• Security threats and intrusion detection models in WLAN

      Gambiraopet, Chandra Shekar (University of Bedfordshire, 2009-10)
      In this world of high speed data networks the Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) have steadily come into popularity because of its flexibility, easy to install, cost efficient and most importantly less time consuming (since it does not involve laying of wires like that of the wired networks) when compared to the traditional wired LANs and therefore enterprises and home owners alike are switching to the wireless technology. Though this network solves some of the problems faced by the wired LANs, such as the cost factor, it has its own drawbacks; security being the main issue. Both wired and wireless LANs have security issues, but since the data transmission in a WLAN takes place in a wireless medium, it has some additional security threats. This report gives a clear insight into the security issues of the WLANs and gives the counter measures to be taken to minimize those threats. The other issue is the „intrusion in the network‟. This issue is also dealt with by providing a concise report about the intrusion detection system, its methods and models.
    • Sensorial perception: empowering dance practice embodiment through live and virtual environments

      Lee, Lucie (University of Bedfordshire, 2013-03)
      This thesis presents a phenomenological study exploring the practice of creating movement in live and virtual environments. The title of this study is Sensory Perception: Empowering dance embodiment through live and virtual environments. The aims of this study are: to experience the sensorial embodiment within live and virtual environments; and to understand the cognitive responses to a set of visual moving images that are mediated through the visual perception of the participant. This study was conducted by the author Lucie Lee in 2012-2013 at the University of Bedfordshire. The theoretical underpinning for this study used mainly two French phenomenological philosophers Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1859-1941) and Henri Louis Bergeson (1908-1961). This thesis discusses other cultural theories, which were contextualised in theoretical and practical approaches to this study such as post-modernism in dance, Liveness defined by Philip Auslander (1999) and Embodying theory (1998) described by Sarah Rubidge. The other component of this practice led research focuses on cognitive science. This study uses the software developed by Mark Coniglio founder of Troika Ranch Dance Company, call Isadora. This software provides the level of interaction needed for this study. Although the software was developed for creative application of technology in performance, in this investigation it acts as a research tool. Through the software’s applications the explorative creative tasks were interactive and utilised in the live and virtual environments. This practice-led research adopts the methodology of practice as research and an approach developed by performance theorist Professor Robin Nelson (2006). It also draws on the improvisatory processes of two American dancers and practitioners Alma Hawkins (1991) and Anna Halprin (1995). The improvisation technique deployed in this study is directly linked to Feldenkrais Method (1972). The explorative tasks were practically undertaken by a dancer in order to explore the role of sensory perception with improvisatory context. Wassily Kandinsky’s (1866-1984) works were used as a stimulus within this method to engage the performer in the use of colours and objects within creative tasks. In conclusion, the thesis highlights the importance of the development within the practice-led process of the processes and methods undertaken by the researcher and dancer. The summary of findings of this research created several practical improvisatory short scores with ten minute durations. The future developments of this research study are outlined in this conclusion chapter.
    • Should universities and social work employers use mentors in the revised post qualifying social work education structure?

      Holmes, Carolyn Mary (University of Bedfordshire, 2008)
      Within social work Post Qualifying (PQ) education awards, the mentor advises and sometimes assesses qualified social workers' performance and written work against set national criteria. Is this a valued and unambiguous role that should be carried forward when the new PQ framework starts in 2006 or is it one that should be questioned and analysed? This study explores whether mentoring could be used within the new PQ framework, by considering the results of ten semistructured in-depth interviews with managers and academics involved in the strategic and operational provision of PQSW in the Advance PQ Consortium. A review of the literature showed the value of mentoring and details of the outgoing PQ mentor role. It is concluded that the expectations of the new workplace assessor role are apt, including the skills of mentoring and coaching, which are taught on new PQ courses. It is recommended that generic mentoring schemes, whereby one person assists a less experienced individual to focus on his or her personal and professional development should be available within social care agencies for all social workers as part of a human resource strategy. It is suggested that mentoring and assessment roles should be included and remunerated within social workers' job descriptions. Moreover, this would formalise social workers' contribution to their and others continuous professional and personal development, support the new PQ framework, the GSCC Codes of Practice (2002) and contribute to staff retention.
    • ‘Small trip’ : looking for the natural voice

