• Wnt-11 promotes neuroendocrine-like differentiation, survival and migration of prostate cancer cells

      Uysal-Onganer, Pinar; Kawano, Yoshiaki; Caro, Mercedes; Walker, Marjorie M.; Diez, Soraya; Darrington, R. Siobhan; Waxman, Jonathan; Kypta, Robert M. (BioMed Central, 2010)
      Wnt-11 is a secreted protein that modulates cell growth, differentiation and morphogenesis during development. We previously reported that Wnt-11 expression is elevated in hormone-independent prostate cancer and that the progression of prostate cancer from androgen-dependent to androgen-independent proliferation correlates with a loss of mutual inhibition between Wnt-11- and androgen receptor-dependent signals. However, the prevalence of increased expression of Wnt-11 in patient tumours and the functions of Wnt-11 in prostate cancer cells were not known.
    • TWIST1 regulates the activity of ubiquitin proteasome system via the miR-199/214 cluster in human end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy

      Baumgarten, Anna; Bang, Claudia; Tschirner, Anika; Engelmann, Anke; Adams, Volker; von Haehling, Stephan; Doehner, Wolfram; Pregla, Reinhard; Anker, Markus S.; Blecharz, Kinga; et al. (Elsevier, 2013-09-30)
      The transcription factor TWIST1 has been described to regulate the microRNA (miR)-199/214 cluster. Genetic disruption of TWIST1 resulted in a cachectic phenotype and early death of the knock-out mice. This might be connected to the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome-system (UPS), as miR-199a has been suggested to regulate the ubiquitin E2 ligases Ube2i and Ube2g1.
    • Transferrin receptor 2 is crucial for iron sensing in human hepatocytes

      Rapisarda, Chiara; Puppi, Juliana; Hughes, Robin D.; Dhawan, Anil; Farnaud, Sébastien; Evans, Robert W.; Sharp, Paul A. (American Physiological Society, 2010-06-24)
      Hepcidin expression in vivo is regulated in proportion to iron status (i.e., increased by iron loading and decreased in iron deficiency). However, in vitro studies with hepatoma cell lines often show an inverse relationship between iron status and hepcidin expression. Here, we investigated possible molecular mechanisms responsible for the differences in iron sensing between hepatoma cell lines and human primary hepatocytes. RNA was collected from primary human hepatocytes, and HepG2 and HuH7 hepatoma cells were treated with either transferrin-bound and non-transferrin-bound iron. Expression of hepcidin, transferrin receptor 2, HFE, and hemojuvelin were quantified by real-time PCR. Hepcidin expression was increased in primary human hepatocytes following 24-h exposure to holoferric transferrin. In contrast, hepcidin mRNA levels in hepatoma cells were decreased by transferrin. Hepcidin expression was positively correlated with transferrin receptor 2 mRNA levels in primary human hepatocytes. Compared with primary hepatocytes, transferrin receptor 2 expression was significantly lower in hepatoma cell lines; furthermore, there was no correlation between transferrin receptor 2 and hepcidin mRNA levels in either HepG2 or HuH7 cells. Taken together our data suggest that transferrin receptor 2 is a likely candidate to explain the differences in iron sensing between hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocytes.
    • The interaction of arginine- and tryptophan-rich cyclic hexapeptides with Escherichia coli membranes

