• Validity of claims for efficacy of the O2 and CO2 “tolerance training tables”, and associated risks

      Barry-Wilson, Samantha (University of Bedfordshire, 2010-03)
      Both physical and apneic (voluntary breath hold) training have been shown to prolong apneic time. One of the most readily available training developments are the 'tolerance training tables' (TTT). These are a series of breath-hold and breathing periods intended to elicit low O2 or high CO2 levels in a progressive fashion. Developments of the tables have been made on the basis of anecdotal evidence. These tables are yet to be formalised and validated or risk assessed During a familiarisation session, participants were required to attempt a maximal breath-hold (MaxBH) time; breath-hold and breathing period ratios for the 'tables' were derived from this MaxBH. During the investigation participants were required to attend two counterbalanced weeks (C02 and O2) of testing. Expiratory gases were monitored using breath-by-breath analysis (Cortex Biophysics, Liepzig, Germany) to observe any intervention derived blood gas changes. Blood oxygen saturation levels were monitored non-invasively via pulse oximetry (LifePulse, LP28, HME Ltd., England [extremity]; Avant 2120, Nonin, USA [ear]). Empirical trends in O2 values were seen within the O2 TTT. O2 values prior to breath-hold displayed a pattern of progressive increase over the series of eight breath-holds with a controlled 3-breath breath-up strategy. O2 values post breath-hold displayed a pattern of progressive reduction over the series of eight breath-holds, evidencing the increasing metabolism of O2 during apnea. Despite this, a univariate ANOVA indicated no statistical significance between the eight phases of breath-hold (e.g. p = 0.134). CO2 values indicated no empirical trends and no statistical significance prior to, or following, breath-hold. CO2 values displayed relatively unchanged values following the series of eight breath-holds. Comparisons between O2 and CO2 protocols indicated no statistical difference.
    • The validity of two compartment model methods of body composition as compared to magnetic resonance imaging in Asian Indian versus Caucasian males

      Davies, Ben Rhys (University of Bedfordshire, 2010-11)
      Background: The two-compartment (2C) model is a relatively accessible, inexpensive and time efficient method for body composition measurement. There is very little validated research on the 2C model in Asian Indians: a high risk population in terms of obesity and related disorders. This highlights the need for valid estimates of body composition from the 2C model. Purpose: The goal was to compare 2C model (predictor) estimates of body composition to those from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (criterion), an established gold standard measure of total adiposity in order to determine the validity of the 2C model in the Asian Indian population. From this data it is hoped that a correction equation may be determined for more accurate prediction of Asian Indian body composition using 2C model methods. Methods: 21 males (10 Asian Indian and 11 Caucasian, aged 18-55 yrs) had estimates of percent body fat from 2C methods (sum of four skinfolds and anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance analysis [Bodystat 1500 and Tanita segmental impedance analyser], air displacement plethysmography [Bod Pod] and hydrostatic weighing) compared to MRI measured body composition values. Agreement was assessed using multiple linear regression analysis and Bland-Altman plots. Differences were assessed using repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: Regression analysis showed air displacement plethysmography predicts MRI body composition in Caucasian males (adjusted r2 = 0.74; SEE =3.27 ). In Asian Indians, tricep skinfold thickness and hydrostatic weighing predicted MRI body composition with a low prediction error (adjusted r2 = 0.90; SEE =1.75). Despite strong correlations and no significant difference between mean differences of the 2C methods, used in the prediction model, and MRI, BlandAltman plots revealed no acceptable limits of agreement between the methods. Asian Indian body composition was underestimated by all two compartment devices compared to MRI. Conclusion: There appears to be potential for the use of tricep skinfold thickness and hydrostatic weighing to predict an established reference measure (MRI) in the high risk Asian Indian population. The 2C model underestimated Asian Indian body composition, this suggests that un-validated, the 2C model may misidentify obesity and in turn health risk. However the small sample tested, has implications for the interpretation of the findings. Further investigation is required with a greater sample size to validate the 2C model against an established reference measure such as MRI as there is currently little published validation data in this ethnic group.
    • Wearable non-invasive optical body sensor for measuring personal health vital signs

      Cohen, Zachary Joel Valentino (University of Bedfordshire, 2016-01)
      In this thesis, we report the development and implementation of healthcare sensor devices integrated into a wearable ring device. Using photoplethysmography (PPG) methods, we design a heart rate monitor, a unique method to measure oxygen saturation in the blood and discuss a potentially new method of continuous measurement of blood pressure. In this thesis we also report implementation of a temperature sensor using an LM35 transistor to measure body temperature. A method of integrating electrocardiography into the proposed device is also presented.
    • What happens between 4-5am?

