• Lack of recruitment of non-branching corals in Discovery Bay is linked to severe storms

      Crabbe, M. James C.; Mendes, Judith M.; Warner, George F. (University of Miami - Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, 2002)
      We developed a rational polynomial function model for coral colony growth which proved a better fit than exponential logistic, Gompertz, and von Bertalanffy models. We tested the models with published coral weight growth data, and with new growth band data with Montastraea annularis samples. There was good correlation (r = 0.92, P < 0.01) between rates of growth and the degree of the polynomial, and this related to coral morphology, where n = 1 for non-branching corals, n = 2 for plate coral and n = 3 for branching species. We used this model to verify growth rates when we measured the surface areas and calculated recruitment dates of 438 non-branching corals in sites around Discovery Bay, Jamaica. Recruitment was significantly lower in 1980, 1951 and 1944 than in other years since 1940. This low recruitment coincided with the severest storms since 1940. There was a significant negative correlation (r = −0.72, P < 0.01) between recruitment estimates and storm severity. The severest storms resulted in significantly (P < 0.002) lower recruitment estimates. We show here that severe storm damage not only destroys branching corals, it also results in limiting non-branching coral recruitment.
    • Linking the ceramic industry, creativity and education in Jingdezhen, China: given at the First British Ceramics Biennial Conference Artists into Industry at the Wedgwood Museum in Stoke-on-Trent, October 2009

      Crabbe, M. James C. (Intellect, 2009)
      From 3 October to 13 December 2009, Stoke-on-Trent hosted the first British Ceramics Biennial. This grew from the legacy of the Stoke Ceramics Festival, setting ambitious aims as a festival and as an ongoing part of the city. A conference on ‘Artists into Industry’ at the Wedgwood Museum formed an important part of the Festival, where this article was presented.
    • Local understandings of conservation in southeastern Mexico and their implications for community-based conservation as an alternative paradigm

      Reyes-Garcia, Victoria; Ruiz-Mallen, Isabel; Porter-Bolland, Luciana; Garcia-Frapolli, Eduardo; Ellis, Edward A.; Mendez, Maria-Elena; Pritchard, Diana J.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Maria-Consuelo; Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats; Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas; et al. (Wiley, 2013-08)
      Since the 1990s national and international programs have aimed to legitimize local conservation initiatives that might provide an alternative to the formal systems of state-managed or otherwise externally driven protected areas. We used discourse analysis (130 semistructured interviews with key informants) and descriptive statistics (679 surveys) to compare local perceptions of and experiences with state-driven versus community-driven conservation initiatives. We conducted our research in 6 communities in southeastern Mexico. Formalization of local conservation initiatives did not seem to be based on local knowledge and practices. Although interviewees thought community-based initiatives generated less conflict than statemanaged conservation initiatives, the community-based initiatives conformed to the biodiversity conservation paradigm that emphasizes restricted use of and access to resources. This restrictive approach to community-based conservation in Mexico, promoted through state and international conservation organizations, increased the area of protected land and had local support but was not built on locally relevant and multifunctional landscapes, a model that community-based conservation is assumed to advance.
    • Magnaporthe oryzae populations adapted to finger millet and rice exhibit distinctive patterns of genetic diversity, sexuality and host interaction

      Takan, J.P.; Chipili, J.; Muthumeenakshi, S.; Talbot, N.J.; Manyasa, E.O.; Bandyopadhyay, R.; Sere, Y.; Nutsugah, S.K.; Talhinhas, Pedro; Hossain, M.; et al. (Humana Press, 2012-02)
    • Mount Etna, Sicily : landscape evolution and hazard responses in the pre-industrial era

      Chester, David K.; Duncan, Angus M.; University of Bedfordshire (2010)
    • A novel method for the transport and analysis of genetic material from polyps and zooxanthellae of scleractinian corals

      Crabbe, M. James C. (Elsevier, 2003)
      We have developed a new simple method for transport, storage, and analysis of genetic material from the corals Agaricia agaricites, Dendrogyra cylindrica, Eusmilia ancora, Meandrina meandrites, Montastrea annularis, Porites astreoides, Porites furcata, Porites porites, and Siderastrea siderea at room temperature. All species yielded sufficient DNA from a single FTA® card (19 μg–43 ng) for subsequent PCR amplification of both coral and zooxanthellar DNA. The D1 and D2 variable region of the large subunit rRNA gene (LSUrDNA) was amplified from the DNA of P. furcata and S. siderea by PCR. Electrophoresis yielded two major DNA bands: an 800-base pair (bp) DNA, which represented the coral ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, and a 600-bp DNA, which represented the zooxanthellar srRNA gene. Extraction of DNA from the bands yielded between 290 μg total DNA (S. siderea coral DNA) and 9 μg total DNA (P. furcata zooxanthellar DNA). The ability to transport and store genetic material from scleractinian corals without resort to laboratory facilities in the field allows for the molecular study of a far wider range and variety of coral sites than have been studied to date.
    • Photosynthetic metabolism of C3 plants shows highly cooperative regulation under changing environments: a systems biological analysis

      Luo, R.; Wei, H.; Ye, L.; Wang, K.; Chen, F.; Luo, L.; Liu, L.; Li, Y.; Crabbe, M. James C.; Jin, L.; et al. (HighWire Press, 2009-01-20)
    • Preferential regulation of stably expressed genes in the human genome suggests a widespread expression buffering role of microRNAs

