• Partnerships - cracking under the pressure of organisational change?

      Smith, Sally (University of Bedfordshire, 2007-10)
      The concept of partnership and its success or failure has attracted much debate since its inception as a model in the early 1990s. It has become apparent that partnership can entail changing deeply held beliefs and attitudes on both the management and union sides of the relationship. The pace of change has increased exponentially in recent times, necessitating new organisational responses. These responses can be seen by some as sympathetic to the development of partnership work, but at the same time it is acknowledged that organisational change can become a pressure on partnership. The purpose of this research is to look at existing partnerships as they experience the pressures of organisational change over a period of time, and analyse the effect these pressures have on both managers and union representatives, the partnership itself, and the success of organisational change. Extrapolated from key literature, theoretical models were developed to demonstrate the changes in partnership. Using an explanatory causal comparative case study approach, across two organisations; the Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust; and the Royal Mail. The research uses primary and secondary data obtained through a series of semi-structured questionnaires completed by key leads involved in the partnership, on both the union and management sides; and study of academic and professional literature with a key focus on both partnerships in the subject organisations. The resulting data was analysed using a matrixed pattern matching technique. The research identifies that there are many influences involved in the deterioration, or stability of partnership: whether the approach to the creation of partnership is cynical or positive; whether management and union attitudes are allowed to deteriorate, or the partnership seeks for ways to overcome these pressures; the strength of the partnership does help it to endure, but there are contributing factors to this strength, such as the embedding of partnership, and equal voice to management. The research concludes that partnership does not necessarity deteriorate under the pressure of organisational change, but rather establishes that they can survive these pressures through a focused application of partnership strategy on both the management and union sides. The existing typologies for definition of the strengths of partnership were demonstrated to have neglected the wider more complex variables existing that make a partnership weak or strong, and rather that the theoretical models proposed, demonstrated a more valid theory of this complex environment and therefore could be said to demonstrate what occurs to partnerships enduring the pressures of organisational change, and therefore could be used for prediction purposes. It is suggested that this presents an opportunity for further research focused on the stability of partnership, utitising the validated models proposed herewith.
    • Performance analysis of routing protocols in Manet

      Kaur, Pardeep (University of Bedfordshire, 2012)
      The history of wireless network is around 20 year old, when in 1997 IEEE start working on it and define the wireless standards in 1999. As Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) is self managing and governing network, so it is the challenging task to handle the network in most effective and better way due to dynamic changes In the network as the nodes can join and leave the network without getting any authorization and these nodes are independent in nature. This research is based on the performance measurement of proactive and reactive protocols with respect to quality of service.
    • Performing phenomenology: a practice-led investigation of contemporary performance

      Bennett, Catherine Ann (University of Bedfordshire, 2013-02)
      This thesis is an analysis of three contemporary performances. These performances are very different, what they have in common is that they were either performed, or curated by the author. The problem under investigation in this thesis concerns the experience of dance practice and the manner in which that experience is articulated. In other words, this MA is an attempt to describe three contemporary performances in a coherent, revealing, analytical way. The central purpose here is to bring into theoretical focus these contemporary accounts of dance practice. It follows that the thesis asks how revealing and how successful these conceptual accounts of dance are? The methodology employed in this thesis may broadly be called phenomenological. This term is characteristically associated with the work of Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961). The emphasis in phenomenology and in this thesis is on the experience and perception of the agent or actor herself. This thesis shares this emphasis. The phenomenological method is best described as a constellation of concepts rather than a series of immutable principles. The primary conclusion of this thesis is to recommend phenomenology as a useful tool for the understanding and analysis of dance practice. Critical, in this respect are the ideas of embodiment and the lived body. In so far as this thesis makes a modest claim to contribute to our knowledge of the subject under enquiry it reminds us that a practice as complex as dance requires a discrete, experience-based theoretical explication. My sincere hope is that the reader will find such an account in what follows.
    • Post transfer of undertakings psychological contract violation: modelling antecedents and outcomes

