• A self-study using action research: changing site expectations and practice stereotypes

      Casey, Ashley (2012)
      Practice is not created and developed by individual teachers but is subject to what Kemmis and Grootenboer called ‘extra-individual conditions’ and cultural histories. The ‘expectations’ around teaching do much to create stereotypes and conformity around how to teach and how to act in schools. This paper explores a teacher’s longitudinal self-study of pedagogical and curricular change through reflective practice and ‘insider’ action research. The findings show that pedagogical and curricular change is more than a personal desire to do something differently. Instead, it is a process of acknowledging expectation – student, teacher, institutional, and subject – and finding ways of working within, around and between these. Furthermore, insider action research is shown as a tool for positioning the practitioner in the ‘betweenness’ of theory and practice. However, the paper concludes that while insider action research is a vital ingredient in sustained curriculum renewal, it needs to be hand-in-hand with collaboration with significant others inside and/or outside the school, and it needs to engage in a critique of the extra-individual conditions as part of the reflective process.
    • Action research in physical education: focusing beyond myself through cooperative learning

      Casey, Ashley; Dyson, Ben; Campbell, Anne; University of Bedfordshire (2012-05-15)
      This paper reports on the pedagogical changes that I experienced as a teacher engaged in an action research project in which I designed and implemented an indirect, developmentally appropriate and child‐centred approach to my teaching. There have been repeated calls to expunge – or at least rationalise – the use of traditional, teacher‐led practice in physical education. Yet despite the advocacy of many leading academics there is little evidence that such a change of approach is occurring. In my role as teacher‐as‐researcher I sought to implement a new pedagogical approach, in the form of cooperative learning, and bring about a positive change in the form of enhanced pupil learning. Data collection included a reflective journal, post‐teaching reflective analysis, pupil questionnaires, student interviews, document analysis, and non‐participant observations. The research team analysed the data using inductive analysis and constant comparison. Six themes emerged from the data: teaching and learning, reflections on cooperation, performance, time, teacher change, and social interaction. The paper argues that cooperative learning allowed me to place social and academic learning goals on an even footing, which in turn placed a focus on pupils’ understanding and improvement of skills in athletics alongside their interpersonal development.
    • Active citizenship through sport education

      O'Donovan, Toni M.; MacPhail, Ann; Kirk, David (Routledge, 2010-05)
    • Assessment for and of learning

      Newton, Angela; Bowler, Mark (Routledge, 2010)
    • A case study of wikis and student‐designed games in physical education

      Hastie, Peter A.; Casey, Ashley; Tarter, Anne‐Marie (Taylor and Francis, 2010)
      This paper reports on the incorporation of wiki technology within physical education. Boys from two classes at a school in the United Kingdom were divided into small teams and given the task of creating a new game in a same genre as football, hockey, netball or rugby. Each team had a wiki on which were recorded all the plans and developments of this game as it was being devised and refined. The teacher, an outside games expert and the school’s librarian also had access to the wikis, which allowed for constant interaction between the participants outside class time. Interviews with the teacher, the librarian and the students revealed that the 24/7 classroom enabled by the ICT, together with an extended community of practice, resulted in a higher quality learning experience in physical education for the participants. Indeed, it was the belief of all concerned that the quality of the end game products would not have been possible without the ICT component.
    • Children's experiences of fun and enjoyment during a season of sport education

      MacPhail, Ann; Gorely, Trish; Kirk, David; Kinchin, Gary (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 2008-09-01)
    • Conclusion: Cooperative Learning in physical education

      Casey, Ashley; Dyson, Ben (Routledge, 2012)
    • Cooperative Learning as a pedagogical practice for learning in Physical Education

      Dyson, Ben; Casey, Ashley (Association for Physical Education, 2012)
    • Cooperative learning in physical education: a research-based approach

      Dyson, Ben; Casey, Ashley (Routledge, 2012)
      This book defines Cooperative Learning in physical education and examines how to implement Cooperative Learning in a variety of educational settings. It explores Cooperative Learning in physical education from three main perspectives. The first, context of learning, provides descriptions of Cooperative Learning in different levels of education (elementary school, secondary school, and university physical education). The second, Cooperative Learning in the curriculum, offers case studies from teachers and researchers of their experiences of implementing Cooperative Learning within their own national context. The third perspective, key aspects of Cooperative Learning, examines how the different elements of the model have been foregrounded in efforts to enhance learning in physical education.
    • Developing physical education in Malawi

