• Pro inflammatory cytokine production by polymorphonuclear neutrophils following a 12-day period of intensified training

      Thorley, Josh (University of Bedfordshire, 2019-01-15)
      This thesis investigated whether resting and/or exercise-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production by antigen-stimulated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) would alter over a 12-day intensified training period (ITP). Ten physically active males completed seventeen exercise sessions in total, including: two main trials (30-min self-paced treadmill run (RPETR), 10 km time trial), completed before (MTPRE) and after (MTPOST) a twelve day ITP, and two V̇O2max tests completed before (VO2PRE) and after (VO2POST) the ITP. Blood samples were collected via venepuncture before and after the RPETR at MTPRE and MTPOST. PMN were isolated from whole blood and incubated for 18 h with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen. IL-8 and TNF-α production by LPS-stimulated PMN was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. TNF-α production by LPS-stimulated PMN significantly elevated in response to the RPETR at MTPRE (P = 0.004) and MTPOST (P = 0.047). IL-8 production only significantly increased in response to the RPETR at MTPRE (P = 0.033) but not at MTPOST (P = 0.199). The absolute RPETR-induced increase in TNF-α and IL-8 concentrations by LPS-stimulated PMN were lower at MTPOST compared to MTPRE. Blood PMN concentration increased significantly following the completion of RPETR at MTPRE (P = 0.02) and MTPOST (P = 0.016). Resting and RPETR-induced blood PMN concentrations did not significantly differ between MTPRE and MTPOST (P = 0.521). Following the completion of the ITP, V̇O2max (P = 0.696) and 10 km time to completion scores (P = 0.457; d = 0.32) did not change. The severity of upper-respiratory tract symptoms (URTS) increased in six out of ten participants following the ITP. Self-reported general (P = 0.040) and sport-related (P = 0.005) stress scores were higher at MTPOST compared to MTPRE. The identification of increased stress states, more severe URTS, and decreased physical performance capacities in participants indicates that overreaching may have been achieved following the ITP. Reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to acute exercise following a period of intensified training may predispose athletes to impaired inflammatory responses during exercise which may contribute to the pathogenesis of reported URTS in athletes who are overtraining.
    • Exploring the B. hominis TPI-GAPDH fusion enzyme glycolytic activity and stability

      McNerney, Daniel (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-12-17)
      Protist parasites cause deadly diseases and huge financial losses to crops. Eukaryotic organisms share similar cell structure and function. This makes novel drug targets difficult to find, and treating protist diseases very challenging. Studies have demonstrated a novel mitochondrial targeted glycolytically active TPI-GAPDH fusion enzyme as a potential drug target. This enzyme has been located in a variety of pathogenic Stramenopiles, including B. hominis and P. infestans. Additionally, the mitochondrial targeting of the enzyme suggests a retention of glycolysis originating from the mitochondrial precursor endosymbiont. This study explores the glycolytic function and enzyme stability of the TPI-GAPDH fusion protein when compared to its segregated subunits. Enzymatic assays demonstrated that GAPDH functions more effectively as a part of the intact fusion enzyme, and that GAPDH may compete for GAP with TPI. This is contrary to the canonical understanding that TPI is a perfect diffusion rate-controlled enzyme that is not rate-limiting. Additional assay data suggests that L-GAP may interact with GAPDH as a competitive inhibitor of glycolytic function. Higher initial rates of enzymatic activity were observed by GAPDH and TPI-GAPDH when isomerically pure D-GAP was used as substrate compared to DL-GAP. Lastly, thermal shift data suggests that the TPIGAPDH fusion enzyme may be far less stable than its subunits. TPI may have a destabilising effect on the GAPDH moiety of the fusion enzyme resulting in dissociation at approximately 25°C lower temperature than GAPDH by itself. Incubation of GAPDH and TPI subunits appeared to stabilise TPI and show potential evidence of protein-protein binding.
    • Are talking therapies culturally relevant for the British South-Asian community?: a look into the views and experiences of British South-Asians