      Junkes, Christof; Wessolowski, Axel; Farnaud, Sébastien; Evans, Robert W.; Good, Liam; Bienert, Michael; Dathe, Margitta; Leibniz Institute of Molecular Pharmacology; Westminster University; King's College London (Wiley, 2008-04)
      Cyclization of R- and W-rich hexapeptides has been found to enhance specifically the antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative Escherichia coli. To gain insight into the role of the bacterial outer membrane in mediating selectivity, we assayed the activity of cyclic hexapeptides derived from the parent sequence c-(RRWWRF) against several E. coli strains and Bacillus subtilis, L-form bacteria, and E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutant strains, and we also investigated the peptide-induced permeabilization of the outer and inner membrane of E. coli. Wall-deficient L-form bacteria were distinctly less susceptible than the wild type strain. The patterns of peptide-induced permeabilization of the outer and inner E. coli membranes correlated well with the antimicrobial activity, confirming that membrane permeabilization is a detrimental effect of the peptides upon bacteria. Truncation of LPS had no influence on the activity of the cyclic parent peptide, but the highly active c-(RRWFWR), with three adjacent aromatic residues, required the complete LPS for maximal activity. Furthermore, differences in the activity of the parent peptide and its all-D sequence indicated stereospecific interactions with the LPS mutant strains. We suggest that, depending on the primary sequence of the peptides, either hydrophobic interactions with the fatty acid chains of lipid A, or electrostatic interactions disturbing the polar core region and interference with saccharide-saccharide interactions prevail in the barrier-disturbing effect upon the outer membrane and thereby provide peptide accessibility to the inner membrane. The results underline the importance of tryptophan and arginine residues and their relative location for a high antimicrobial effect, and the activity-modulating function of the outer membrane of E. coli. In addition to membrane permeabilization, the data provided evidence for the involvement of other mechanisms in growth inhibition and killing of bacteria.
    • Intervention effects of Ganoderma lucidum spores on epileptiform discharge hippocampal neurons and expression of Neurotrophin-4 and N-Cadherin

      Wang, Shu-Qiu; Li, Xiao-Jie; Zhou, Shaobo; Sun, Di-Xiang; Wang, Hui; Cheng, Peng-Fei; Ma, Xiao-Ru; Liu, Lei; Liu, Jun-Xing; Wang, Fang-Fang; et al. (PLoS, 2013-04-24)
      Epilepsy can cause cerebral transient dysfunctions. Ganoderma lucidum spores (GLS), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has shown some antiepileptic effects in our previous studies. This was the first study of the effects of GLS on cultured primary hippocampal neurons, treated with Mg2+ free medium. This in vitro model of epileptiform discharge hippocampal neurons allowed us to investigate the anti-epileptic effects and mechanism of GLS activity. Primary hippocampal neurons from <1 day old rats were cultured and their morphologies observed under fluorescence microscope. Neurons were confirmed by immunofluorescent staining of neuron specific enolase (NSE). Sterile method for GLS generation was investigated and serial dilutions of GLS were used to test the maximum non-toxic concentration of GLS on hippocampal neurons. The optimized concentration of GLS of 0.122 mg/ml was identified and used for subsequent analysis. Using the in vitro model, hippocampal neurons were divided into 4 groups for subsequent treatment i) control, ii) model (incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours), iii) GLS group I (incubated with Mg2+ free medium containing GLS for 3 hours and replaced with normal medium and incubated for 6 hours) and iv) GLS group II (neurons incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours then replaced with a normal medium containing GLS for 6 hours). Neurotrophin-4 and N-Cadherin protein expression were detected using Western blot. The results showed that the number of normal hippocampal neurons increased and the morphologies of hippocampal neurons were well preserved after GLS treatment. Furthermore, the expression of neurotrophin-4 was significantly increased while the expression of N-Cadherin was decreased in the GLS treated group compared with the model group. This data indicates that GLS may protect hippocampal neurons by promoting neurotrophin-4 expression and inhibiting N-Cadherin expression.
    • Inhibition of xanthine oxidase reduces wasting and improves outcome in a rat model of cancer cachexia