      Duddridge, Daniel (University of Bedfordshire, 2006-01)
      This experimental short novel and thesis examines the techniques used by Jack Kerouac and Alan Bissett, to create a 'natural voice' and my efforts to achieve similar effects. In 'Small Trip' I explore the techniques and methods Kerouac used when writing his book, On the Road experimenting with syntactic drive, stream of consciousness and 'spontaneous prose' styling. I wanted to see how the natural voice is supported through the characterisation and setting of the story. In addition I studied experimental typographical techniques from Alan Bissett and B.S. Johnson and used Bissett's typographical and syntactic techniques to add energy and intensity to the narrators 'voice'. I examine the role of the narrator, the use of autobiographical material within this genre, and discuss the way in which the writer's 'self-mining' contributes to the natural voice. I found Kerouac's method of writing continuously without a formal plan was an effective device to generate a consistent 'natural voice' but caused problems with plot development and range within the characters.
    • Smart cites forensics - evaluating the challenges of MK Smart City Forensics

      Okai, Ebenezer (University of Bedfordshire, 2019-06-18)
      The purpose of this research identifies what challenges are associated with MK Smart Data Hub forensics. MK Smart project holds its place as one of the Smart Cities’ projects in the United Kingdom and central to this project is the MK Data Hub which holds a vast amount of data from various data sources. The first phase of the project involves looking at the MK Smart project ultimately emphasising on the projects aims, objectives, achievements and some of the trial projects that have been carried on. The second phase involves in-depth research into the MK Data Hub which is the integral of the project. There will be an evaluation of data received from the different data sources such as sensors on the Data Hub. This will also examine how data is stored, types of data stored, data structure and finally evaluate these data with current digital forensic tools and techniques to see the challenges associated with MK Smart forensics. The project objectives are to perform detailed research into the MK Smart project focusing on the aims, current achievement, detailed research into the MK Data Hub which is the central infrastructure of the MK Project, analysis of different types of datasets available on the Data Hub, evaluation of the existing digital forensics tools and techniques and its limitations to Smart city forensics, evaluation of the current challenges facing Smart city forensics and evaluation of the MK Data hub and detailed research into its forensic investigation challenges. Once the objectives are met, a result will be generated to determine the proposed solution to forensically collect evidence from the MK Data Hub.
    • Socially engaged graphic design - future prospects

      Skopinska, Anna (University of Bedfordshire, 2011-02)
      Good design and socially engaged design were studied in the broad context of the existing neoliberal political status quo. The definition and main features of good design were established based on: examples of good pieces of design, design history and core books on the subject. In this piece were discussed: ethical dimension of graphic design profession, sustainability in graphic design, political context of works as well as the graphic designer himself, the importance of choices he/she makes. The idea was raised here that socially engaged graphic design may be an extremely powerful medium for the communication of ideas and may help to shape society’s awareness. The research conducted included meeting selected graphic design professionals from the United Kingdom and Poland who actively act in socially engaged graphic design and make an important mark in public discussion. The subject of socially engaged graphic design was researched practically in a form of Grafik Rebel Magazine. The magazine and its blog have become a great platform for communicating ideas to the wider public.
    • Sound as performance: from the periphery to performance form