      Khalil, Sidhra Adilia (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-11)
      The personal experiences of South-Asians who have accessed talking therapy have been widely overlooked in the development of culturally adapted therapies for ethnic minorities in the United Kingdom (Naeem et al., 2015). This research aimed to gain an understanding into the experiences of British South-Asian service users, discovering the views held towards existing mental health services and exploring how their experiences shaped these. Additionally, the experiences of community members and professionals were also explored, with all three groups being sought to discover whether talking therapies were culturally relevant for the British South Asian community in England. This qualitative study consisted of 20 semi-structured interviews carried out with British South-Asian service users (n=4), British South-Asian community members (n=5) and mental health professionals (n=11) who had experience of providing therapy to the South-Asian community. Interviews were analysed using inductive thematic analysis, with four key themes arising within each group. There was consensus among the three groups that specific barriers caused difficulty when accessing services, including cultural norms and perceptions towards mental health, English as a second language and limited cultural understanding within existing services. Findings are discussed in relation to previous research into minority communities and recommendations for future research are made.
    • Exploration of individuals’ perspectives towards death and dying

      Pinto, Alexandra (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-11)
      This thesis explores people’s attitudes towards death and dying. Humans have the ability to create meaning and attach these meanings to objects or events within their life, which then rouses some form of emotions. In respect of death emotions tend to be negative, but with meaning formation might provide the ability to develop positive emotions. Semi-structured interviews were utilised to explore the participants’ attitude towards death and dying. They comprised of seven women and two men with ages ranging from 21 to 81 years. Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used, providing an explanation of an individual’s lived experience. Data revealed key factors influencing whether death was seen as normal part of life or an object of fear, included faith, meaning and communication, providing a more positive outlook to death and dying; death perceptions, anxiety, media and communication, providing a more negative outlook to death and dying. It is concluded that there is a cross-over between both negative and positive perspectives towards death and dying. Individuals may be both afraid of death but also accept death allowing an individual to find meaning within their everyday life.
    • The resilience of alternative community states driven by priority effects: a microcosm investigation

      Bright, Emma (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-11)
      Within an ecosystem, there are a variety of interactions between species which affect the overall community. One of the strongest influences of community structure within a habitat is the order in which species arrive and establish; resulting in populations either coexisting or excluding one another to extinction. This can either be invading species excluding residents (competitive exclusion) or residents excluding invaders (priority effects), often due to freely depleting any shared resources before invaders arrive. Priority effects are predicted to be weaker when the invasion occurs simultaneously with warming towards and above the thermal tolerance of one species as the pressure put on the species can be too much to allow a population to grow or establish to survive. This experiment investigated whether an 8°C temperature range altered protist ability to invade or be invaded in simple aquatic microcosms, where the order of invasion of Colpidium and Tetrahymena was varied. I measured the changes to population density of both species over time, to identify changes in maximum population density and time to extinction. Results showed very strong priority effects between the two species, but this was never affected by temperature. In all treatments, resident Tetrahymena could never be invaded by Colpidium. However, Tetrahymena can invade resident Colpidium and populations can coexist for weeks, but Colpidium always eventually exclude Tetrahymena to extinction. The only factors temperature affected were maximum population density and time to extinction in single species microcosms, with earlier extinction and lower maximum population densities at warmer temperatures. This study suggests that arrival of species into an environment is vital in determining the final habitat composition. Although temperature does not affect priority effects, it does alter the duration species may be able to survive and coexist, which could be fundamental in conservation work in a world with changing habitats and climates.
    • Developing a network storage device using a single board computer

      Maguire, Christopher (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-10-16)
      The aim of this project was to continue the work of the previous project “Developing a Network Storage Device Using a Single Board Computer” using the lessons learned to develop a new device for a different use case. This projects aim was to determine the viability of a portable storage solution that could be powered by batteries. The hardware was a key area of this as a balance needed to be found between performance and power consumption. After researching different hardware options the Raspberry Pi Zero W was selected for this project as it included features that were needed, such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi, and used the same operating system as the original device and would support the same code. Bluetooth audio receiver capabilities were later added as a required feature. Due to the hardware selection an audio output needed to be added. This was done using a Hardware Attached on top, HAT, called the pHAT DAC this added a 3.5mm audio jack to the PI Zero W. The device was tested at varying locations to determine the how much interference factored into the user experience of the device. Multiple tests were run on different devices, due to the application used for testing the tests were only done on Windows devices.
    • Help-seeking for perinatal mental health: South Asian women’s experiences in Luton