      Springer, Jochen; Tschirner, Anika; Hartman, Kai; Palus, Sandra; Wirth, Eva K.; Ruis, Silvia Busquets; Möller, Nadine; von Haehling, Stephan; Argiles, Josep M.; Köhrle, Josef; et al. (Wiley, 2012-11-01)
      Cachexia is a common co-morbidity in cancer occurring in up to 80% of patients depending on the type of cancer. Uric acid (UA), the end-product of the purine metabolism, is elevated in cachexia due to tissue wasting and upregulated xanthine oxidase (XO) activity. High serum UA levels indicate increased XO-dependent production of oxygen free radicals (reactive oxygen species; ROS) and correlate with metabolic illness and poor survival. We hypothesized that XO-inhibition might reduce inflammatory signals accounting for tissue wasting and improve survival in experimental cancer cachexia. Animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with AH-130 hepatoma cells and treated with two XO-inhibitors: allopurinol [Allo, low (LD) and high dose (HD) 4 and 40 mg/kg/d] and its more effective active metabolite oxypurinol (Oxy, 4 and 40 mg/kg/d) or placebo for 15 days. Weight loss and tissue wasting of both fat and lean tissue (assessed by NMR-scanning) was reduced by both LD and HD Allo and LD-Oxy, but not by HD-Oxy. A robust induction of XO-activity for generation of reactive oxygen species was seen in the placebo group (assessed by electron paramagnetic spectroscopy), which was reduced by XO-inhibition. Increased ROS induced cytokine signaling, proteolytic activity and tissue degradation were all attenuated by XO inhibition. Survival was significantly and dose dependently improved. Food intake and spontaneous locomotor activity were higher, indicating a higher quality of life. Inhibition of XO can reduce tissue wasting and improve survival in cancer cachexia and clearly clinical studies are needed.
    • Identification of an iron-hepcidin complex

      Farnaud, Sébastien; Rapisarda, Chiara; Bui, Tam; Drake, Alex F.; Cammack, Richard; Evans, Robert W; University of Westminster (Portland Press, 2008-08-01)
      Following its identification as a liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide, the hepcidin peptide was later shown to be a key player in iron homoeostasis. It is now proposed to be the 'iron hormone' which, by interacting with the iron transporter ferroportin, prevents further iron import into the circulatory system. This conclusion was reached using the corresponding synthetic peptide, emphasizing the functional importance of the mature 25-mer peptide, but omitting the possible functionality of its maturation. From urine-purified native hepcidin, we recently demonstrated that a proportion of the purified hepcidin had formed iron-hepcidin complexes. This interaction was investigated further by computer modelling and, based on the sequence similarity of hepcidin with metallothionein, a three-dimensional model of hepcidin, containing one atom of iron, was constructed. To characterize these complexes further, the interaction with iron was analysed using different spectroscopic methods. Monoferric hepcidin was identified by MS, as were possibly other complexes containing two and three atoms of iron respectively, although these were present only in minor amounts. UV/visible absorbance and CD studies identified the iron-binding events which were facilitated at a physiological pH. EPR spectroscopy identified the ferric state of the bound metal, and indicated that the iron-hepcidin complex shares some similarities with the rubredoxin iron-sulfur complex, suggesting the presence of Fe(3+) in a tetrahedral sulfur co-ordination. The potential roles of iron binding for hepcidin are discussed, and we propose either a regulatory function in the maturation of pro-hepcidin into active hepcidin or as the necessary link in the interaction between hepcidin and ferroportin.
    • The effects of methionine acquisition and synthesis on Streptococcus pneumoniae growth and virulence

      Basavanna, Shilpa; Chimalapati, Suneeta; Rubbo, Bruna; Yuste, Jose; Hosie, Arthur H.F.; Thomas, Gavin H.; Brown, Jeremy S.; Maqbool, Abbas; Ogunniyi, Abiodun D.; Paton, James C. (PLoS, 2013-01)
      Bacterial pathogens need to acquire nutrients from the host, but for many nutrients their importance during infection remain poorly understood. We have investigated the importance of methionine acquisition and synthesis for Streptococcus pneumoniae growth and virulence using strains with gene deletions affecting a putative methionine ABC transporter lipoprotein (Sp_0149, metQ) and/or methionine biosynthesis enzymes (Sp_0585 - Sp_0586, metE and metF). Immunoblot analysis confirmed MetQ was a lipoprotein and present in all S. pneumoniae strains investigated. However, vaccination with MetQ did not prevent fatal S. pneumoniae infection in mice despite stimulating a strong specific IgG response. Tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrated that MetQ has both a high affinity and specificity for L-methionine with a KD of ~25 nM, and a ΔmetQ strain had reduced uptake of C14-methionine. Growth of the ΔmetQ/ΔmetEF strain was greatly impaired in chemically defined medium containing low concentrations of methionine and in blood but was partially restored by addition of high concentrations of exogenous methionine. Mixed infection models showed no attenuation of the ΔmetQ, ΔmetEF and ΔmetQ/ΔmetEF strains in their ability to colonise the mouse nasopharnyx. In a mouse model of systemic infection although significant infection was established in all mice, there were reduced spleen bacterial CFU after infection with the ΔmetQ/ΔmetEF strain compared to the wild-type strain. These data demonstrate that Sp_0149 encodes a high affinity methionine ABC transporter lipoprotein and that Sp_0585 – Sp_0586 are likely to be required for methionine synthesis. Although Sp_0149 and Sp_0585-Sp_0586 make a contribution towards full virulence, neither was essential for S. pneumoniae survival during infection.
    • Combating bioterrorism with personal computers