      Church, Peter (University of Bedfordshire, 2015-12-01)
      In the light of a growing body of work during the last decade created by performance makers that seems to foreground sound within the performance montage, this research has sought to address the emergence of sound as orientation in performance where orientation can be understood as both the performance maker and the audience approaching the work through the “frame” of aurality. In drifting across the work of practitioners making during the twentieth century who engaged with sounds ability to perform, a number of proclivities were identified that would go on to inform work that takes sound as an orientation. Namely, an engagement with audiences as the co-creators of the work, a concern with generative structures, a sense of the hauntological qualities of sound transmission and relationality in it’s political guise. These factors were then seen to be structuring elements at play in I was there… (2010: 2013), the work considered as a case study from this practice based research. It emerged that central to the work of sound as orientation were a series of practices engaging with the nature of an audiences’ encounter with a sound as orientation piece, the way in which such works create a performative subject and the political quality of the sociality they produce
    • A statistical approach to a verb vector task classifier

      Jiang, ZiPeng (University of Bedfordshire, 2010-11)
      How to enable a service robot to understand its user's intention is a hot topic of research today. Based on its understanding, the robot can coordinate and adjust its behaviours to provide desired assistance and services to the user as a capable partner. Active Robot Learning (ARL) is an approach to the development of the understanding of human intention. The task action bank is part of the ARL which can store task categories. In this approach, a robot actively performs test actions in order to obtain its user's intention from the user's response to the action. This thesis presents an approach to verbs clustering based on the basic action required of the robot, using a statistical method. A parser is established to process a corpus and analyse the probability of the verb feature vector, for example when the user says "bring me a cup of coffee", this means the same as "give me a cup of coffee". This parser could identify similar verbs between "bring" and "give" with the statistical method. Experimental results show the collocation between semantically related verbs, which can be further utilised to establish a test action bank for Active Robot Learning (ARL).
    • Stay strong, live long: an individualised home-based exercise programme for older women

      Ruocco, Vivienne G. (University of Bedfordshire, 2013-10)
      As the UK’s ageing population increases, so does the cost of treating unintentional falls and age-related diseases. Exercise helps reduce the risks of secondary ageing and maintain functional independence. Stay Strong, Live Long (SSLL) is a pilot study evaluating the effectiveness of a tailor-made home-based strength-training programme for older women. Eleven women (age: 72.45 ± 6.15 yrs) were assigned to either an experimental or control group by a randomised counterbalanced repeated measures protocol. Participants were assessed using four physical measures from the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) and their Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) was measured using the SF-36v2®. During the six week intervention periods, participants completed home-based individualised exercise programmes using no additional exercise equipment. Programmes were adjusted based on individual progress. Both groups showed statistically significant percentile increases in lower and upper body strength, lower body flexibility and balance. Despite positive feedback from participants, there was no statistically significant change in the HRQL during the study period. SSLL is the first study to use the SFT in the home environment. Programmes like SSLL have the potential to increase the functional fitness of participants and reduce the risk of unintentional falls, thus reducing health care costs in the UK.
    • Storage and subsequent cryopreservation of liver cells of zebrafish

      Phonphaisan, Wirada (University of Bedfordshire, 2008)
      When gametes or embryos are not available or cannot be successfully cryopreserved, somatic cells should be considered for cryobanking of material from endangered fish species. Although the preservation of such material is not difficult, their collection and ultimate cryopreservation can present logistic difficulties; and initial storage is probably needed to retain viability before cryopreservation. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable method for initial storage and cryoprotectant treatment of liver cells that could be employed prior to the cryopreservation. Two bathing solutions were assessed for initial storage at 4°C or 6°C over a 48 hour storage period in chilling sensitivity studies. Medium C (lml L~15 supplemented with Hepes (5.958g1L), NaHC03 (0.42g/L), Gentamycine (lOOmglL), Amphotericine B (2.5mgIL), Lglutamine (0.374g/L) and Fetal bovine serum (10%)) and PBS were used as bathing solutions of the cells stored at 4°C or 6°C for up to 48 hours. Fluorescein diacetate propidium iodide staining was used to assess the viability after 12,24 and 48 hours of storage. Four cryoprotectants (CPAs) were investigated at different concentrations-DMSO (lM), MeOH (2M, 3M and 4M), PG (lM) and sucrose (0.05M and O.IM)and used to treat the cells for up to 30 minutes. Viability assessment was done using Trypan blue and Fluorescein diacetate - propidium iodide staining after 10, 20 or 30 minute exposure to CP As. Fresh and stored liver cells were frozen using slow cooling methods based on existing LIRANS procedures for cryopreservation of zebrafish blastomeres. The results indicated that exposure to 4·C PBS for 12, hours was an optimal condition for storage of liver cell prior to cryopreservation. In addition, results showed that cryopreservation at a slow freezing rate following 10 minute treatment of 2M methanol, allowed the recovery of more than 50% of the zebrafish liver cells.
    • Studies on cryopreservation of early stage zebrafish (Danio rerio) oocytes using controlled slow cooling