      Moghul, Fariha (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-09-06)
      The objective was to identify the current care pathway for Perinatal Mental Health (PMH) in Luton, and to explore South Asian women’s views on factors that influence help-seeking with a view to making recommendations to local service development (LBC, BLMK). Method Focus groups were used to explore the factors (barriers and enablers) that influenced the help-seeking of local South Asian women for perinatal mental health. 5 focus groups (FG) were conducted with n=17 women, from various South Asian countries and ethnic subgroups, all of whom had children who had been born locally. Luton has a large ethnic population in areas of high social and material deprivation, with a fast growing birth rate, placing them at increased risk of perinatal mental illness (PMI), but conversely has low levels of reported mental illness from within these areas. Findings The findings indicate that community; extended family, religious and cultural beliefs have a significant impact on the development, recognition and treatment of PMI, forming a complicated mesh of considerations that need to be integrated when designing local PMH services for differing populations. Conclusion Improving healthcare engagement may require a three pronged approach of; developing more culturally attuned services; a community social awareness programme endorsed by community leaders and; a socio-healthcare programme to sustain healthy spousal and familial relationships and change cultural attitudes towards motherhood to help prevent the development of PMI. These changes may reduce stress in the post-partum year, where caring for a new baby means that illnesses are more likely to develop and contribute to healthy and positive family relationships, with long-term health, social and life trajectory benefits for the family, community and society in general.
    • Adolescent-to-parent violence and abuse: abused parents' accounts

      Bell, Rebecca (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-09)
      Adolescent-to-parent violence and abuse (APVA); is an adolescents utilisation of "a pattern of behaviour that uses verbal, financial, physical or emotional means to practice power and exert control over a parent" (Holt, 2013, p. 1). As well as causing psychological damage to the parent and child it is a growing social problem which is largely absent from within both academic and social policy domains (Miles & Condry, 2014). This study sought to contribute to existing literature by examining parents’ accounts of APVA shared within online forums to identify themes of issues of significance to them via a thematic analysis (Braun & Clark, 2006). Data comprised thirty-two archived message ‘posts’ written by twenty-three (71.8%) mothers, four (12.5%) fathers, and five (15.6%) step-fathers describing the abuse that they experienced by their adolescent (93.3% male, 13.3% female). Findings formed three themes; the ‘emotional turmoil’, the ‘need to explain’, and ‘fractured relationships. The themes are discussed in relation to wider literature and recommendations for further study are suggested to address limitations.
    • A model to offer reliable data transmissions in vehicular ad hoc network

      Jameel, Meharaj (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-06-18)
      Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is one of the widely used networks across various intelligent transport applications in order to support the autonomous driving, reduce network congestion and overcome any kind of the accidents occurring on the road. This report involves in focusing on the safety applications where the vehicles involve in broadcasting the safety messages that are highly time critical and reliability sensitive. The importance of delivering the broadcasted safety messages of VANET in highly timely and reliable manner has resulted in undertaking this research work. In order to support the reliable delivery of the broadcasted safety messages, this research has developed a model called Reliable Vector Clustering (RVC) which involves in neighbour node identification, vehicle cluster formation and broadcasting the coded data using the network coding method. In order to evaluate this developed model, analytical model developed and simulation studies have been carried out in this report. The analytical model has developed a criterion that helps in choosing the best vehicle as the cluster head node and the simulation studies have compared the effectiveness of the developed method. These simulation studies have revealed the effectiveness of proposed RVC method in improving the packet error recovery probability and packet delivery ratio when compared to the existing methods.
    • Hitchcock, Tati and Leone: style, narrative and directorial approaches in mainstream cinema and their relationship to contemporary screen-dance practice.

      King, Deborah Tiso (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-06)
      This research recommends the style, narrative and directorial approaches of Alfred Hitchcock, Jaques Tati and Sergio Leone as a relevant point of reference for current screen-dance practice. Their specific cinematic authored models were tested in order to determine whether the framework could provide a flexible enough methodology for the making and producing of effective screen-dance, and in the hopes of providing new pathways for the researcher’s screen-dance practice. The cinematic authors selected for scrutiny were Alfred Hitchcock, Jaques Tati, and Sergio Leone. The criterion for this selection was determined by the directors’ stylistic and narrative preferences, and democratic approaches to sound and image making. Five screen-dances were produced for this research between 2004 and 2011 and a further two in 2014 and 2016: Vanishing point (Tiso, 2004), Tippi: Crying Fowl (Tiso, 2007) and Nil desperandum) (Tiso, 2012) were based on the Hitchcock oeuvre, Souvenir (Tiso, 2005) was based on the Tati opus and Crimes (Tiso, 2005) on Sergio Leone’s legacy. Flow (Tiso, 2014) and The big sofa (Tiso, 2016) were developed out of the findings of a completed directorial, stylistic, narrative listing. This thesis is largely a piece of self-enquiry. The researcher has been methodical in how she has approached her own work, so that the work is presented as a heuristic analysis interwoven woven into body of the practical components.
    • Investigation into the coefficient of friction of manual therapy products

