• Educational value and models-based practice in physical education

      Kirk, David; University of Bedfordshire; University of Queensland (Routledge, 2013-04-19)
      A models-based approach has been advocated as a means of overcoming the serious limitations of the traditional approach to physical education. One of the difficulties with this approach is that physical educators have sought to use it to achieve diverse and sometimes competing educational benefits, and these wide-ranging aspirations are rarely if ever achieved. Models-based practice offers a possible resolution to these problems by limiting the range of learning outcomes, subject matter and teaching strategies appropriate to each pedagogical model and thus the arguments that can be used for educational value. In this article, two examples are provided to support a case for educational value. This case is built on an examination of one established pedagogical model, Sport Education, which is informed by a perspective on ethics. Next, I consider Physical Literacy which, I suggest, is an existentialist philosophical perspective that could form the basis of a new pedagogical model. It is argued, in conclusion, that a models-based approach along with a reconstructed notion of educational value may offer a possible future for physical education that is well grounded in various philosophical arguments and the means to facilitate a wide range of diverse individual and social educational ‘goods’.
    • Physical education teachers' use of practitioner inquiry: effective, enjoyable and relevant professional learning

      Goodyear, Victoria A.; Casey, Ashley; Kirk, David (Taylor and Francis, 2013)
      The purpose of this paper is to explore how four physical education teachers in the United Kingdom engaged with reflection and dialogue as part of their daily practice. Technology, in the form of a voice recorder and focussed questions for reflection, facilitated teachers' engagement and constructive reflection. Furthermore, teachers made time within the busy school day to informally discuss their pedagogical decisions with colleagues and formally listen to their students' perceptions of their practice. Consequently, the quality of teaching in a physical education department was enhanced and practitioner inquiry supported effective, enjoyable and relevant professional learning.
    • ‘Seeing the trees not just the wood’: steps and not just journeys in teacher action research

      Casey, Ashley (Taylor and Francis, 2013)
      Employing a number of data-gathering tools (reflective journals, unit diaries, post-cycle reflective analyses, student interviews and observations) this paper examines the residual and emergent effects of cooperative learning on the participants in a second, sequential unit of track and field athletics taught a year after the first intervention. It suggests that learning was both academic and social, and that participants felt the unit built on their prior learning about track and field because it was progressive, motivational and student-centred. The paper concludes by suggesting that, in seeking to understand a teacher’s pedagogical and curricular change process, we need to intersperse research that focuses on the journey towards change with research that explores the individual processes of change.
    • Preparing physical education preservice teachers to design instructionally aligned lessons through constructivist pedagogical practices

      MacPhail, Ann; Tannehill, Deborah; Goc Karp, Grace (Elsevier, 2013)
      Examining how teacher education influences preservice teachers' (PSTs) application of content knowledge, decision making when planning for teaching, creation of innovative teaching practices and design of aligned instruction, has significant implications for understanding learning to teach. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which the constructivist pedagogies (e.g., interactive community discussions, problem solving, group challenges) employed by teacher educators through the implementation of a rich task (Macdonald, Hunter, & Tinning, 2007) assisted PSTs in their understanding and construction of knowledge about instructional alignment. Data collection employed rich tasks and focus-group interviews with a sample of 31 physical education teacher education (PETE) PSTs enrolled on a one-year Graduate Diploma Physical Education program. Data were analysed inductively (Patton, 1990) using the constant comparative method (Rubin & Rubin, 1995).
    • Identification of non-specific tactical tasks in invasion games

      Memmert, Daniel; Harvey, Stephen (2012-05-23)
    • Teaching games for understanding in American high-school soccer: a quantitative data analysis using the game performance assessment instrument