      Richards, W. Graham; Grant, Guy H.; Harrison, K.N.; University of Oxford (Elsevier, 2004)
      Using personal computers in a grid is permitting the in silico screening of millions of molecules to seek out potential inhibitors of agents that pose bioterror threats. Current projects are targeting anthrax and smallpox, but the approach has many attractions for investigating any known protein target and its inhibition.
    • Catalytic enantioselective [3 + 2]-cycloadditions of diazoketone-derived aryl-substituted carbonyl ylides

      Hodgson, David M.; Glen, Rebecca; Grant, Guy H.; Redgrave, Alison J.; University of Oxford; GlaxoSmithKline Medicines Research Centre (American Chemical Society, 2003)
      An evaluation of α-aryl-α-diazodiones in tandem carbonyl ylide formation−enantioselective [3 + 2]-cycloaddition reactions is described. Such substrates were designed to allow investigation of the electronic characteristics of the dipole upon asymmetric induction. Intramolecular cycloadditions (with a tethered alkene dipolarophile) were found to occur in good to quantitative yields, with a difference in ee exhibited by the two electronically different diazodiones 8 and 9. Intermolecular cycloadditions using diazodiones 12 and 13 with DMAD and arylacetylenes 16−18 again demonstrated that electronics play a key role in determining the outcome of the cycloaddition reactions. Enantioselectivities of up to 76% were observed.
    • Evidence that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase- and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-4/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-dependent Pathways cooperate to maintain lung cancer cell survival

      Lee, Ho-Young; Srinivas, Harish; Xia, Dianren; Lu, Yiling; Superty, Robert; LaPushin, Ruth; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria; Gal, Annamaria; Walsh, Garrett L; Force, Thomas; et al. (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2003-06-27)
      Cancer cells in which the PTEN lipid phosphatase gene is deleted have constitutively activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent signaling and require activation of this pathway for survival. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, PI3K-dependent signaling is typically activated through mechanisms other than PTEN gene loss. The role of PI3K in the survival of cancer cells that express wild-type PTEN has not been defined. Here we provide evidence that H1299 NSCLC cells, which express wild-type PTEN, underwent proliferative arrest following treatment with an inhibitor of all isoforms of class I PI3K catalytic activity (LY294002) or overexpression of the PTEN lipid phosphatase. In contrast, overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of the p85alpha regulatory subunit of PI3K (Deltap85) induced apoptosis. Whereas PTEN and Delta85 both inhibited activation of AKT/protein kinase B, only Deltap85 inhibited c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activity. Cotransfection of the constitutively active mutant Rac-1 (Val12), an upstream activator of JNK, abrogated Deltap85-induced lung cancer cell death, whereas constitutively active mutant mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MKK)-1 (R4F) did not. Furthermore, LY294002 induced apoptosis of MKK4-null but not wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts. Therefore, we propose that, in the setting of wild-type PTEN, PI3K- and MKK4/JNK-dependent pathways cooperate to maintain cell survival.
    • Diketoacid HIV-1 integrase inhibitors:  an ab initio study

