• The identification of tumour antigens recognized by patients with Duke’s B (Stage II) reactive colorectal cancers using SEREX

      Boncheva, Viktoriya Bogdanova (University of Bedfordshire, 2013-12)
      Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in both men and women, posing a serious demographic and economic burden worldwide. In the UK, CRC affects one in every twenty people and it is often detected once well-established and after it has spread beyond the bowel (Stage IIA-C and Stage IIIA-C). A diagnosis at such advanced stages is associated with poor treatment response and survival. However, studies have identified two sub-groups of post-treatment CRC patients – those with good outcome (reactive disease) and those with poor outcome (non-reactive disease). Evidence indicates the presence of an effective immune response differentiates between those patients who respond well to treatment and those who do not. To investigate these underlying mechanisms we used the serological analysis of cDNA recombinant libraries (SEREX) technique to determine which antigens are recognised by patients in each group. Immunoscreening a healthy donor testes cDNA library with sera from three patients with Duke’s B reactive disease led to the identification of five antigens. These were (1) the immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 3 (G3m marker), IGHG3 gene, located on chromosome 14 at 14q32.33, which encodes IgG3, and was recognised by sera from patients CC005 and CC014; (2) the immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 2, IGHG2 gene, located on chromosome 14 at 14q32.33 and recognised by CC014 sera; while (3) CYB5R3, (4) RPL37A and (5) SLC34A2 were recognised by CC005, CC014 and CC014 sera respectively. CYB5R3 is a NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase 3 protein which has been shown to be upregulated in lung tissue with a RAS mutation in mice. Ribosomal protein L37a (RPL37A) has previously been shown to be upregulated in astrocytomas and to have a general association with lifetime glioblastoma survival and overall glioblastoma survival. Solute carrier family 34 member 2 (SLC34A2) encodes a protein which acts as a pH-sensitive sodium-dependent phosphate transporter. SLC34A2 has been shown to be upregulated in breast and ovarian cancers and it is suggested that SLC34A2 is involved in the process of carcinogenesis, making it an attractive target in therapeutic strategies and also as a diagnostic biomarker. Although other antigens were found, and their sequences identified, all were unknown and not found in the databases. RT-PCR analysis of the Duke’s B colon cancer cell line SW480 showed consistent expression of BCP-20. Although, expression of SSX2, NY-ESO-1, TSP50, HAGE and RAGE were detected, the data was not easily reproductible. Further optimisation of the PCR conditions and primer pairs would be necessary to confirm these findings. We hope in the future we can disern the role of these antigens in the inflammatory immune responses associated with reactive Dukes’ B colon cancer which would help us better understand the mechanisms which underlie effective anti-tumour responses post-surgery. It may also be that RPL37A is a biomarker for patient survival in colorectal cancer and this would be worthy of further investigation.
    • Identifying benefits and challenges in the application of agile methodologies in software development

      Streek, Alistair (University of Bedfordshire, 2015-03)
      Software has generally been developed using the ‘Waterfall’ methodology which is now believed to be cumbersome and slow to react to change. This belief has spawned new ‘Agile’ methodologies that aim to deliver small pieces of working software on a frequent basis. Many claims have been made about Agile, but little academic research has been carried out to justify them. This study identifies the significance of benefits and challenges practitioners have found when adapting to Agile methodologies. Further, the benefits and challenges are linked to the Agile features in use and assesses what contributes to the level of user satisfaction. A survey instrument was employed to collect data from as many practitioners as possible followed by post survey interviews. Claims made for Agile by service providers are compared to the experiences of those canvassed in the survey. Results reveal that the most significant benefit is closer collaboration with other members of the development team. Significant challenges were the estimation of the time and effort Agile projects take to complete and that Agile only works with competent, motivated people. The insights gained in this study will be circulated for the benefit of future research on software development methodologies and Agile practice.
    • Ideological analysis and cinema fiction

      Janmohamed, Shireen (University of Bedfordshire, 2009)
      Ideological analyses of cinema fictions usually employ a methodology using the critical Marxist concept of discursive strategies that are used to spuriously account for realities. With the changes to the international strategic power balance and the use of overwhelming fire-power in the pursuance of what is perceived to be the national interest, cinema fictions have begun to reflect this dangerous world. This thesis argues that a purely ideological analysis is inadequate to the task of interpreting contemporary political cinema texts, and it considers the use of Foucauldian concepts of power and power relations as supplementary to ideological analysis. The application to two cinema texts shows that the concepts used are not mutually exclusive, and Foucault’s thought is especially appropriate to these political cinema fictions. This is a novel approach as it has traditionally been thought that Foucault’s theory of discourse was developed as a counter to ideological analysis. But the research conducted here shows that Foucault’s criticism was aimed at the Marxist concept of ideology and as a consequence he suggested that ideology be treated as one element in a broader discourse of power relations. This is the approach that has been successfully adopted here.
    • The impact of generic advocacy on service users: using a social return on investment approach