      Ferreira, Juanique (University of Bedfordshire, 2012-10)
      The purpose of this study was to test a model of antecedents and outcomes of psychological contract violation based on social exchange theory within the context of an acquisition. A cross-sectional quantitative survey research design was used. A total of 200 office and operational employees who had recently gone through a TUPE transfer process as the result of an acquisition partiCipated in the study. PartiCipants were] asked to complete a questionnaire to measure their perceptions of procedural justice and perceived organisational support experienced at the point of TUPE and the resulting psychological contract violation and employee engagement post-TUPE. Multiple regression analysis through SPSS 19.0 was used as the method of analysis. Results indicate that procedural justice and perceived organisational support predicts psychological contract violation. Results indicate that psychological contract violation in turn predicts employee engagement. In addition, psychological contract violation mediates the relationship between procedural justice, perceived organisational support and employee engagement. Therefore, support has been found to state that the psychological contract can be used to explain the relationship between employee perceptions of fairness and support during a TUPE and their post-TUPE reaction of engagement. The study used cross-sectional and self-reported data which limits the conclusions that can be confirmed about causality and also raises concerns about common method bias. Furthermore, it is acknowledged that various extraneous or confounding variable may have an influence on the variables. The study offers insights into employees' responses within the context of TUPE transfers as explored through the psychological contract within the social exchange theory the framework.
    • Practical cooling manoeuvres during simulated soccer in the heat

      McDonald, Peter (University of Bedfordshire, 2019-03)
      The globalisation of soccer match-play has meant that major international and domestic competitions typically occur in hot environments with ambient temperature exceeding 28°C (Taylor and Rollo, 2014). Previous simulated (Aldous et al., 2016) and soccer match-play data (Mohr et al., 2012) in the heat (30 - 43°C) have reported significant reductions in physical performance measures when compared to a temperate environment (18 - 21°C). Practical strategies to reduce these heat-mediated decrements in physical performance whilst fitting in with the time constraints practitioners are faced with in soccer are warranted (Taylor and Rollo, 2014; Russel et al., 2015). Therefore, the aim of the present investigation is to examine the efficacy of practical cooling manoeuvres which can be actively worn during a pre-match warmup and whilst conducting general changing room preparatory tasks (downtime prior to kick off and half-time) on simulated soccer performance in a hot environment (32°C and 60% rH; WBGT: 28°C). Seven male university level soccer-players completed one Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1, two familiarization sessions, one peak speed assessment and four randomized, counterbalanced experimental trials of the intermittent Soccer Performance Test (iSPT) at 32°C. Four experimental trials consisted of cooling during a soccer-specific prematch warm-up (~24 min), downtime prior to kick-off (12 min) and half-time interval (10 min) via (1) Ice Vest (VEST); (2) Neck Cooling (NECK); (3) VEST and NECK (VEST+NECK) used concurrently; or with no-cooling (CON). Physical performance [total distance (TD), highspeed distance (HSD), sprint distance, variable run distance (VRD) and low-speed distance (LSD) covered], body temperatures [rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk) and neck temperature (neckTsk)], physiological [heart-rate (HR) and change in body-mass] and perceptual response [rate of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort (TC), thermal sensation (TS) and neck thermal sensation (TSneck)] were all measured. When compared to CON, sprint distance covered was significantly improved (P < 0.05) during the first and last 15 min in NECK, final 15 min in VEST, and final 30 min in VEST+NECK during iSPT, respectively. In xvi VEST, Tsk was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) until 15 min of iSPT compared to CON. In NECK and VEST+NECK, TSneck and neckTsk were significantly reduced (P < 0.01) prior to the start of iSPT with neckTsk also significantly lower post half-time cooling, compared to CON. Furthermore, VEST+NECK also significantly reduced (P < 0.05) TS prior to the start of iSPT, compared to CON. No further significance (P > 0.05) was observed for physical performance, physiological or perceptual responses during iSPT for all conditions. Pre- and half-time cooling via VEST+NECK was most ergogenic and significantly improved sprint performance during the final 30 min of iSPT in 32°C, important given the prominence of sprinting prior to goals and assists during soccer match-play (Faude et al., 2012). Further research with a larger sample size is warranted to further elucidate the mechanisms for the enhanced performance.
    • Pressure sensor array model for collecting user’s responses to test action in active robot learning