      La-Traille, Mike (University of Bedfordshire, 2010)
      My research involved the use of sound and the visual image, to show the development of time through a multi-screen installation that allowed the sixty minutes to unfold from a fixed camera position. The work looked at the use of multi-screen projections and what they can lend to an installation and how the audience understands them. This work also explores the idea of whether it is important to construct a narrative in an audio/visual installation for an audience or whether they would understand the concept without any manipulation. The concept of the piece is about what occurs between the hours of 4-5am. To help demonstrate my findings I decided to produce a series of films that all lasted for sixty minutes each. The films were unedited, fixed camera shots that observe the action to capture reality and never attempt to follow and construct one. I felt Andre Bazin’s technique of ‘pure cinema’ with long shots was the most appropriate way of achieving this. I believed the best way to illustrate this would be to build up the screens from a one screen painterly shot through to multi-screens progressing from a triptych to five, seven and finally a nine screen film which was full of images. The idea is to expose various spaces, their differences during the time period and suggest how all are occurring concurrently during this one solitary hour. In conclusion, it’s becomes obvious that a viewer of an installation can construct their own narrative. The viewer has the ability to construct their own structured narrative with a start, middle and end depending on when they entered the installation. The installation is important because it allowed the viewer to become immersed in the subject and interact with the films and not just become a passive observer. The use of natural sound added to the atmosphere created through the fixed camera films. The fixed camera filming allowed for observation of the time period capturing what was in front of the lens and never following the action, the use of multi-screens meant more information could be disseminated to the viewer without the need for film editing and manipulation. The multi-screen images allowed the viewer to generate their own perceptions of the time period. They also allowed the viewer to make links between the different locations, seasons and time zones.
    • With the launch of the government’s ‘Anywhere Working’ initiative: from the perspective of remote or flexible workers/employees with perceived high self-efficacy – what might be the preferred performance target and appraisal process, as part of the performance management system?

      Stewart-Birch, Linda (University of Bedfordshire, 2012-10)
      Labour markets are changing, demographics are changing; the world is becoming more global with traditional offices being superseded by 'landscapes of mobility' (Hardill & Green 2003) and workers too are changing and demanding change with subsequent rise in remote and flexible working. This study recognises that remote workers may have and demand different performance management and appraisal systems based on their levels of perceived self-efficacy; based on Bandura's (1978) social cognition theory (Bandura 1978) of self-efficacy concerns the judgement an individual makes about their ability to execute a particular behaviour and 'belief in one's capabilities to organise and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations' (Bandura 1995). This study utilises a mixed-method of quantitative questionnaire and interpretivist qualitativism to reach a snowball sample of remote workers with perceived high self-efficacy and examines their responses to questions concerning their preferred performance management and appraisal systems and procedures; the results found in this sample including levels of autonomy, styles of communication and systems of feedback might be present in across many remote workers with perceived high self-efficacy which has implications for organisational cultures and objective setting at organisational through to individual level. Recommendation and limitations are expressed along with further ideas for future studies.
    • Writing the wrong: an investigation into incest and transgressive sexuality in the novel 'Clutching shadow'

      McKenna, Lesley Margaret (University of Bedfordshire, 2005-01)
      Writing The Wrong is the accompanying thesis to my novel, Clutching Shadow, and investigates the nature of transgressive sexuality, namely an incestuous relationship between half-siblings Jez and Lex Sinclair. The thesis explores issues within the novel, such as how our childhood might have an effect on our sexual development, and how our sexual past influences our sexual present, and looks to various theoretical works for verification of the outcomes in the novel. The thesis also questions the concept of transgression and taboo; the novel deals with consensual incest as though it is a love story, which throws up the questions: why is incest wrong if it is a consensual relationship? Looking to other literary works shows how other writers have approached this subject. The subject of abuse and control in Clutching Shadow is also explored, and backed up by using theoretical sources on the psychology of child abuse and submissionldomination which shows how the abuse cycle can continue throughout a person's life.