      Sekiwa, Yvonne Elizabeth (University of Bedfordshire, 2012-09)
      Advocacy has become a popular way to support the most vulnerable in society, to overcome and resolve the issues they face within the health and social care sector. Advocacy today takes on many forms and has received attention from research over the years. One form of advocacy, however, has not received much research attention and is known as generic advocacy. Traditionally advocacy services have focused on either a particular user group or issue, and sometimes both. Generic advocacy services do not focus on particular group or issue, but are open to all who required advocacy support. Whilst there is available research on advocacy in general, and its impact and effectiveness, little is known about generic advocacy and the impact it has on those who use it. This study, using Social Return on Investment, as a methodological approach has explored the impact of generic advocacy on those who use it. The study has found generic advocacy services produce a variety of outcomes. Although these outcomes could be considered trivial by some, they are extremely important to those who experience them. The impact of the outcomes experienced by the participants in this study is often positive and life changing, making a real difference in their lives.
    • The impact of owners’ education and work experience on the growth of handicraft SMEs in Hyderabad region Pakistan

      Chachar, Ayaz Ahmed (University of Bedfordshire, 2013)
      The general purpose of this study is to investigate factors that positively affect growth in the small and medium size enterprises (SMEs). Preliminary research highlighted the fact that few (if any), past studies had focussed on the owners of SMEs and in particular if educational attainment and work experience had had any effect upon business growth. The author had a particular interest in Pakistani SMEs and coming from Sind, was interested in investigating these factors in Handicraft SMEs currently operating/located in Hyderabad, as (despite being significant local employers), handicraft SMEs in the Hyderabad region have (due to socio-political and socio-economic reasons), long been neglected by local and regional government. In this study (after undertaking secondary research and following the literature review stage), the author concluded that a face-to-face structured interview with the owners of SMEs in the handicrafts sector, combined with a short questionnaire approach to data collection, would yield the best results given the limited budget and short timeframe. The results of this (albeit small-scale and limited) study, indicate that there was indeed some evidence of a positive link between the level of education (as well as the experience), of Hyderabad SME owners and business growth. At the very least, this highlights the need for further study, whilst at the same time making Hyderabad’s policy-makers aware of the potential benefits of investing in educational support for owners of local SMEs.
    • The impact of personal poetics on a horror writer

      Edlin, Matthew (University of Bedfordshire, 2014-10)
      The horror genre invites challenges for the creative writer, new texts for its readers. A horror reader can only predict what he’s going to experience; through the glimpses of fear a horror writer might imagine what he’s going to write. This research thesis is an attempt to evaluate the horror genre from several different angles by simply reading and critiquing. It assesses the practice of being a horror writer, and evaluating areas of debate. Areas which carry less significance which need highlighting, a reflection upon personal poetics made between the writer and the text. Ultimately, new arguments were formed on the basis of what’s available in the field already, arguments which could be considered a contribution towards the horror genre.
    • Independent effects of 7-days imposed exercise on free-living energy balance and appetite-regulating hormones in males

      Mackie, Paul Ian (University of Bedfordshire, 2016-04)
      Study 1 examined the reliability of a photographic food diary (with additional written details) on free-living energy intake (EI) in 13 healthy males. Daily average EI did not differ significantly between two, 7-day periods (p = 0.116) but a large systematic bias (143 ± 715 kcal.day-1) and wide limits of agreement (LoA) (-1258 to 1545 kcal.day-1) were found. Study 2 examined the influence of imposed exercise (7 days) on energy balance and the acylated ghrelin and total PYY response to a meal. Five healthy males completed two, 7-day trials in a crossover randomised design: no exercise (N-EX) and exercise (EX; ~69% V􁈶 O2peak expending an average 815 kcal.day-1). EI and EE were assessed throughout each trial. Blood and appetite ratings (visual analogue scales; VAS) were collected the day prior to and 70 hours post each trial (fasting and for 3 hours postprandial; a final VAS after an ad libitum meal). Exercise significantly increased EI by 27% (p = 0.005), although participants remained in an energy deficit. Appetite regulating hormones and appetite ratings did not alter from pre- to 70 hours post-intervention. Thus, 7-days of imposed exercise induced a partial compensation through EI, without changes in appetite hormones or appetite ratings.
    • Influence of hypoxic preconditioning in-vivo to 30 minutes knee surgery specific tourniquet application