      Zou, Weidong (University of Bedfordshire, 2010-10)
      Active robot learning (ARL) is an approach to the development of beliefs of the robots on their users’ intentions and preferences, which is needed by the robots to facilitate the seamless cooperation with users. Such approach allows the robots to perform tests on its users and to form high-order beliefs according to the users’ responses. This study carried out primary research on designing a pressure sensor array model attached to the robot’s finger tips to collect the user’s responses to test action in the ARL system. A mathematical model and the reference value threshold which decides the pressure distribution were proposed through a benchmark scenario experiment. The robot holds an object and presents it to the user. When the user does not take over the object, the pressure distribution on the robot’s finger tips shown on the pressure sensor array is uneven. When the user takes over the object, the pressure distribution on the robot’s finger tips is even. According to the relationship between the pressure distribution and the user’s responses, the user’s responses to test action can be recognized by the robot. Two cases of the benchmark scenario which is the robot passing an object to the user is simulated in a simulation software, GraspIt, in this study. The simulation results proved the developed pressure sensor array model can successfully collect the user’s responses to test actions in the ARL.
    • Pro inflammatory cytokine production by polymorphonuclear neutrophils following a 12-day period of intensified training

      Thorley, Josh (University of Bedfordshire, 2019-01-15)
      This thesis investigated whether resting and/or exercise-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production by antigen-stimulated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) would alter over a 12-day intensified training period (ITP). Ten physically active males completed seventeen exercise sessions in total, including: two main trials (30-min self-paced treadmill run (RPETR), 10 km time trial), completed before (MTPRE) and after (MTPOST) a twelve day ITP, and two V̇O2max tests completed before (VO2PRE) and after (VO2POST) the ITP. Blood samples were collected via venepuncture before and after the RPETR at MTPRE and MTPOST. PMN were isolated from whole blood and incubated for 18 h with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen. IL-8 and TNF-α production by LPS-stimulated PMN was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. TNF-α production by LPS-stimulated PMN significantly elevated in response to the RPETR at MTPRE (P = 0.004) and MTPOST (P = 0.047). IL-8 production only significantly increased in response to the RPETR at MTPRE (P = 0.033) but not at MTPOST (P = 0.199). The absolute RPETR-induced increase in TNF-α and IL-8 concentrations by LPS-stimulated PMN were lower at MTPOST compared to MTPRE. Blood PMN concentration increased significantly following the completion of RPETR at MTPRE (P = 0.02) and MTPOST (P = 0.016). Resting and RPETR-induced blood PMN concentrations did not significantly differ between MTPRE and MTPOST (P = 0.521). Following the completion of the ITP, V̇O2max (P = 0.696) and 10 km time to completion scores (P = 0.457; d = 0.32) did not change. The severity of upper-respiratory tract symptoms (URTS) increased in six out of ten participants following the ITP. Self-reported general (P = 0.040) and sport-related (P = 0.005) stress scores were higher at MTPOST compared to MTPRE. The identification of increased stress states, more severe URTS, and decreased physical performance capacities in participants indicates that overreaching may have been achieved following the ITP. Reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to acute exercise following a period of intensified training may predispose athletes to impaired inflammatory responses during exercise which may contribute to the pathogenesis of reported URTS in athletes who are overtraining.
    • Psychological contract experience of survivor first-line managers during organisational downsizing: the mediating influence of culture in Nigeria