      Harvey, Stephen; Cushion, Christopher J.; Wegis, Heidi M.; Massa-Gonzalez, Ada N. (2012-05-23)
      Background: Previous research examining the effectiveness of the Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) approach has been equivocal. This has been hampered by a dependence on a comparative (i.e., ‘which method is best?’) theoretical framework. An alternative ‘practice-referenced’ framework has the potential to examine the effectiveness of TGfU against anticipated learning outcomes. Furthermore, there has been limited research examining the effects of using the TGfU approach on game play performance in coaching settings. Aims: This study had three purposes/aims: (a) to assess the practice-referenced approach, and consider if this is a viable framework for evaluating the effects of teaching and learning (i.e. performance) with TGfU; (b) to test the robustness of the defensive off-the-ball elements of game performance using the Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI) in a coaching context, with small units of players; (c) to assess how ‘alignment of practice’ contributed to the development of overall game performance and involvement of high-school soccer players. Methods: One varsity (n = 18) and one first-year (n = 16) team of soccer players from a single American high-school boys' soccer programme received eight TGfU coaching sessions (45–60 mins in length). Sessions focused on defensive aspects of off-the-ball game performance (i.e. adjust and cover skills) were delivered by their respective coach, who had been trained to employ the TGfU approach. Changes in game performance were assessed in a modified three vs. three soccer game during baseline (n = 4) and intervention (n = 3) phases of the study. Data were collected on four individual measures (decision making, skill execution, adjust and cover) and two overall measures of game performance (game performance and game involvement) from the GPAI. Changes in game performance measures between baseline and intervention phases of the study were examined using a series of 11 paired-sample t-tests; effect size changes were also calculated. Results: Results revealed significant changes between baseline and intervention phases in appropriate adjusts for both teams and inappropriate covers and overall appropriate game performance for the first-year team. No significant changes between baseline to intervention phases of the study in inappropriate game performance constructs were noted. Conclusions: This study has shown evidence that the practice-referenced approach is an appropriate theoretical framework for evaluating the effects of a TGfU intervention with high-school soccer players, centred on defensive aspects of off-the-ball game performance. Game-situated teaching and learning (i.e. aligned practice) led to faster responses and quicker reactions within the game environment off-the-ball (i.e. to movements of the ball and/or team-mates). Thus, there was an improvement in the numbers of appropriate game responses by both varsity and first-year teams. Finally, the GPAI was found to be sensitive and robust in measuring the changes in defensive off-the-ball game performance made by the two teams of high-school soccer players over the two phases the study.
    • Students and teacher responses to a unit of student-designed games

      Casey, Ashley; Hastie, Peter A. (2012-05-23)
      Background: Despite the support in primary education that student-designed games enhance student contextualisation of skills and tactics, there has been little support in secondary education, nor any empirical research exploring these claims. This paper attempts to rekindle these beliefs and explores the use of student-designed games in an English secondary school. Aim: To provide a detailed account of classes of secondary students designing their own games, and to investigate their responses to the games-making process. Method: Two classes of boys (aged 14–16) at a school in England participated in the study. Each class was divided into three teacher-selected teams and attended one lesson per week, each lasting 40 minutes, for seven weeks. Lessons were adapted to give students four phases of development: a 2-week library-based planning and wiki construction phase; a 1-week outdoor modification and wiki update phase; three weeks of trials of the games with a wiki refinement phase; and a 1-week game and wiki finalization phase. In this time frame the pupils involved were challenged to design an invasion game that would be played in a subsequent unit. Data consisted of: teacher post-teaching reflections, interviews between a professor-researcher and the on-site participants, observations and analysis of wikis. Data analysis occurred on three levels. The first aspect was immediate and ongoing by the teacher-researcher to meet the ‘on the spot’ learning needs of his students. Secondly, the professor-researcher aided the teacher-researcher in systematic collection, organisation and analyses. Thirdly, peer debriefing occurred in which the research team analysed and critiqued the data during the collection and writing processes. Results: We found that students ‘bought into’ the process of games-making, were afforded an inclusive voice and worked as teams. Furthermore they engaged in immediate searches for innovation which were influenced by popular media, and shared ideas and learning with others to a degree that allowed them to exclude problematic skills. However, there was student frustration induced by watching others failing to properly play these games. Conclusions: We concluded that student-designed games ‘freed’ children to define competition at their own developmental level. This paper shows that by trusting pupils and supporting them to be creative in the games that they play it is possible to gain an insight into the processes by which students apply their knowledge about physical education.
    • Managing classroom entry: an ecological analysis of ritual interaction and negotiation in the changing room