      Yang, Zhen; Dong, Dong; Zhang, Zhaolei; Crabbe, M. James C.; Wang, Li; Zhong, Yang (BioMed Central, 2012)
      In this study, we comprehensively explored the stably expressed genes (SE genes) and fluctuant genes (FL genes) in the human genome by a meta-analysis of large scale microarray data. We found that these genes have distinct function distributions. miRNA targets are shown to be significantly enriched in SE genes by using propensity analysis of miRNA regulation, supporting the hypothesis that miRNAs can buffer whole genome expression fluctuation. The expression-buffering effect of miRNA is independent of the target site number within the 3'-untranslated region. In addition, we found that gene expression fluctuation is positively correlated with the number of transcription factor binding sites in the promoter region, which suggests that coordination between transcription factors and miRNAs leads to balanced responses to external perturbations.
    • Quaternary corals from reefs in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, SE Sulawesi, Indonesia, show similar growth rates to modern corals from the same area

      Crabbe, M. James C.; Wilson, Moyra E.J.; Smith, David J. (John Wiley and Sons, 2006)
      The authors have used digital photography, image analysis and measurements in the field to determine the growth rates of Quaternary corals in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, Indonesia, and compared them to growth rates of similar corals in the same area. In the Quaternary deposits it was possible to measure the growth rates of two massive coral genera Porites and Favites. The study highlights that it is possible to compare coral growth rates, and their influencing parameters, from modern and well-preserved ancient examples.
    • A re-evaluation of the role of ex situ conservation in the face of climate change

      Pritchard, Diana J.; Harrop, Stuart R. (Botanic Gardens Conservation International, 2010)
      In situ and ex situ conservation have been established as two distinct approaches to the protection of “wild” biodiversity with ex situ approaches relegated to a subsidiary position. In this article, we explore whether ex situ conservation should still be subordinated in this manner, particularly in view of climate change models which predict the extinction of species and drastic, rapid and chaotic shifts in the distribution of habitats and species across the globe.
    • Religious interpretations of disaster

      Chester, David K.; Duncan, Angus M.; Sangster, Heather (Routledge, 2011)
    • Robustness of Self-Organised Systems to Changes in Behaviour: An Example from Real and Simulated Self-Organised Snail Aggregations

      Stafford, Richard; Williams, Gray A.; Davies, Mark S.; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G. (Public Library of Science, 2011-07-28)
    • Scleractinian coral population size structures and growth rates indicate coral resilience on the fringing reefs of North Jamaica

      Crabbe, M. James C. (Elsevier, 2009)
      This paper quantifies the size structure of populations and the growth rates of corals from 2000 to 2008 to test whether the Discovery Bay coral colonies showed resilience in the face of multiple acute stressors of hurricanes and bleaching. These studies indicate good levels of coral resilience on the fringing reefs around Discovery Bay in Jamaica.
    • Sediment impacts on growth rates of Acropora and Porites corals from fringing reefs of Sulawesi, Indonesia

      Crabbe, M. James C.; Smith, David J. (Springer, 2005)
      Small changes in environmental parameters can cause significant changes in growth rates. Often, environmental parameters influencing growth can be multifactorial, so that high energy and high sedimentation together can reduce growth (Cruz-Pinon et al. 2003), while changes in temperature, salinity, and sedimentation can influence not only growth but also diversity and abundance of corals(Lirman et al. 2003). Using digital videophotography and computer image analysis, as well as physical measurements, we have surveyed the reefs near the island of Hoga, where a Marine Research Station run by Operation Wallacea is situated. Our studies were to test the hypothesis that sedimentation and insolation on Porites lutea and Acropora valeniennesi corals from fringing reefs of Sulawesi in Indonesia influenced coral growth. Radial and linear growth rates were measured.
    • Silver nanoparticles and magnetic beads with electrochemical measurement as a platform for immunosensing devices

      Szymanski, Mateusz; Porter, Robert; Dep, Gowri V.; Wang, Yuanyang; Haggett, Barry G.D. (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2011)
    • United Arab Emirates: disaster management with regard to rapid onset natural disasters

      Dhanhani, Hamdan Al Ghasyah; Duncan, Angus M.; Chester, David K. (IGI Global, 2010)
      The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has more exposure to natural hazards than has been previously recognized. In the last 20 years the UAE has been subject to earthquakes, landslides, floods and tropical storms. This chapter examines the structure and procedures for management of natural disasters in the UAE, in particular issues of governance, accountability and communication within states that are part of a federal system. The study involved interviews with officials at both federal and emirate levels and case studies are presented of the impact of recent natural hazard events. Two emirates were selected for more detailed examination, Fujairah the most hazard prone and a rural emirate and Dubai which is a highly urbanized emirate which has undergone rapid development. There is now increasing awareness of natural hazards in the UAR and progress is being made at regional and federal levels. There needs to be a clear delineation between regional and federal roles and an understanding of the need for effective channels of information to relevant agencies.
    • Use of Coniothyrium minitans as a biocontrol agent and some molecular aspects of sclerotial mycoparasitism

      Whipps, J.M.; Sreenivasaprasad, Surapareddy; Muthumeenakshi, S.; Rogers, C.W.; Challen, M.P. (Springer, 2008-07)
      he use of the sclerotial mycoparasite Coniothyrium minitans as a biological control agent of diseases caused by sclerotium-forming pathogens especially Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is briefly reviewed. A number of studies have examined production and application methods, integrated control, ecology, and modes of action in order to understand the biology of the mycoparasite and enhance activity and reproducibility of use. Recently, development of a number of molecular-based techniques has begun to allow the examination of genes involved in mycoparasitism. Some of these procedures have been applied to identify pathogenicity genes involved in the infection of sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum by C. minitans and this work is discussed.