      Barrington, James Henry (University of Bedfordshire, 2013-10)
      Purpose: To establish whether a bout of hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) or ischemic preconditioning (IPC) would elicit a reduction in total knee replacement (TKR) surgery specific tourniquet mediated oxidative stress (OS) in-vivo. Methods: In an independent group design, 18 healthy men were exposed to 40 min of either: whole-body HPC (14.3% O2), IPC (four bouts of 5 min ischemia and 5 min reperfusion) or rest (SHAM), 1 h prior to 30 min TKR specific limb ischemia and 2 h reperfusion. Systemic blood samples were taken at pre- and post-intervention, additionally blood and gastrocnemius samples were obtained at pre-, 15 min post- (15PoT) and 120 min post-tourniquet deflation. Systemic leukocytes and gastrocnemius tissue were analysed for the heat shock protein (Hsp72) and Heat shock protein 32 (Hsp32) gene transcript response (indicates severity of the cellular stress response), with the systemic plasma also assessed for OS markers (protein carbonyl and glutathione (reduced, oxidised, total, reduced/oxidised-ratio)). Results: A 1.93 and 1.97 fold reduction in gastrocnemius Hsp72 was noted in individuals exposed to HPC (p = 0.007) and IPC (p = 0.006) respectively, in comparison to SHAM at 15PoT. No significant differences were observed in gastrocnemius Hsp32, systemic Hsp72, Hsp32 or OS markers (p > 0.05) between groups. Conclusions: HPC and IPC provided cytoprotection to ischemic stressed gastrocnemius tissue as indicated by an attenuated cellular stress response to 30 min TKR specific limb ischemia.
    • Information security policy : the National Payment System in Libya

      Sherif, Emad (University of Bedfordshire, 2012-05)
      Information security officers, practitioners and academics agree that information security policy is the basis of any organisation’s information security. Information security practitioners share and agree that it is rare that information security policy bring out the desirable results. In order to study and analyse this problem, academics have focused on various methods to motivate employees toward policy compliance, however, they have not paid much attention on employees’ expectations and how they perceive the information security policy. Also, employees’ satisfaction and awareness of information security policy is critical as it may improve the security level by decreasing the internal threat risks. In this thesis, analysing organisation’s employees’ expectation about information security policies based on a framework that is formed regarding internal threat motivation, consequences, security behaviour and security countermeasures. Therefore, single case study was adopted in this thesis. The study outcomes along with the case study findings state that organisation’s employees’ expectations toward an information security policy should be paid much attention during forming security regulations and even during implementation of information security policy within organisations. The thesis concludes that employees’ security behaviour is related to their information security background and awareness, as well as, security countermeasures, where if the countermeasures perceived negatively, it may negatively help to increase the risk in terms of internal threat. Finally, security countermeasures must be defined before taking negative actions toward employees, as well as, information security training should be scheduled regularly within organisation and they should be arranged regarding to the organisational groups’ professions.
    • Innovative navigation artificial intelligence for motor racing games

      Anderson, Joshua (University of Bedfordshire, 2016-05)
      Motor racing games are pushing the boundaries of realism and player experience. Artificial Intelligence (AI) allows developers to create believable opponents. By getting their AI to follow a racing line that is similar to that taken by real racing drivers, developers are able to create a sense that the AI racers are trained drivers. This paper identifies two methods used in the field: the sector based system and the sensor based system. The sector based approach offers two or more predetermined lines for the AI to follow, with added logic allowing the AI to judge when to switch between lines. The sensor method is able to guide AI vehicles around tracks with sensors, offering more possible behaviours and lines. After implementation, the strengths and weaknesses of both methods are realised. The planning and development of a hybrid system was based on these findings. The resulting system is able to produce a more believable line for the AI. With the setting up process of a race track the sector method taking a long time, exploration into tool development is conducted to reduce the process. The subsequent tool reduced the time needed to set up a track, providing results similar to the old method.
    • An insight in to the awareness levels about Hepatitis C in the international South Asian students of University of Bedfordshire, United Kingdom