      Howes, Emily Marie (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-02)
      The ability to modulate friction is a vital aspect of manual therapy. Various mediums are utilised to assist with different techniques in the form of: lotions, oils and waxes. The aim of this research was to investigate the differences in the dynamic coefficient of friction between manual therapy mediums. A scientific testing rig with an interchangeable calibration weight (SE-8708, PASCO, USA) was pulled across the mediums and the force was recorded. Constant velocity was confirmed by monitoring acceleration via a wireless force-acceleration sensor (PS-3202, PASCO, USA). The coefficient of friction for each medium was calculated and recorded. Results showed the mean dynamic coefficient of friction for wax was 0.30 (95% CI, 0.26 - 0.35). This was significantly different from cream 0.16 (95% CI, 0.13 - 0.19) p=0.000 and oil 0.09 (95% CI, 0.07 - 0.12) p=000. There was also a statistically significant difference between cream and oil p=0.037. These results suggest that oil and wax produce the lowest and highest coefficient of frictions respectively. Therefore, if the intention of a technique were to increase friction, then wax may be the most effective medium. Alternatively, where less friction is required, oil may prove more efficient for the practitioner.
    • Effect of aerobic exercise in different environmental temperatures on gut hormones, appetite and energy intake

      Horner, Matthew (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-01)
      Introduction: A strategy that combines both increasing energy expenditure and reducing energy intake (EI) to induce a negative energy balance is key for preventing and managing obesity. Exercise has been shown to reduce EI in a subsequent meal, an increase in temperature has also been shown to decrease appetite stimulation. Exercise in a hot environment may augment the appetite suppressing effect of exercise. However, there is currently little evidence available regarding the effect of environmental temperature during exercise on appetite. This study focused on the effect of exercise in different environmental temperatures on gut hormones and EI. Methods: A total of 8 healthy males completed four 5.5 hour conditions in a counterbalanced order. A preliminary visit consisting of a submaximal and maximal exercise test was conducted prior to experimental visits. For experimental visits, participants arrived in a fasted, euhydrated state at 08:30 and were fitted with a cannula, heart rate monitor, rectal and skin thermistors before completing one of four conditions: exercise in 10°C, 20°C or 30°C or resting control. Participants ran for 60 minutes on a treadmill at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake or rested for 60 minutes before resting for 4.5 hours. Blood samples were taken at 0 (fasted), 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hr. Perceptions of hunger were assessed using visual analogue scales at 0, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5 and 5 h. Ad libitum meals were provided at 1.5 hr and 5 hr. Results: Although there was a significant reduction in relative energy intake in all exercise conditions (p < 0.001), this was not augmented or attenuated by any change in environmental temperature. This decrease was also not supported by any decrease in acylated ghrelin or increase in PYY. Furthermore, the only significant decrease in overall appetite was stimulated by the intake of food in meal 1 (p < 0.001). There was also no significant difference in total energy intake, lending to the notion that the decrease in relative energy intake can be partially, if not completely attributed to the increase in energy expenditure from exercise. Conclusion: These results suggest that exercise produces an energy deficit through a reduction in relative energy intake, regardless of environmental temperature. Further research into the effects of exercise in different environmental temperatures in an overweight and obese population is warranted.
    • The effects of a 12 day intensified training period on the exercise- induced salivary hormone and mucosal immune responses

      Harrison, Michael (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-01)
      The present study investigated the exercise-induced salivary hormonal (cortisol and testosterone) and mucosal immunological (salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA)) responses to a 30 min high-intensity running bout (RPEtreadmill) before and after (~1 day and 6 days after) a 12 day intensified training period. Eight active males completed the study. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected pre-exercise, post-exercise and 30 min post-exercise and assessed for salivary cortisol, testosterone and SIgA. 10 km TT performance decreased by 3% from pre- to post-training (ES = 0.24). The exercise-induced salivary testosterone response significantly elevated by 36% pre-training and decreased by 42% post-training (ES = 0.43). Salivary cortisol and SIgA responses were unaffected by the exercise and training, although a small ES between pre- and post-training were observed (0.32-0.49). Four participants completed a post-recovery trial and salivary cortisol, testosterone, SIgA responses were unaffected by the exercise and training, although a small to large ES between pre-training, post-training and post-recovery were observed (0.4-1.24). Individual results are presented for four participants and two were identified as showing signs of overreaching. This study demonstrates that the RPEtreadmill bout induces robust elevations in salivary testosterone and can potentially highlight any alterations in this hormone following a 12 day intensified training period.
    • Interrupting prolonged sitting in overweight, and obese adults and glycaemic responses: a randomised crossover study in free-living conditions