      Nwankwo, Judith N. (University of Bedfordshire, 2007-11)
      In the last three decades, much effort has been made toward the successful cryopreservation of fish gaments. The spermatozoa from many species including salmonid, cyprinids, and acipenseridae has been successfully cryopreserved and well documented. Systematic studies on fish oocytes cryopreservation has not been carried out until recently. In this study, the effect of cryoprotectant toxicity on stage I and II zebrafish oocytes were studied and the controlled slow cooling was used at different cooling rates to identify the optimal cooling rate for these oocytes and the optimal conditions for removing cryoprotectant. Methanol was found to be the least toxic CPA for zebrafish oocytes and 4M methanol in potassium chloride (KCI) buffer was used as the cryoprotective solution. Oocytes were cooled with programmable cooler (Planner KRYO 550) using controlled slow cooling at 0.3, 0.5 and 1°C/min rates, combined with seeding at -12.5°C and plunge into liquid nitrogen at -80°C. 1°C/min was identified to be the optimal condition for cryopreservation of stage I and II oocytes. High survival rate were obtained after cooling to -196°C assessed with TB staining which were 87.8 ± 4.9% and 86.8 ± 6.5% for stage I and II respectively. It was also found in this study that recovery conditions affect oocyte survivals after freezing. Oocytes which had been incubated for 60 or 120min in room temperature showed higher survival rate than those assessed immediately after freezing. This study has shown that stage II (cortical alveoli stage) oocytes were more resistible to freezing than stage I (primary growth stage) oocytes. More oocytes viability studies are needed to validate these results.
    • The study of cardiovascular tissue processing in the United Kingdom

      Hughes, Jill (University of Bedfordshire, 2008-06)
      The study of United Kingdom cardiovascular tissue banking practice has required research into areas of cardiovascular tissue banking that have previously not been clarified, explored in detail or reported. The pressures which have been the driving forces for change in tissue banking in recent years have been identified and the National shortage of cardiovascular tissue donors in relation to the increasing surgical demand has been quantified for the first time in the UK. An examination of the evolution of cardiovascular tissue banking enabled subsequent identification of the inconsistencies reported and the importance of recording small differences in processing details. A detailed overview of current UK cardiovascular tissue processing methodology was collated which, for the first time, established the differences in current practice. The study subsequently identified tissue bankers concerns. The study has identified areas where there may be a need for control, standardisation and improvement of methodology and has highlighted areas where it seems to be agreed that there is need for optimisation of processing technique. The study has also uncovered areas where there is a lack of understanding amongst tissue bankers regarding cryopreservation principles such as freezing and chilling injury and also confirmed the need for more careful control and measurement of techniques used such as cooling and warming rates which may or may not affect the quality of the tissue processed. The study confirmed that processing techniques were generally empirically based but despite this, the processed tissue seems to be effective. Further work has been suggested which includes recommendations for methods which could be used to monitoring tissue quality and subsequently for harmonisation of tissue banking procedures.
    • A study of characterisation and morality in fantasy fiction, exploring creative techniques with immoral protagonists