      Waqar, Muhammad (University of Bedfordshire, 2008-10)
      Migration all around the world is at its peak and it has brought a lot of challenges for Public Health system due to changing epidemiology of infectious diseases associated with migration. The paper is based on the possible un-noticed spread of Hepatitis C from South Asia to the United Kingdom because of low awareness levels of this disease in the immigrants especially students. The disease is more dangerous in contrast to Hepatitis A and B, as there is no vaccine to provide immunity against the Hepatitis C virus (HCV). Moreover, the costly and toxic treatment options can help in only fifty percent of the patients. It is thought that student’s involvement in risky behaviours make them more vulnerable to contract and transmit the disease. A Quantitative research approach has been used to conduct a cross-sectional, self administered questionnaire survey at the University of Bedfordshire, Luton, UK to know about the knowledge of Hepatitis C in students. A total of 71 International South Asian students (53 males and 18 females) were included in the survey by snow ball sampling. Data was analysed by SPSS version 12.0 software (95% C.I, P<0.05), using chi-square test for statistical significance. Self reported knowledge of Hepatitis C was 69% and it decreased to just 39.4% self reported knowledge for symptoms and 38% for the self reported awareness about transmission of disease. 74.6% participants seemed to know that the disease can be transmitted by contaminated needles and 69% recognised blood as route of transmission for the disease. Only 64.8% of the participants were able to relate jaundice with possible Hepatitis C infection. Misconceptions and concerns about transmission of disease by close contacts such as kissing were shown by majority of the participants. Some participants (59.2%) knew about the transmission of HCV through contaminated shaving blades while only few (32.4%) agreed that it can be transmitted by sharing toothbrushes. Just 29.6% participants knew about sexual transmission and only 9.9 percent participants realised that there is no vaccine for the protection against HCV. Bangladeshi and Sri-Lankan were amongst least aware ethnic groups; Participants <30 years and males had least knowledge about the disease. Finding of the study are suggestive that the overall knowledge of Hepatitis C among International South Asian students is extremely low and insufficient. They might be at a high risk of contracting and transmitting the disease so they should be treated as high risk group for the disease. There is an urgent need of campaigns to improve the awareness levels about transmission of Hepatitis C in this group.
    • An integrated inventory model for supply chain management

      Zhang, Xiaoliang (University of Bedfordshire, 2004-02)
      Improved integration of logistics processes across multiple companies of a supply chain is of increasing interest and importance. With modern information technologies, more and more companies intend to implement a logistics alliance strategy for co-operations in the supply chain. However, the implementation of the strategy highly depends on the integrated logistics models available. To this end, extensions of existing models may be required to facilitate the entire supply chain rather than individuals. Inventory management is one of the most important parts of logistics management. In this project, an integrated inventory model is built for a supply chain with a manufacturer, multiple upstream factories and mul1iple downstream vendors. Based on some assumptions, all the individual inventory behaviours are considered together to suggest an overall optimised plan to minimise the total inventory cost of the supply chain. Then, extensions are made to the integrated inventory model for practical considerations. A numerical analysis is conducted to compare the optimised results of the integrated model with the results of some existing models. Finally, conclusions and future perspectives are drawn.
    • Intelligent trolley

      Alotaibi, Sami (University of Bedfordshire, 2012)
      Intelligent Trolley is a new concept and has modified the regular shopping experience. The studies highlight that the intelligent trolley has provided more convenience and has eased shopping. Besides convenience it has saved time there is no need for the consumers to stand and wait in long queues to pay for their purchases which the consumers have been complaining about before. Studies also highlight the technological improvement that has been done over the shopping cart or trolley and the variety of services it offers to the consumers. Studies have discussed about the Radio Frequency Technology Identification (RFID) system that has been installed in the intelligent trolley. RFID is a more resistant and safer technology it identifies the product and provides the long range information. To read the product's RFID does not need direct contact and has a high range. RFID connects the cart with the store's system and provides navigation to the consumers throughout the aisles of store and identifies product location for them. My research conducted over the intelligent trolley highlights the impact it had over the supermarkets and the retail stores. Stores competed over the prices however the introduction of intelligent trolley has provided them competitive edge. It signifies the investment and the finance store would be required to make in order to introduce such technology. It highlights that the initially finance would be required but the benefits it would provide would outweigh the costs. it would provide the internet access to the consumers, upload their shopping list and download it at their trolley. The navigation system would provide them the exact location of their products even the specific products could be highlighted. Time wasted in finding the products would be saved and the consumers would not be required to stand in long queues. Intelligent trolley also provides some extra features that are extra service and entertainment to the customer. It is shown that different companies have worked on RFID scanners like Fujitsu and Microsoft who have launched their products and are modifying it as per the needs of the market and consumers. This research revealed that the introduction of this technology would require some finance and the stores would have to bear some costs in order to upgrade the IT systems. The supermarkets and the retail store have normally competed over the costs and tried to provide low price products to the customers however it has become hard to compete on this ground. The introduction of intelligent trolley would provide competitive edge to the store as they would be offering extra services to the customers. The prices that the stores offer are almost the same these new features offered in the form intelligent trolley would attract more customers. It would decrease the complaints they had regarding shopping at the stores. Intelligent would reduce their shopping time no longer waiting and roaming in the aisles for finding the products would be required.
    • The interaction of wnt-11 and signalling cascades in prostate cancer