      Uchenna, Christian Obi (University of Bedfordshire, 2015-06)
      Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of breaches psychological contract on survivor first-line managers during organisational downsizing in Nigeria. Secondly, the influence of national culture on their responses to such perceived breaches Literature: Psychological contract PC is an important concept in understanding work relationships, and the obvious impact the construt has on organisational outcomes (Zhao et al., 2007). It is described as a mental model or schema which helps individuals to understand and interprete employment relationships (Rousseau, 1989). The study of PC has increased in recent times because of increasing emphasis on lean management or cost cutting which usually result in perception of breach (Datta et al., 2010). In the past, researches on psychological contract have focused on the understanding of the conditions under which perception of breach arise; the conditions under which perceptions of breach are stronger or weaker; and the conditions that mediate the effects and feeling of breach (Zhao et al., 2007). Most studies on PC have focussed on victims and have been carried out in western context (Sronce and McKinley, 2006; Sparrow, 1998). Researchers have therefore advocated the need for a research to be carried in a non-western context as cognition and perception of PC is said to be influenced by culture. This informed the focus of this investigation, and to focus on survivor-managerial employees because paucity of research on survivors in Nigeria. Research Methodology: The research study adopted a qualitative approach using one-to-one interviews. The data were collected in two staged interviews process. The first started with review of extant literature in the subject area. Semi-structured interviews were used to interview seven participants of managerial cadre who survived downsizing exercise. The second stage equally employed Semi-structured interviews with identified survivor managers. In this stage 13 interviews were conducted. The two stages are complimentary in order to deepen knowledge and gain insight into lived experiences of surviving managers and how culture influences their attitudinal behaviours during downsizing. All data were analysed inductively using interpretative phenomenological analysis IPA Findings: Findings from this study had shown that emotional/psychological experiences and feelings such as anxiety, uncertainty, job insecurity, reduced motivation, and reduced effort/productivity as well as intention to leave experienced by survivor managerial employees consistent with findings from Anglo-American cultures are not cultural bound. The findings indicate that, although managerial survivors were unhappy and dissatisfied with events in the workplace, their work-related attitudes and behavioural responses such as commitment & loyalty were positive. This positive attitudinal response is said to be mediated or influenced by societal cultural values like religious beliefs, extended family obligations, the value of dependency, faith in God, spirituality and high level of unemployment. The findings also indicate the valence of religious beliefs, and faith in God when survivor employees face unforeseen, difficult and unpleasant situations including downsizing in Nigeria.
    • The reality of rights, independence, choice and inclusion for adults with learning disabilities

      Presland, John Richard (University of Bedfordshire, 2013-07)
      The aim of this qualitative research study is to explore the reality of rights, independence, choice and inclusion for adults with learning disabilities; these represent key principles in government policy on this service user group, as set out in Valuing People (2001). The role of professionals (specifically Care Managers) in acting as allies to people with learning disabilities is also considered. The literature review explores the impact of social policy, the interventions arising from it, and the role of professionals, in the lives of people with learning disabilities over the last one hundred years. Focus Groups are used to explore the themes emerging from the literature review with a local group of people with learning disabilities and Care Managers. Originally Direct Payments and now Personal Budgets offer a means of making choices outside of specialist services. Expectations of people with learning disabilities regarding the relationships and models of support to which they aspire are explored, together with issues of communication – written and verbal. The importance of connecting people’s past influences and experiences with the present and future are identified, acknowledging that the story of social policy is also a personal story of people’s lived experiences. The dilemmas Care Managers face in carrying out their assessment role also emerge from the research. The application of social work values and reflective practice for Care Managers is identified as a significant aspect of professional practice.
    • Recovery-based rescheduling and optimisation of batch production processes

      Tan, Yaqing (University of Bedfordshire, 2012-09)
      Batch production processes are widely used in the process industries, applied to produce high-value added products with great varieties but in small volumes. The dynamic features of batch production processes contribute to the flexibility of the processes, but also pose big challenges to process scheduling problems. Moreover, disturbances in such a dynamic environment intensify its complexity. In this work, scheduling and rescheduling models on batch production processes are proposed, considering parallel machines allocation, storage capacity and waiting. The rescheduling model addresses process disturbances, such as machine breakdown and rush orders, in a recovery-based approach, which uses the original schedules as a guide to diminish the deviations between new and original schedules. Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Constraint Programming (CP) are applied to solve the models, but the rescheduling model built by CP can be applied to original schedules created by any techniques. According to case studies and experiments on the proposed scheduling and rescheduling approaches, it is found that CP has a better performance for scheduling and rescheduling problems with complex constraints although it cost longer time than GA. It is also found that rush orders exerted bigger influences on the batch production process than machine breakdowns, especially when the breakdowns do not happen on the ‘bottleneck’ machines.
    • Reducing edible food waste in the UK food manufacturing supply chain through collaboration

