Browsing Masters e-theses by Subjects
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Adolescent materialism, parental and peer materialism, parental and peer support and adolescent well-beingRecent research highlights how the current materialistic culture of the UK has a detrimental effect on young people's lives. The present study aimed to investigate how parent and peer relationships impacts on adolescent materialism and wellbeing. A correlational design was employed, utilising standardised questionnaires, previously validated as appropriate tools for the topics and age of participants. Participants (N= 166) aged 13-15 were recruited from two secondary schools in South England. Adolescents completed measures of materialism, peer support, parental support, perceived peer group pressure, contingent self-worth and wellbeing. Parents (N=47) of participants completed measures of materialism and parental support. Parents' and perceived peers' materialism significantly predicted adolescent materialism, accounting for 51% of the variance in adolescent materialism. Several new findings to existing research on adolescent materialism are presented. Peer support moderated the effect of perceived peers' materialism on adolescents' own materialism. Pro-social behaviour predicted lower materialism, and additionally was a partial mediator of the relationship between perceived peer group pressure and adolescent materialism. Adolescent materialism predicted poorer well-being. Perceived parental support predicted higher well-being. Whilst higher materialism of parents and peers are associated with increases in adolescent materialism, social support may help reduce the negative consequences of adolescent materialism.
Effects of consuming compared with omitting breakfast on diet and physical activity in adolescent girlsEpidemiological data has demonstrated that regular breakfast consumption is associated with favourable daily dietary intakes and reduced obesity risk in children and adolescents. There is also some evidence that regular breakfast consumers have higher levels of physical activity when compared with breakfast skippers. Therefore, it is of concern that breakfast skipping is particularly common among adolescent girls. However, the observational data on breakfast, diet and physical activity remains inconclusive and fails to infer causality. Therefore, the aim of this study was to experimentally examine the effects of consuming compared with omitting breakfast on diet and physical activity in adolescent girls. A sample of 33 girls (24 used in final analyses) aged 12-15 completed three, 3-day trials: habitual breakfast, no breakfast and high-energy breakfast. The participants’ dietary intakes were assessed using 3-day food diaries (and digital photography) and physical activity was measured with accelerometry. There was no main effect of trial on energy intake after breakfast (P=0.49), fruit and vegetable (P=0.21) and snack consumption (P=0.33). There was a significant main effect of breakfast condition on total daily energy intake (P=0.001) and on energy consumed from fat (P=0.001) and carbohydrate (P=0.001) when expressed as percentages of total daily energy intake. Daily energy intake was significantly higher in HEB compared with NB (P=0.001) and CON (P=0.002). Less energy from fat was consumed in HEB compared with CON (P=0.001) and NB (P=0.001), and more energy from carbohydrate was consumed in HEB compared with CON (P=0.001) and NB (P=0.001). There was no main effect of breakfast on time spent in sedentary (P=0.41), light (P=0.44), moderate (P=0.34) and vigorous (P=0.67) physical activity. Overweight and non-overweight adolescent girls did not compensate by consuming more energy or being less active for the remainder of the day when omitting compared with consuming breakfast consisting of ~475 kcal for three days.