      O'Donovan, Toni M.; Kirk, David (2012-05-15)
      The first interactions between teachers and pupils in physical education often take place in the changing rooms, and, as such, the changing rooms are a useful place to begin an exploration of the processes and practices of negotiation in physical education. Pupils are generally required to change their clothing for physical education lessons, an activity consistently identified as negatively experienced by many young people, and particularly girls (Kay, 1995; Flintoff & Scraton, 2001); hence the changing rooms are an important location to consider in determining young people’s engagement with physical education. Throughout this paper, I foreground the naturally occurring interaction between teachers and pupils in the changing rooms of one suburban UK secondary school. This is supplemented by interviews with three teachers and pupils in year 7 (aged 11 12 years) throughout the Spring term. The paper examines how the young people attempted to modify participation requirements in a way that allowed them to pursue their own agendas, and yet also comply with the school, department and teacher rules. Throughout the paper, a consideration of the way in which the teachers held the pupils accountable for their attendance and dress in physical education is present. The orderliness of interaction sequences highlights the ritual nature of pupil teacher talk in the changing room. The analysis of naturally occurring talk is interspersed with a consideration of how the teachers understood the young people’s changing room behaviour.
    • The implementation of models-based practice in physical education through action research

      Casey, Ashley; Dyson, Ben (2012-05-15)
      The purpose of this study was to explore the use of action research as a framework to investigate cooperative learning and tactical games as instructional models in physical education (PE). The teacher/researcher taught a tennis unit using a combination of Cooperative Learning and Teaching Games for Understanding to three classes of boys aged 11—12. Data collection included: teacher and pupil evaluations of skill, pupil reflections on the lessons, pupil interviews, teacher field journal and the documentation and course materials from the unit of work. Data analysis was conducted using inductive analysis and constant comparison (Denzin and Lincoln, 1994; Lincoln and Guba, 1985). The results of this research reinforce the concept that the implementation of any new pedagogical approach is time-consuming and highly labour intensive (Fullan, 1999). The conceptual shift the teacher/researcher made to relinquish control to students was one of the most difficult, but important, outcomes of this action research process.
    • The role of physical education and other formative experiences of three generations of female football fans

      Pope, Stacey; Kirk, David; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2012-05-15)
      The experiences of female sports fans have been largely marginalised in academic research to date and little research has examined the formative sporting experiences of female spectators. This article draws on 51 semi-structured interviews with three generations of female fans of one (men's) professional football club (Leicester City), to consider the extent to which sports participation at school and elsewhere influences female football fandom, and also explores the influence of the family in channelling young females into or away from sport. We begin by examining the extent to which women had opportunities to experience football at school and how the type of school they attended affected these opportunities. We consider continuities and discontinuities between each generation's experiences by examining the influence of sexist teachers, the ubiquity of what the women viewed as ‘body conscious girls’ and the effects of peer pressure. Finally, we examine the ways in which families obstructed or facilitated young females’ interest in football, and the importance of mainly male role models within and beyond the family. We conclude with some reflections on feminist praxis and its relevance for young people's formative sporting experiences.
    • Action research in physical education: focusing beyond myself through cooperative learning