      Shah, Pramitkumar (University of Bedfordshire, 2017-06)
      The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between food manufacturing supply chain (FMSC) collaboration, collaborative effectiveness and edible food waste (EF) waste reduction; and also identify the key dimensions of collaboration and collaborative effectiveness in the context of the FMSC. A conceptual framework was built based on thorough relevant literature review and theory. Then all items of the conceptual framework were revised by academics and practitioners. The model was empirically tested with survey data using 122 responses from food manufacturing firms, using PLS-SEM. The findings indicated that the structural paths support hypotheses that FMSC collaboration has a positive effect related to collaborative effectiveness, and collaborative effectiveness has a strong contribution in EF waste (over-production of EF waste, processing of EF waste and storage of EF waste) reduction. However, the direct impact of FMSC collaboration on EF waste (over-production of EF waste, processing of EF waste and storage of EF waste) reduction is insignificant. A mediation analysis showed that the relationship between FMSC collaboration and EF waste is fully mediated by collaborative effectiveness. This research brought relational view theory for the concept of FMSC collaboration and collaborative effectiveness into the FMSC context, which has not previously been done, and developed and validated those constructs and relationships. The UK FMSC members would benefit from applying all dimensions of FMSC collaboration in this study to their supply chain operation to achieve greater collaborative effectiveness, and that will lead to reducing EF waste.
    • A rental Digital Rights Management framework which allows user to lend books and notes

      Vyas, Rohit (University of Bedfordshire, 2012-01)
      With new technologies come new challenges and opportunities. The upsurge in use of tablets and readers has led to increase in eBooks usage in recent years. But there lies some key differences in eBooks and print books which are often seen as a hurdle in the growth of eBook market. Firstly an eBook provider delivers eBooks with access control technologies known as Digital Rights Management which makes it difficult for the consumers to use eBooks as print Books. Secondly eBook renting is not widely used as print book renting and lastly users cannot lend eBooks as they do in case of print books. This project analyses the digital rights management schemes and provides a suitable framework which has an interoperable rental DRM framework which allows users to lend eBooks and notes.
    • Replication and availability in decentralised online social networks

      Hassan, Adil (University of Bedfordshire, 2017)
      During the last few years’ online social networks (OSNs) have become increasingly popular among all age groups and professions but this has raised a number of issues around users’ privacy and security. To address these issues a number of attempts have been made in the literature to create the next generation of OSNs built on decentralised architectures. Maintaining high data availability in decentralised OSNs is a challenging task as users themselves are responsible for keeping their profiles available either by staying online for longer periods of time or by choosing trusted peers that can keep their data available on their behalf. The major findings of this research include algorithmically determining the users’ availability and the minimum number of replicas required to achieve the same availability as all mirror nodes combined. The thesis also investigates how the users’ availability, replication degree and the update propagation delay changes as we alter the number of mirror nodes their online patterns, number of sessions and session duration. We found as we increase the number of mirror nodes the availability increases and becomes stable after a certain point which may vary from node to node as it directly depends on the node’s number of mirror nodes and their online patterns. Moreover, we also found the minimum number of replicas required to achieve the same availability as all mirror nodes combined and update propagation delay directly depends on mirror nodes’ number of sessions and session duration. Furthermore, we also found as we increase the number of sessions with reduced session lengths the update propagation delay between the mirror nodes starts to decrease. Thus resulting in spreading the updates faster as compared to mirror nodes with fewer sessions but of longer durations.
    • Representation, immigration, experience and memory: a study of representational dynamics of “the other” in post imperial Britain (1947-1990s) with special reference to African and African Caribbean immigrants