      Huang, Meilan; Richards, W. Graham; Grant, Guy H.; University of Oxford (American Chemical Society, 2005)
      The stable tautomeric forms of two representative arene-substituted diketoacid HIV-1 integrase inhibitors, 5-ClTEP and L-731,988, were investigated by B3LYP with 6-31G*, 6-31G(d,p), and 6-31+G(d,p) basis sets. Optimization with MP2/6-31G* was also performed for 5-ClTEP. The solvation effect was considered using a conductor-like screening model. With the density functional theory method, the trans diketo conformations are more stable than the cis conformers. The difference is 14 kJ mol-1 for 5-ClTEP and 33 kJ mol-1 for L-731,988. Two trans diketo structures were obtained. The difference between these two trans diketo structures is less than 4 kJ mol-1 calculated at the B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p) level. Two enol forms prevail over the diketo tautomers and are calculated to have the same free energy. Because there is no barrier observed between these two enol forms, they can interchange easily such that a delocalized transition state is suggested to be the observed form. Contradictory to the results of the MP2 method that predicts a preference for the trans diketo forms, the B3LYP method predicts a preference for the enol tautomers, which is in agreement with the experimental results.
    • A chronological study of the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and calbindin-D28 k by reactive astrocytes in the electrically lesioned rat brain

      Ahmed, Bushra Y.; Toyoshima, Tetsuhiko; Yamagami, Shinichi; Jin, Li; Itano, Toshifumi; Miyamoto, Osamu; Tokuda, Masaaki; Murakami, Tetsuhide H.; Hatase, Osamu (Elsevier, 1996)
      Immunoreactivity of neuronal and glial marker proteins of reactive astrocytes around the electrically damaged pyramidal layer and stratum radiatum of the hippocampal CA1 region and corpus callosum was chronologically studied in electrically lesioned rat brains. A monoclonal antibody against calbindin-D28 k (CD28-Ab) and a polyclonal antibody against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP-Ab) were used for immunostaining
    • Reticalmin: A novel calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV-like protein in rat retina

      Hirooka, Kazuyuki; Tokuda, Masaaki; Tsumura, Toyohiro; Ahmed, Bushra Y.; Itano, Toshifumi; Matsui, Hideki; Konishi, Ryoji; Hasegawa, Eiichi; Okuno, Sachiko; Kitani, Takako; et al. (Elsevier, 1997)
      Western blot analysis of 100000g supernatant of rat retina using a polyclonal anti-Ca2+/ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaM-kinase IV) antibody revealed an immunoreactive mass of 35 kDa, termed reticalmin. Lower amount of a isoform of CaM-kinase IV was also expressed in rat retina. Reticalmin did not react with anti-CaM-kinase IV C-terminal peptide antibody which recognized a and β isoforms of CaM-kinase IV and calspermin. Immunohisto-chemically reticalmin was shown to be localized mainly in the outer segment of photo-receptor cells, and in dendrites of inner plexiform layers and may be in nuclei of ganglion cells and some inner nuclear layer cells.
    • Involvement of calmodulin-dependent protein kinases-I and -IV in long-term potentiation

      Tokuda, Masaaki; Ahmed, Bushra Y.; Lu, Yun-Fei; Matsui, Hideki; Miyamoto, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Konishi, Ryoji; Hatase, Osamu (Elsevier, 1997)
      Multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) are thought to be involved in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP). In the present study, LTP was induced by theta burst stimulation in the Schaffer collateral area of the stratum radiatum in the hippocampal CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. LTP-induced and control hippocampal slices were studied by Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses using CaMK-I, -II and -IV antibodies. Increased amounts of all three CaMKs were found in LTP-induced hippocampal slices as indicated by Western blot as well as by the density of their immunoreactivity. Our data clearly shows that not only CaMK-II but also CaMK-I and -IV contribute to synaptic plasticity formed in LTP.
    • Caspase-mediated cleavage and functional changes of hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1)