      Miles, Aaron Laurence (University of Bedfordshire, 2012-11)
      This project is a study of writing techniques used when constructing immoral protagonists, focused on identifying, categorising, and utilising these techniques. With an understanding of these techniques I will be able to write more engaging and successful immoral protagonists. This work includes a study of fantasy literature and writing craft as a way to identify techniques in practice, as well as my own creative element where I incorporate the techniques I have studied into my writing. The creative element is an example of these techniques put into practice with an accompanying analysis on their use in my work. The project helps to identify and establish the practices and concepts of the current trend towards darker protagonists in the fantasy genre.
    • The study of fear and character representation(s) within young adult fiction

      Ali, Tasmeena Maisha (University of Bedfordshire, 2017-10)
      This project will consist of two chapter excerpts to a novel, Fear, and a contextualising thesis looking into the current representations of the emotion and character within the Young Adult genre. Fear, a Young Adult and Dark Fantasy novel, is told through the perspective of the protagonist, Imogen, and explores her coping with the loss of her father and finding misguided strength, power, and control through Fear and inflicting the emotion upon others. I will look into how fear has been represented throughout the Young Adult genre, and how I have chosen to represent my characters in regards to the genre. As well as this, I will explore how the relationships between protagonist and antagonists have been employed in existing literature in comparison to my own narrative. The stereotypical conventions of writing for young adults will also be analysed, exploring what makes them popular and why, what tropes I felt best to use and subvert. Grief and fear are heavily considered aspects in this piece, being demonstrated through the use of atmospheric language.
    • Study of internet usage in the fresh produce supply chain in the UK and China

      Xu, Xiaoxiao (University of Bedfordshire, 2010-03)
      Fresh produce supply chain management faces a high level of complexity and uncertainty and a number of challenges due to fresh produce's perishable, seasonal and fragile characteristics. It is argued that effective implementation of Information and Communication Technologies (leTs) has great potential for improving efficiency and reducing wastage within the fresh produce (fruit and vegetable) supply chain. While' the Internet is used by many small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the fresh produce industry, the extent to which it is applied and further developed after the initial adoption varies widely. Much research has been carried out to investigate Internet adoption and usage, but very limited effort has been focused on the identification of the current level of technology integration and deve!opment and the factors affecting the level of the development after the adoption, especially in the context of SMEs in the fresh produce supply chain. This research attempts to address this issue by developing a theoretical framework to illustrate the evolutionary process of Internet adoption and diffusion and to identify factors affecting the development of Internet-based supply chains by following the Technological/Organisational/Environmental (TOE) framevork. First, five development levels of post-adoption of Internet technologies in the supply chain were defined, and factors from the technological, organisational and environmentalcontexts were identified according to literatures and exploratory interviews. Second, questionnaire surveys were conducted in the UK and China to investigate the current situation of internet technologies used by SMEs in the fresh produce supply chains in the two countries. Finally, factors the proposed framework were validated and discussed. The empirical findings show that the Internet is no longer a new technology for most fresh produce SMEs in the UK and China. However, a large proportion of SMEs surveyed are still using basic functions of the Internet, and there is little difference between the UK and Chinese SMEs when comparing the use of complex applications in the supply chains. The results also show that most of the factors in the organisational and technological contexts are positively related to the current development levels of the Internet-based supply chain, whereas, in the environmental context, pressures from customers in the UK and mutual trust among partners in China have a significant impact on current development levels. Additionally, in both countries, companies in a better development level of Internet-based supply chain would achieve a higher degree of integration in their supply chain in five years. Overall, the research has made a number of important contributions to knowledge, current debate and practice in an under-researched sector. The five-level post-adoption framework can be adapted to identify ICT development levels and key factors in other sectors. The empirical data collected has added value to and sheds lights on the current applications of the Internet in the supply chain in general, and in the fresh produce SMEs in China and the UK in particular. The key factors identified as impeding the further development of the Internet, such as factors related to the business environments in the UK and China, will help government policy-makers, supply chain facilitators and IT service providers to be more focused in their efforts to improve the situation and to stimulate the further diffusion of emerging Internet technologies. The research has certain limitations due to the time constraints and sample selections. These limitations provide a platform for directing future research.
    • A study on efficiency of Femtocells