      Stringer, Charlotte Anne (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-01)
      Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate 24 h interstitial glycaemia responses to interrupting prolonged sitting in free-living conditions in inactive and sedentary overweight and obese adults. Methods: Twelve overweight and obese individuals (mean ± SD age 47.5 ± 9.9 y) completed two, four-day conditions in a randomised crossover design; Uninterrupted sitting (SIT): 10 h/day sitting, 7 h/day uninterrupted bouts sitting (7 x 60 min bouts), standing and walking restricted to 1.5 h/day, or interrupting sitting (INT SIT): 3 – 6 min of standing, walking, simple body-weight resistance; half squats, lunges, calf raises, knee lifts, and repeated sit-to-stand transitions every 30 min for 10 h/day. Incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was calculated using the trapezoid method. Results: There were no significant differences observed for iAUC glucose measures between SIT and INT SIT conditions. There was no difference in sedentary behaviour between conditions, but daily stepping time and total steps increased significantly in INT SIT compared with SIT. Conclusion: In overweight and obese participants, it may not be possible to manipulate increases or decreases in sedentary behaviourin free-living conditions. Therefore, it was not possible to compare effects of interrupted sitting versus uninterrupted sitting on glycaemia.
    • Associations of sedentary behaviour patterns with cardiometabolic risk in children: the sit less for health study

      White, Stephanie L. (University of Bedfordshire, 2017-12)
      This study investigated the association between patterns of sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic risk in children aged 11–12-years-old. Inclinometer and accelerometer determined sedentary behaviour patterns were measured in 118 (51 males) school children, in addition to cardiometabolic risk markers. Data were analysed using partial correlations and multiple linear regression. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, prolonged sedentary time was significantly negatively associated with weight (β=-.681), waist circumference (WC) (β=-.557), body mass index (BMI) (β=-.675) and body fat% (β=-.685) and significantly positively associated with total cholesterol (TC) (β=.410) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (β=.432). The number of breaks in sedentary time was significantly negatively associated with weight (β=-.661), WC (β=-.597), BMI (β=-.601) and body fat% (β=-.546) and significantly positively associated with TC (β=.334) and HDL (β=.415). Total standing time was significantly negatively associated with weight (β=-.270), WC (β=-.272) and body fat% (β=-.286) and significantly positively associated with HDL (β=.312). This study provides evidence that the number of breaks in sedentary time and total standing time are beneficially associated with cardiometabolic risk in children aged 11–12-years-old. However, the associations of other sedentary behaviour variables cardiometabolic risk is mixed and thus requires further research.
    • The study of fear and character representation(s) within young adult fiction

      Ali, Tasmeena Maisha (University of Bedfordshire, 2017-10)
      This project will consist of two chapter excerpts to a novel, Fear, and a contextualising thesis looking into the current representations of the emotion and character within the Young Adult genre. Fear, a Young Adult and Dark Fantasy novel, is told through the perspective of the protagonist, Imogen, and explores her coping with the loss of her father and finding misguided strength, power, and control through Fear and inflicting the emotion upon others. I will look into how fear has been represented throughout the Young Adult genre, and how I have chosen to represent my characters in regards to the genre. As well as this, I will explore how the relationships between protagonist and antagonists have been employed in existing literature in comparison to my own narrative. The stereotypical conventions of writing for young adults will also be analysed, exploring what makes them popular and why, what tropes I felt best to use and subvert. Grief and fear are heavily considered aspects in this piece, being demonstrated through the use of atmospheric language.
    • Computer vision guidance for precise movement in commercial drones

      Pollard, Alexander Ryan (University of Bedfordshire, 2017-10)
      This project aims to pave the way for completely autonomous drone flight, starting with using computer vision to guide a drone. The project will involve using computer vision to direct a drone around a room to find its goal location. The current aims and objectives are:  To implement computer control for drones and use this to run the program through the drone;  To get the drone to recognize directions given by arrows using computer vision and to translate arrows seen into lateral directions;  To accurately land the drone safely on or as close to a final goal position as possible.
    • A literary exploration of the second ‘’Ecological Conscience’’, 1960s – 1970s