      Holt, Dollin Wilson Ovaroh (University of Bedfordshire, 2007-07)
      The study is an assessment of the proposition that the British media coverage of African and African Caribbean minority ethnic communities is permeated with 'othering'. It analysed the mode of accounting and explaining mobilised by some of the national press regarding racial unrest, focusing particularly on those major events that served to narrativise and recompose the image of immigrants as the 'other' in the context of articulating Britishness. These are Enoch Powell's Rivers of Blood speech in 1968 and the Brixton disturbance of 1981. A content/frame analysis of newspaper coverage of these events was carried out. Seymore-Ure's analysis of the media's response to Powell's speech in The Political Impact of Mass Media (1974) served as major point of reference. In addition, the study explored through in-dept interviews the relationship between lived experiences and popular media discourses in an attempt to gauge the extent to which interviewees' memories cohered or not with the media's account of events involving black people; and which news stories have had significant and formative impact on the experiences of other-ness.
    • Representations of female sexual desire in four novels by women from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries

      Castellano, Viviana (University of Bedfordshire, 2013-10)
      This thesis discusses the way in which female sexual desire is represented in four novels written by women during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. It analyses the protagonists’ wish for sexual fulfilment and emancipation and explores the extent to which these novels may be regarded as proto-feminist. Drawing primarily upon the theories of Simone de Beauvoir, Judith Butler, Toril Moi, and Sigmund Freud, the thesis will examine Fantomina (1725) by Eliza Haywood, Memoirs of Emma Courtney (1796) by Mary Hays, Aurora Floyd (1863) by Mary Elizabeth Braddon and The Awakening (1899) by Kate Chopin. It argues that each text offers an exposé of the power of the patriarchal social order which seeks to define and dominate a woman’s capacity for sexual desire. The findings show that each of the female protagonists may be seen as a strong and fearless heroine, but each one may also be seen as a victim of an oppressive patriarchy. The study concludes that although positive and negative elements co-exist within these novels, by interrogating their different representations of female sexual desire it is possible to acquire a more nuanced understanding of the texts and their contribution to the liberation of women.
    • Research and development policy in the English National Health Service: the implementation of the “Research for Health” strategy

      Twelvetree, Timothy James (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 1999-12)
      The following thesis presents an analysis of power and control in the English National Health Service. Notably, it focuses upon power and control over knowledge; over defining what is 'valid' knowledge; over the production of that valid knowledge; and over how, what, when and where that knowledge is used in everyday clinical practice. The issue reaches to the heart of professional conception and definition and hence, control over professions themselves. The thesis attempts to demonstrate the relationship between the different professional groups in the NHS, through the analysis of national, regional and local documents, and interviews with managers, doctors, nurses, dietitians and physiotherapists in three case studies, the thesis shows the complex pattern of relations and behaviour at play. Particular attention is paid to Michael Power's notion of audit and the 'Audit Explosion', which provides a framework for the thesis, and to the work of Michel Foucault, especially his ideas about power, control and panopticism. These are used as a useful metaphor to understand and explain NBS research and audit in relation to the NHS professions. The thesis ends with a cross-case analysis which draws together the rich variety of data and concludes with an analysis of the wider sociological implications ofthe thesis.
    • Research into the application of employee engagement

      Bell, John William Hans (University of Bedfordshire, 2012-08)
      Literature on employee engagement was reviewed to establish the state of knowledge and was found to be inconclusive. Multiple authors consider employee engagement to be a combination of prior constructs, and therefore not providing anything additive, whilst others consider it to be distinct in its own right. Furthermore, the specific definition by those authors that do claim it to be distinct is not consistent. A range of employee focus groups were conducted to establish an employee-led definition of employee engagement and its drivers. This was then followed by a range of employee attitude surveys. This multi-year research was conducted in a global mining organisation in multiple geographic locations.
    • A research project to aid Volleyball England meet their ‘increasing participation’ funding requirement