      Koushyar, Sarah (University of Bedfordshire, 2014-07)
      Castration resistant prostate cancer proposes an array of issues in terms of treatment options. It is therefore necessary to decipher the underlying mechanism involved in androgen independent prostate cancer and neuroendocrine differentiation, which is associated with malignant and metastatic disease. Wnt-11 has been previously shown to be associated with the more malignant version of the disease by being involved in the cellular proliferation and differentiation of the cancerous cells. The methodology adopted to identify signalling pathways triggered upon Wnt-11 activation were inhibition of the JNK, PKA, PI3K and mTOR pathway with various concentrations of inhibitors, proceeding this proliferation, migration and gene expression experiments were carried out three times, each experiment containing a triplet of each condition. Results collected were significant in all experiments excluding the proliferation results involving the PKA pathway. A preliminary mechanism was established between Wnt-11 and the mentioned pathways with neuroendocrine differentiation. The experiments carried out along with the correlated data were novel and brings research one step closer to understanding the mechanism of androgen independent prostate cancer, which in turn can hopefully relay to new therapy options which are currently absent on the market.
    • The intercultural virtual dancing subject: a choreographic investigation of spatio structures In Japanese-Western cultural practice

      Nezu, Aoba (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2014-12)
      The aim of this practice-led research is to question and examine the notion of a dancing body in two and three-dimensional spaces within the context of intercultural performance. The research will draw upon comparative analyses of Japanese and Western cultural tenets, and on how these inform specific examples of dance making. The overarching goal is to test choreographically and then theorize an intercultural meeting point in relation to space and time, which highlights exchanges and tension between Japanese and Western in modern day dance making. It is hoped that such test and theorization will stimulate, in turn, advancements in the creation of a unique form of Japanese-Western dance performance. As reported above, this research is practice-based, and develops from questioning a number of issues relating to conflicted discourses which inform current notions of dance and technology. Firstly, it explores the presentation and identity of a dancing body in two dimensions, questioning whether the creative process of choreographic experiences of three dimensions can be negotiated and presented in two dimensions - so that ‘actual’ and ‘virtual’ spaces can be blurred. Said questioning, will both move from and rely on an intercultural perspective in negotiating the spatial interplay between the live performance and screen, to then formulate the mentioned intercultural meeting point within the dance works, where two distinctive cultures can co-exist and share their own values and characteristics without any hierarchical placing. Secondly, the research questions and challenges the applicability of Western theories and practices to Japanese culture. Being based on a process of active dialogue between theory and practical experimentation, and being written by a citizen of Japan who lives in Western Europe, this research constantly reflects on how the non-Western author needs to negotiate Western cultural forms and practices with her embodied cultural preference as a dance artist. Consequently, this work suggests a potentially different approach by formulating a model of a virtual dancing body that both resides within and goes beyond boundaries of existing intercultural performance theory.
    • Interrupting prolonged sitting in overweight, and obese adults and glycaemic responses: a randomised crossover study in free-living conditions