      Holton, Thomas (University of Bedfordshire, 2017-10)
      This thesis explores how literature during the 1960s and 1970s helped to develop a postmodern or second-wave ‘’ecological conscience’’, and how these new modes of ecological meditation were represented in three essential texts. Silent Spring, Desert Solitaire, and Turtle Island are all milestones of a new, ‘radical’ environmentalism that awakened the public to the ongoing global environmental crisis. Although environmental concerns attracted significant criticism at the time, ‘ecocriticism’ provides the project’s theoretical basis for advocating literature’s importance in enlightening and reconnecting an ecologically unconscious audience to the natural world. These writers search for innovative societal models capable of establishing an updated ecological conscience, displacing the anthropocentric mindset that inhibits both humans and non-humans. Through prose and poetry, this collection investigates the collective ecological conscience during this era, and the authors’ critical roles in the healing of a postmodern ecology rather than the Romantic restoring of a lost, organic world. After much deliberation on the environmental impacts induced by modern industrial societies, a variety of expressions are brought together to articulate how society must learn to embrace the unexplainable and unrepresentable aspects of nature, and how literature can serve as a guideline towards a renewed and ecologically sensitive lifestyle on Earth.
    • The antecedents of trust in B2B banking services in South Korea

      Lee, Hagsoo; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2017-10)
      In the rapidly changing and competitive environments, companies are forced to develop long-term relationships with their customers. Trust has been considered as key element to establish, maintain and enhance relationships. There exists a large body of literature with models and theories of trust, however, the majority of these studies feature a Western perspective, having been conducted in Europe or the US. Relatively few studies in this area have been carried out in Asia, and of those that have been, most were done in the Middle East or in China, thus presenting an incomplete picture of the Asian market. South Korea is the third largest economy in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Nevertheless, there is very limited work that has been done in this area of research in South Korea. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to develop a conceptual model that examines the antecedents of trust in business to business (B2B) banking services in the context of South Korea. In so doing, this study provides critical implications for managers of financial service institutions. A conceptual model was developed from the existing literature on trust and the antecedents of trust, including the constructs of corporate reputation, service quality, perceived value, competence, customer orientation and open communication. A set of hypotheses concerning direct and indirect links between constructs was derived from the literature. The conceptual model was tested on data collected from more than 200 companies in South Korea during a 7 weeks period in 2017. A pilot test was conducted and frequency distributions of the sample were calculated using SPSS and Structural Equation modelling (SEM) using LISREL was employed to test the proposed model. Additionally t-test and ANOVA analysis was conducted to test the effect of the demographic factors of the participants on the variables of this study. The results indicate that the proposed theoretical framework was consistent and valid scales for all constructs. The measurement model for each construct showed good measures of fit. Associated with the structural model, all constructs except corporate reputation were found to have a positive effect on trust.
    • Reducing edible food waste in the UK food manufacturing supply chain through collaboration

      Shah, Pramitkumar (University of Bedfordshire, 2017-06)
      The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between food manufacturing supply chain (FMSC) collaboration, collaborative effectiveness and edible food waste (EF) waste reduction; and also identify the key dimensions of collaboration and collaborative effectiveness in the context of the FMSC. A conceptual framework was built based on thorough relevant literature review and theory. Then all items of the conceptual framework were revised by academics and practitioners. The model was empirically tested with survey data using 122 responses from food manufacturing firms, using PLS-SEM. The findings indicated that the structural paths support hypotheses that FMSC collaboration has a positive effect related to collaborative effectiveness, and collaborative effectiveness has a strong contribution in EF waste (over-production of EF waste, processing of EF waste and storage of EF waste) reduction. However, the direct impact of FMSC collaboration on EF waste (over-production of EF waste, processing of EF waste and storage of EF waste) reduction is insignificant. A mediation analysis showed that the relationship between FMSC collaboration and EF waste is fully mediated by collaborative effectiveness. This research brought relational view theory for the concept of FMSC collaboration and collaborative effectiveness into the FMSC context, which has not previously been done, and developed and validated those constructs and relationships. The UK FMSC members would benefit from applying all dimensions of FMSC collaboration in this study to their supply chain operation to achieve greater collaborative effectiveness, and that will lead to reducing EF waste.