      Sammon, Paul; Bowler, Mark (Association for Physical Education, 2009)
    • Developing the Coach Analysis and Intervention System (CAIS): establishing validity and reliability of a computerised systematic observation instrument

      Cushion, Christopher J.; Harvey, Stephen; Muir, Bob; Nelson, Lee; Loughborough University (2012)
      We outline the evolution of a computerised systematic observation tool and describe the process for establishing the validity and reliability of this new instrument. The Coach Analysis and Interventions System (CAIS) has 23 primary behaviours related to physical behaviour, feedback/reinforcement, instruction, verbal/non-verbal, questioning and management. The instrument also analyses secondary coach behaviour related to performance states, recipient, timing, content and questioning/silence. The CAIS is a multi-dimensional and multi-level mechanism able to provide detailed and contextualised data about specific coaching behaviours occurring in complex and nuanced coaching interventions and environments that can be applied to both practice sessions and competition.
    • A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: an emergent relationship

      Stodden, David F.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Langendorfer, Stephen J.; Roberton, Mary Ann; Rudisill, Mary E.; Garcia, Clersida; Garcia, Luis E. (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2008)
      Although significant attention has been paid to promoting the importance of physical activity in children, adolescents, and adults, we do not currently understand how to promote sustained physical activity levels throughout the lifespan. We contend that previous research has failed to consider the dynamic and synergistic role that motor skill competence plays in the initiation, maintenance, or decline of physical activity and how this role might change across developmental time. In this article, we present a conceptual model hypothesizing the relationships among physical activity, motor skill competence, perceived motor skill competence, health-related physical fitness, and obesity. We contend that the development of motor skill competence is a primary underlying mechanism that promotes engagement in physical activity.
    • The educational benefits claimed for physical education and school sport: an academic review

      Bailey, Richard; Armour, Kathleen; Kirk, David; Jess, Mike; Pickup, Ian; Sandford, Rachel (Routledge, 2009-03)
      This academic review critically examines the theoretical and empirical bases of claims made for the educational benefits of physical education and school sport (PESS). An historical overview of the development of PESS points to the origins of claims made in four broad domains: physical, social, affective and cognitive. Analysis of the evidence suggests that PESS has the potential to make contributions to young people's development in each of these domains. Unsurprisingly, perhaps, there is suggestive evidence of a distinctive role for PESS in the acquisition and development of children's movement skills and physical competence. It can be argued that these are necessary, if not deterministic conditions of engagement in lifelong physical activity. In the social domain, there is sufficient evidence to support claims of positive benefits for young people. Importantly, benefits are mediated by environmental and contextual factors such as leadership, the involvement of young people in decision-making, an emphasis on social relationships, and an explicit focus on learning processes. In the affective domain, too, engagement in physical activity has been positively associated with numerous dimensions of psychological and emotional development, yet the mechanisms through which these benefits occur are less clear. Likewise, the mechanisms by which PESS might contribute to cognitive and academic developments are barely understood. There is, however, some persuasive evidence to suggest that physical activity can improve children's concentration and arousal, which might indirectly benefit academic performance. In can be concluded that many of the educational benefits claimed for PESS are highly dependent on contextual and pedagogic variables, which leads us to question any simple equations of participation and beneficial outcomes for young people. In the final section, therefore, the review raises questions about whether PESS should be held accountable for claims made for educational benefits, and about the implications of accountability.
    • Educational value and models-based practice in physical education

      Kirk, David; University of Bedfordshire; University of Queensland (Routledge, 2013-04-19)
      A models-based approach has been advocated as a means of overcoming the serious limitations of the traditional approach to physical education. One of the difficulties with this approach is that physical educators have sought to use it to achieve diverse and sometimes competing educational benefits, and these wide-ranging aspirations are rarely if ever achieved. Models-based practice offers a possible resolution to these problems by limiting the range of learning outcomes, subject matter and teaching strategies appropriate to each pedagogical model and thus the arguments that can be used for educational value. In this article, two examples are provided to support a case for educational value. This case is built on an examination of one established pedagogical model, Sport Education, which is informed by a perspective on ethics. Next, I consider Physical Literacy which, I suggest, is an existentialist philosophical perspective that could form the basis of a new pedagogical model. It is argued, in conclusion, that a models-based approach along with a reconstructed notion of educational value may offer a possible future for physical education that is well grounded in various philosophical arguments and the means to facilitate a wide range of diverse individual and social educational ‘goods’.
    • Effective research writing

      Kirk, David; Casey, Ashley (Routledge, 2011)