      Vaka, Rajesh (University of Bedfordshire, 2010)
      Femtocells are the emerging and the fast upcoming technology in the telecommunication industry as there is an heavy competition in the operators are researching various methods to keep their costumers remain with them while this research Femtocell was developed the main aim of developing Femtocell is to provide efficient mobile or cellular services to the subscribers. My thesis demonstrates various parameters of the Femtocell development like what exactly is Femtocell the features and advantages of the Femtocell in general. My thesis also demonstrates the how Femtocell works by the deployment and installation. Also carried out research work on the overview concept which discuss the security issues in Femtocells and the benefits to the both consumer and the operator. My work includes the artefact of Femtocell using virtual machine and the network is designed using OPNET in which I verified delay, connectivity and throughput by taking few mobile services.
    • A study on virtual reality and developing the experience in a gaming simulation

      Jayaraj, Lionel (University of Bedfordshire, 2016)
      Virtual Reality (VR) is an experience where a person is provided with the freedom of viewing and moving in a virtual world [1]. The experience is not constrained to a limited control. Here, it was triggered interactively according to the user’s physical movement [1] [2]. So the user feels as if they are seeing the real world; also, 3D technologies allow the viewer to experience the volume of the object and its prospection in the virtual world [1]. The human brain generates the depth when each eye receives the images in its point of view. For learning for and developing the project using the university’s facilities, some of the core parts of the research have been accomplished, such as designing the VR motion controller and VR HMD (Head Mount Display), using an open source microcontroller. The VR HMD with the VR controller gives an immersive feel and a complete VR system [2]. The motive was to demonstrate a working model to create a VR experience on a mobile platform. Particularly, the VR system uses a micro electro-mechanical system to track motion without a tracking camera. The VR experience has also been developed in a gaming simulation. To produce this, Maya, Unity, Motion Analysis System, MotionBuilder, Arduino and programming have been used. The lessons and codes taken or improvised from [33] [44] [25] and [45] have been studied and implemented.
    • Study on Web application Honey pots

      Sehgal, Kamaldeep (University of Bedfordshire, 2013)
    • Supporting transgender people in employment : an exploration of key challenges for employers

      Jassal, Selina (University of Bedfordshire, 2012-10)
      This research paper aims to provide guidance for HR professionals and organisations on how to support trans employees whilst adhering to Best Practice and complying with the UK's Equality Act (2010)
    • A survey and analysis of evidence for advanced soft tissue techniques in UK sports therapy curricula

      Langham, Emma (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2009-12)
      Introduction In many instances, research in the area of manual therapy has been based on collections of anecdotal evidence, opinion editorials by practitioners, and poorly structured case studies/case series. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to identify areas within the current research for Neuromuscular Techniques where scientific evidence is lacking, and to propose a strategy for the establishment of a research driven evidence base. Where some research evidence is present, the objective will be to provide a systematically assessed evidence base to underpin the technique. Methods An e-mail survey of UK Universities was carried out to determine the type of techniques being taught. An inclusion criterion was created by adapting the methodology established by the Cochrane Collaboration and PEDro. Once the relevant articles were identified, a systematic review was carried out and a meta-analysis was applied to the literature to determine the 'quality' of the papers retrieved in each area. Results The results of the study showed that even though there is a wealth of literature available within this area, the quality of the papers available is not sufficient to determine an effective treatment protocol. Conclusion In conclusion, the research that is available within the field of Neuromuscular Techniques is currently inconsistent and lacking clarity, therefore more research is needed in the area in order to 'fill in' the gaps in the literature. Without a fully complete and methodologically sound evidence base, Universities within the UK are not able to effectively adopt an evidence based teaching practice. The proposals and templates highlighted above are recommended to be put into place to go some way to fill these areas where research is lacking so that Sports Therapy researchers are able to drive our understanding of NMT forward.