      Casey, Ashley; Dyson, Ben; Campbell, Anne; University of Bedfordshire (2012-05-15)
      This paper reports on the pedagogical changes that I experienced as a teacher engaged in an action research project in which I designed and implemented an indirect, developmentally appropriate and child‐centred approach to my teaching. There have been repeated calls to expunge – or at least rationalise – the use of traditional, teacher‐led practice in physical education. Yet despite the advocacy of many leading academics there is little evidence that such a change of approach is occurring. In my role as teacher‐as‐researcher I sought to implement a new pedagogical approach, in the form of cooperative learning, and bring about a positive change in the form of enhanced pupil learning. Data collection included a reflective journal, post‐teaching reflective analysis, pupil questionnaires, student interviews, document analysis, and non‐participant observations. The research team analysed the data using inductive analysis and constant comparison. Six themes emerged from the data: teaching and learning, reflections on cooperation, performance, time, teacher change, and social interaction. The paper argues that cooperative learning allowed me to place social and academic learning goals on an even footing, which in turn placed a focus on pupils’ understanding and improvement of skills in athletics alongside their interpersonal development.
    • Pre-service physical education teachers' beliefs about competition in physical education

      Harvey, Stephen; O'Donovan, Toni M.; University of Bedfordshire (2012-05-15)
      The discourse of competitive sport is, and has been, a defining feature of physical education for many years. Given the privileged and dominant position competition holds in physical education curricula, it is concerning that competitive physical education remains steeped in traditional pedagogies and that these pedagogies are constrained by teachers’ everyday philosophies rather than any explicit understanding of pedagogy or the needs of pupils. This in turn affects pupils’ experiences of physical education and specifically the type and form of activities that are offered to pupils. Physical education teachers’ biographies generally show a profound attachment to sport, and in particular competitive sport, and the value of competitive sport is significant in the lives and identities of physical education recruits. However, there is a paucity of research specifically in relation to in-service and pre-service physical education teacher's beliefs about competition and its place in physical education. It is well documented that the implicit theories that pre-service, beginning and experienced teachers hold influence their reactions to teacher education and their teaching practice, with their beliefs acting as a filter through which a host of instructional judgements and decisions are made. Thus, it is important to understand pre-service physical education teachers’ (PSTs’) beliefs about competition. Thirty five (16 men, 15 women, 4 unknown) PSTs completed a reflective journal alongside their participation in a University-based module focused on models-based practice. The data generated were analysed using the procedures and techniques of grounded theory which revealed five major themes grouped in the discussion under the sub-categories of: (1) defining competition; (2) learning through competition; (3) competitive physical education and the sporting pathway; (4) competition needs to be got out of children; and (5) a little competition. The discussion challenges how we transform traditional views of competition and the competitive practices that alienate some young people from physical education.
    • Sport Education as a pedagogical application for ethical development in physical education and youth sport

      Harvey, Stephen; Kirk, David; O'Donovan, Toni M.; University of Bedfordshire (2012-05-15)
      The purpose of this paper is to consider four pedagogical applications within the Sport Education model to examine the ways in which a young person can become a literate sports person and develop ethical behaviour through engagement in physical education and youth sport. Through a systematic review of the Sport Education research literature we present evidence to suggest that although notions such as inclusion, responsibility and ownership, personal and social development and social justice are part of the architecture of this pedagogical model, our findings show that rather than simply being caught, ethical conduct must be taught. Consequently, in the final part of the paper, we present four pedagogical applications within Sport Education that physical education teachers as well as youth sport practitioners and administrators may find useful to promote ethical development: (1) ethical contracts; (2) sports panels; (3) modified games; and (4) awards and rewards.
    • Cooperative Learning as a pedagogical practice for learning in Physical Education

      Dyson, Ben; Casey, Ashley (Association for Physical Education, 2012)
    • Student-designed games: understanding the importance of rules and strategies

      Casey, Ashley (Association for Physical Education, 2012)
    • Using social media in physical education

      Casey, Ashley (Association for Physical Education, 2012)
    • Conclusion: Cooperative Learning in physical education

      Casey, Ashley; Dyson, Ben (Routledge, 2012)