      Stringer, Charlotte Anne (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-01)
      Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate 24 h interstitial glycaemia responses to interrupting prolonged sitting in free-living conditions in inactive and sedentary overweight and obese adults. Methods: Twelve overweight and obese individuals (mean ± SD age 47.5 ± 9.9 y) completed two, four-day conditions in a randomised crossover design; Uninterrupted sitting (SIT): 10 h/day sitting, 7 h/day uninterrupted bouts sitting (7 x 60 min bouts), standing and walking restricted to 1.5 h/day, or interrupting sitting (INT SIT): 3 – 6 min of standing, walking, simple body-weight resistance; half squats, lunges, calf raises, knee lifts, and repeated sit-to-stand transitions every 30 min for 10 h/day. Incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was calculated using the trapezoid method. Results: There were no significant differences observed for iAUC glucose measures between SIT and INT SIT conditions. There was no difference in sedentary behaviour between conditions, but daily stepping time and total steps increased significantly in INT SIT compared with SIT. Conclusion: In overweight and obese participants, it may not be possible to manipulate increases or decreases in sedentary behaviourin free-living conditions. Therefore, it was not possible to compare effects of interrupted sitting versus uninterrupted sitting on glycaemia.
    • Investigating the influence of tape application on static assessments of foot posture (clinical biomechanics)

      Stewart, Sarah Louise (University of Bedfordshire, 2019-12)
      The aim of this study is to investigate foot posture pre- and post-tape application using static assessments and pressure plate analysis. Fifteen healthy participants [male n= 9, female n= 6, 28.50 ± 11.00 years, 1.71 ± 0.10 m, 80.50 ± 18.00 kg] were conveniently sampled to take part in this study. Participants were assessed statically in a seated, bipedal and unipedal stance through pressure plate analysis and measurements of the navicular drop, medial longitudinal arch angle (MLA) and tibiocalcaneal angle (TCA). Measurements were taken pre- and post-tape applications which included no tape application, Sham, Zinc Oxide (Z/O), Elastic Adhesive Bandage (EAB) and two K-tape applications. There was a statistically significant difference between MLA and tape application [F (5,10) = 282.90, p=<.001, ηp2 = 0.122]. Significant increase in MLA was found between the following results; Zinc Oxide vs. K-tape 1 [p=<0.001], Zinc Oxide vs. K-tape 2 [p=<.001] and Sham vs K-tape 2 [p=0.022]. Whilst significant decrease in MLA was found between the following results; EAB vs. Zinc Oxide [p=<.001] and EAB vs Sham [p=0.025]. There were no statistically significant results found between MLA and change in body position [F (2,10) = 90.65, p=0.101, ηp2 = 0.016]. Additionally, there was a statistically significant difference between TCA and position [H (2) = 37.21, p=<.001] as well as TCA and tape application [H (5) = 27.79, p=<.001]. Significant decrease in TCA was found between the following results; Bipedal vs. Unipedal [p=<.045], ε2 = -0.337], Bipedal vs. Seated [p=<.001], EAB vs. No Tape [p=<.035], EAB vs. Sham [p=<.001] and EAB vs. Zinc Oxide [p=<.001]. There was a significant increase in TCA in the following conditions; Sham vs. K-tape 1 [p=<.026] and Zinc Oxide vs. K-tape 1 [p=0.032]. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant difference between total contact area and position [H (2) = 207.269, p=<.001]. Significant decrease in total contact area were found in the following conditions; Seated vs. Unipedal [p=<.001] and Bipedal vs. Unipedal [p=<.001]. Significant increase in total contact area was observed when comparing Bipedal vs. Seated [p=<.001]. In conclusion, the MLA results suggests that clinicians could justify the use Zinc Oxide tape application over other taping conditions due to the results showing that application typically increased the angle, indicating a better postural support being given which could assist individuals with a pronated foot posture. In contrast, EAB and K-tape applications were seen to reduce the angle of the MLA which justifies a clinician in using these tape applications for an individual with supinated foot posture over other applications, in order to reduce the MLA. Furthermore, the TCA seen across all conditions provided values which indicated a hindfoot valgus/pronated position, it could be suggested that EAB tape application reduces the TCA result and therefore brings the hindfoot angle more towards a neutral position. Additionally, results have also shown how the change in body position influence total contact area of the foot. These results provide clinicians with a greater understanding as to how the foot posture changes under different loading conditions based on body position which hasn’t previously been reported in literature.
    • An investigation into how ICT is used in teaching and learning by Initial Teacher Educators on the Primary BEd and PGCE courses in the School of Education at a British University

