time (45 minutes), and at the end of the second half (90 minutes). Exposure to cold conditions reduced positive stimuli responses (HIT scores) significantly when compared to hot conditions (P<0.05). Participants ability to track stimuli was also significantly reduced in cold conditions when compared to temperate and hot conditions (P<0.05). Reductions in decision making ability were coupled with reductions in physiological measures; cold exposure significantly reduced core temperature, skin temperature and thermal comfort when compared to temperate and hot conditions (P<0.05). The diminishment in GLO decision making ability during exposure to cold conditions, most notably the ability to respond positively to an infringement and the ability to track important stimuli, e.g. the football and goal line/player, are concerns which could negatively affect the outcome of a football match. Such findings should be considered by football’s governing bodies when assessing the implementation of goal line technology and/or the continued use of GLO.
  • Associations of sedentary behaviour patterns with cardiometabolic risk in children: the sit less for health study

    White, Stephanie L. (University of Bedfordshire, 2017-12)
    This study investigated the association between patterns of sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic risk in children aged 11–12-years-old. Inclinometer and accelerometer determined sedentary behaviour patterns were measured in 118 (51 males) school children, in addition to cardiometabolic risk markers. Data were analysed using partial correlations and multiple linear regression. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, prolonged sedentary time was significantly negatively associated with weight (β=-.681), waist circumference (WC) (β=-.557), body mass index (BMI) (β=-.675) and body fat% (β=-.685) and significantly positively associated with total cholesterol (TC) (β=.410) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (β=.432). The number of breaks in sedentary time was significantly negatively associated with weight (β=-.661), WC (β=-.597), BMI (β=-.601) and body fat% (β=-.546) and significantly positively associated with TC (β=.334) and HDL (β=.415). Total standing time was significantly negatively associated with weight (β=-.270), WC (β=-.272) and body fat% (β=-.286) and significantly positively associated with HDL (β=.312). This study provides evidence that the number of breaks in sedentary time and total standing time are beneficially associated with cardiometabolic risk in children aged 11–12-years-old. However, the associations of other sedentary behaviour variables cardiometabolic risk is mixed and thus requires further research.
  • Are talking therapies culturally relevant for the British South-Asian community?: a look into the views and experiences of British South-Asians

    Khalil, Sidhra Adilia (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-11)
    The personal experiences of South-Asians who have accessed talking therapy have been widely overlooked in the development of culturally adapted therapies for ethnic minorities in the United Kingdom (Naeem et al., 2015). This research aimed to gain an understanding into the experiences of British South-Asian service users, discovering the views held towards existing mental health services and exploring how their experiences shaped these. Additionally, the experiences of community members and professionals were also explored, with all three groups being sought to discover whether talking therapies were culturally relevant for the British South Asian community in England. This qualitative study consisted of 20 semi-structured interviews carried out with British South-Asian service users (n=4), British South-Asian community members (n=5) and mental health professionals (n=11) who had experience of providing therapy to the South-Asian community. Interviews were analysed using inductive thematic analysis, with four key themes arising within each group. There was consensus among the three groups that specific barriers caused difficulty when accessing services, including cultural norms and perceptions towards mental health, English as a second language and limited cultural understanding within existing services. Findings are discussed in relation to previous research into minority communities and recommendations for future research are made.

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