      Hills, Jade (University of Bedfordshire, 2016-09)
      Since 2003, National Governing Bodies of sport have had an increasing accountability for meeting the targets set within their Whole Sport Plans. Recent sport policies have reiterated the importance of gathering insight into customer needs in order to create evidence based programmes to achieve behaviour change in relation to increasing participation. This study aims to gather insight into the reasons for participation in volleyball, the barriers which prevent individuals from participating, and possible solutions to overcome those barriers and increase participation. Following a pragmatic paradigm and a grounded theory methodology, the study utilised five different research methods; an online questionnaire; telephone interviews; an email questionnaire; face-to-face interviews; and a document analysis. The main findings in this study relate to the barriers to participation and suggested solutions to overcome those barriers. The main barriers to participation found within the online questionnaire were having other commitments (n=106), lack of time (n=99) and access to facilities being limited or non-existent (n=75). With regard to suggested solutions, the main suggestions were time slots to fit individual lifestyles (n=92), knowledge of where to play (n=69) and wider volleyball coverage in the media (n=57). These findings are discussed in more depth within the telephone interviews and email questionnaires results, findings regarding volleyball participation, reasons for participation, and the importance of insight for National Governing Bodies are also studied. Overall, this thesis demonstrates the complex nature of sport policy and funding for National Governing Bodies, whilst providing Volleyball England with an understanding of how to increase their recreational volleyball participation figures.
    • The resilience of alternative community states driven by priority effects: a microcosm investigation

      Bright, Emma (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-11)
      Within an ecosystem, there are a variety of interactions between species which affect the overall community. One of the strongest influences of community structure within a habitat is the order in which species arrive and establish; resulting in populations either coexisting or excluding one another to extinction. This can either be invading species excluding residents (competitive exclusion) or residents excluding invaders (priority effects), often due to freely depleting any shared resources before invaders arrive. Priority effects are predicted to be weaker when the invasion occurs simultaneously with warming towards and above the thermal tolerance of one species as the pressure put on the species can be too much to allow a population to grow or establish to survive. This experiment investigated whether an 8°C temperature range altered protist ability to invade or be invaded in simple aquatic microcosms, where the order of invasion of Colpidium and Tetrahymena was varied. I measured the changes to population density of both species over time, to identify changes in maximum population density and time to extinction. Results showed very strong priority effects between the two species, but this was never affected by temperature. In all treatments, resident Tetrahymena could never be invaded by Colpidium. However, Tetrahymena can invade resident Colpidium and populations can coexist for weeks, but Colpidium always eventually exclude Tetrahymena to extinction. The only factors temperature affected were maximum population density and time to extinction in single species microcosms, with earlier extinction and lower maximum population densities at warmer temperatures. This study suggests that arrival of species into an environment is vital in determining the final habitat composition. Although temperature does not affect priority effects, it does alter the duration species may be able to survive and coexist, which could be fundamental in conservation work in a world with changing habitats and climates.
    • Role ambiguity and role conflict amongst university academic and administrative staff: a Nigerian case study

      Bako, Mandy Jollie (University of Bedfordshire, 2014-08)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate role ambiguity and role conflict amongst the academic and administrative staff of the University of Lagos, Nigeria and to determine the differences that exist between them in this perception. The study also examined the impact of demographical variables such as gender, age, educational qualification and tenure on role perception. The questionnaire consisted of demographic questions and Role Perception Questionnaire developed by Rizzo et al., (1970) to measure role ambiguity and role conflict. A response rate of 53.5% from a total of 200 questionnaires was achieved. The results of the statistical analysis computed established a statistically significant difference in the perception of role ambiguity between the groups, but no significant difference was found in their perception of role conflict. The academic staff perceived significantly higher role ambiguity than the administrative staff, but no significant difference was recorded in their perception of role conflict. Educational qualification and gender had a significant impact on role perception of the academic staff, but did not have any significant relationship with the administrative staff’s perception of role. Tenure and age did not have any significant impact on role perception of the groups investigated. The study confirmed a positive correlation between role ambiguity with role conflict with an insignificant correlation value (r = .45). Recommendations for future research and implementation for universities administrators were made.