• Independent effects of 7-days imposed exercise on free-living energy balance and appetite-regulating hormones in males

      Mackie, Paul Ian (University of Bedfordshire, 2016-04)
      Study 1 examined the reliability of a photographic food diary (with additional written details) on free-living energy intake (EI) in 13 healthy males. Daily average EI did not differ significantly between two, 7-day periods (p = 0.116) but a large systematic bias (143 ± 715 kcal.day-1) and wide limits of agreement (LoA) (-1258 to 1545 kcal.day-1) were found. Study 2 examined the influence of imposed exercise (7 days) on energy balance and the acylated ghrelin and total PYY response to a meal. Five healthy males completed two, 7-day trials in a crossover randomised design: no exercise (N-EX) and exercise (EX; ~69% V􁈶 O2peak expending an average 815 kcal.day-1). EI and EE were assessed throughout each trial. Blood and appetite ratings (visual analogue scales; VAS) were collected the day prior to and 70 hours post each trial (fasting and for 3 hours postprandial; a final VAS after an ad libitum meal). Exercise significantly increased EI by 27% (p = 0.005), although participants remained in an energy deficit. Appetite regulating hormones and appetite ratings did not alter from pre- to 70 hours post-intervention. Thus, 7-days of imposed exercise induced a partial compensation through EI, without changes in appetite hormones or appetite ratings.