      Hudson, Kate (University of Bedfordshire, 2008)
      The purpose of this study was to explore the use of ICT in teaching and learning by initial teacher educators, on Primary PGCE and BEd courses, in one British university. The aim was to determine what and where good practice with ICT already existed on the Primary education courses and to identify points of action to make improvements. The world now is technology-rich and as such beginning teachers need to be prepared for the ever-changing demands of ICT in their future careers in schools, especially as their pupils are becoming ever-more digitally 'native'. This study wanted to find out what it meant to use ICT well in teaching and learning on an Initial Teacher Education course for the primary age ranges. It also wanted to ascertain the barriers to the successful embedding of ICT into the curriculum of the Primary education course. Finally, it sought to make recommendations to the case study institution as to what and how improvements could be made. The research was carried out through a thorough review of current literature as well as an analysis of the policy documents at both a local and national level. Staff who taught on the Primary education courses completed a questionnaire which allowed them to comment on their attitudes, views and usage of ICT in their teaching and learning. These results were then cross-referenced to PGCE students' evaluations of the ICT on their course, from the previous year. It was found that ICT in teaching and learning should be made explicit through the sharing of aims for learning. These aims should include as a minimum, coverage through subject areas of national curriculum for ICT for Key Stages 1 and 2, allowing students to see how ICT is supported in a particular field. Also, the curriculum should include the explicit modelling of ICT for teaching and learning in university sessions and also including activities for school experience which will strengthen students' understanding further. This will involve a curriculum review. In order to ensure that staff are competent, both at a personal level and for their embedding of ICT in their curriculum planned CPO at an appropriate level and in a meaningful context will be necessary, on an ongoing basis to keep up with the changes in technology. This would be supported by time for collaboration between colleagues to develop ideas for the curriculum.
    • Investigation into the coefficient of friction of manual therapy products

      Howes, Emily Marie (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-02)
      The ability to modulate friction is a vital aspect of manual therapy. Various mediums are utilised to assist with different techniques in the form of: lotions, oils and waxes. The aim of this research was to investigate the differences in the dynamic coefficient of friction between manual therapy mediums. A scientific testing rig with an interchangeable calibration weight (SE-8708, PASCO, USA) was pulled across the mediums and the force was recorded. Constant velocity was confirmed by monitoring acceleration via a wireless force-acceleration sensor (PS-3202, PASCO, USA). The coefficient of friction for each medium was calculated and recorded. Results showed the mean dynamic coefficient of friction for wax was 0.30 (95% CI, 0.26 - 0.35). This was significantly different from cream 0.16 (95% CI, 0.13 - 0.19) p=0.000 and oil 0.09 (95% CI, 0.07 - 0.12) p=000. There was also a statistically significant difference between cream and oil p=0.037. These results suggest that oil and wax produce the lowest and highest coefficient of frictions respectively. Therefore, if the intention of a technique were to increase friction, then wax may be the most effective medium. Alternatively, where less friction is required, oil may prove more efficient for the practitioner.
    • An investigation into the development and validity of progressive fitness tests for rowing, and young people

      Metcalfe, Alan J. (University of Bedfordshire, 2012-10)
      The aim of this thesis was to develop a new rowing based version of the multistage fitness test to be used on a concept II rowing ergometer in any gymnasium. It was also to quantify the physiological strain and asses the validity of the multistage fitness test on young people and its relationship between speed and strength variables. In Study one, an incremental based rowing protocol (IRT) was developed. A Significant correlation was observed between a treadmill based V02max and the IRT for V02max (r =0.68, SEE 4.7) and heart rate (r =0.76, SEE =5.8). In 41 gym users (35 females, 25 males) V02max values were significantly different between treadmill running (44.7. ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min,1) and rowing (42.2 ± 7.3 mL'kg,1' min,1; P < 0.05). In all subjects maximum heart rate (HRmax) was significantly higher during the running V02max test (192.2 ± 9.6 beats'min,1) compared to the IRT (184.3 ± 10.6 beats'min-1 ; P < 0.05). In study two, the validity of the MSFT was testing in young people. The MSFT had a significant relationship in girls (n =35) between 10m sprint (r =-0.48; P < 0.05), 40m sprint (r =-0040; P < 0.05), hand grip dynamometer strength (r =0.34; P < 0,05) and pull dynamometer strength (r = 0049; P < 0.05).Only 40 m sprint speed was significant in boys (n =25) (r =-0.57; P < 0.05). Boys had no significance between the MSFT and 10m sprint (r = -0.35; P> 0.05), hand grip dynamometer (r = 0.30; P> 0.05) strength and pull dynamometer strength (r =0.29' P> 0.05).