      Chen, Yi-Rong; Meyer, Christian F; Ahmed, Bushra Y.; Yao, Zhengbin; Tan, Tse-Hua (Nature Publishing Group, 1999)
      Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) by Fas ligation is caspase-dependent, suggesting that caspases may regulate activators of the JNK pathway. Here, we report that an upstream activator of JNK, hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1), was cleaved during apoptosis. Cleavage of HPK1 was blocked by peptide inhibitors for caspases. HPK1 was efficiently processed by recombinant caspase 3 in vitro. A conserved caspase recognition site, DDVD (amino acids 382 - 385), was found in the HPK1 protein sequence. By testing HPK1 proteins with in vivo and in vitro cleavage assays, we showed that aspartic acid residue 385 is the target for caspases. HPK1 cleavage separated the amino N-terminal kinase domain from the carboxyl C-terminal regulatory domain, and enhanced HPK1 kinase activity. Unlike the full-length HPK1, the N-terminal cleaved product failed to bind adaptor molecules Grb2 (growth factor receptor-bound protein 2) and Crk (CT10 regulator of kinase). The C-terminal fragment, although having three proline-rich domains, bound to Grb2 and Crk less efficiently than the full-length HPK1 protein. Taken together, the cleavage of HPK1 by caspase profoundly changed its biochemical properties.
    • Expression and subcellular localization of multifunctional calmodulin-dependent protein kinases-I, -II and -IV are altered in rat hippocampal CA1 neurons after induction of long-term potentiation

      Ahmed, Bushra Y.; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Tsumura, Toyohiro; Gotoh, Takaya; Sugimoto, Katsuyoshi; Tai, Yuji; Konishi, Ryoji; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Tokuda, Masaaki (Elsevier, 2000)
      Long-term potentiation (LTP) is considered to be associated with an increase in expression as well as activity of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs). LTP-induced and control hippocampal slices were studied by immunohistochemical and electronmicroscopic analyses using anti-CaMK-I, -II and -IV antibodies. All three kinases were demonstrated to increase their expression in CA1 neurons. CaMK-I was shown to mainly localize in the cytoplasm of the control and LTP-induced neurons, and a significant increase of immunoreactivity was observed in the latter neurons. A part of CaMK-I was found to translocate to the nuclei of LTP-induced hippocampal CA1 neurons. Direct evidence of the translocation of CaMK-II from cytoplasm to nuclei in LTP was demonstrated by immuno-electronmicroscopy. A significant increase in expression of CaMK-IV in the nuclei was also observed. Our data suggest that all the three CaMKs were actively involved in nuclear Ca2+- signaling in LTP.
    • Targeting peptides for microglia identified via phage display

      Samoylova, Tatiana I.; Ahmed, Bushra Y.; Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Morrison, Nancy E.; Samoylov, Alexandre M.; Globa, Ludmila P.; Baker, Henry J.; Cox, Nancy R.; Auburn University (Elsevier, 2002)
      Screening with a 7-mer phage display peptide library, a panel of cell-targeting peptides for the murine microglial cell line, EOC 20, was recognized. A number of similar, but not identical, sets of sequences representing more than 75% of all the cell line-binding clones were identified. Comparative analysis indicated that motif S/(T) F T/(X) Y W is present in the vast majority of the binding sequences. The selectivity and specificity of the dominant peptide sequence identified for microglia was confirmed using both phage displaying the peptide and the synthetic peptide alone.
    • Modulation of LPS stimulated NF-kappaB mediated Nitric Oxide production by PKCε and JAK2 in RAW macrophages

      Jones, Edward; Adcock, Ian M.; Ahmed, Bushra Y.; Punchard, Neville A.; University of East London; University of Luton (BioMed Central, 2007)
      Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) has been shown to play an important role in regulating the expression of many genes involved in cell survival, immunity and in the inflammatory processes. NF-κB activation upregulates inducible nitric oxide synthase leading to enhanced nitric oxide production during an inflammatory response. NF-κB activation is regulated by distinct kinase pathways independent of inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK). Here, we examine the role of protein kinase C isoforms and janus activated kinase 2 (JAK2) activation in NF-κB activation and LPS-stimulated NO production. The results further define the role of NF-κB in LPS stimulated NO production in RAW macrophages. The data support a function for PKCε, JAK2 and p38 MAPK in NF-κB activation following p65 nuclear import.
    • Caspase-2 and caspase-8 trigger caspase-3 activation following 6-OHDA-induced stress in human dopaminergic neurons differentiated from ReNVM stem cells

      Chaudhry, Zahara Latif; Ahmed, Bushra Y. (Maney Publishing, 2012)
      The purpose of the study was to establish a suitable model to study Parkinson’s disease (PD) pathogenesis in differentiated dopaminergic neurons (dDCN). The specific aim was to demonstrate the involvement of the caspase family and to identify specific caspases which are activated by 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHD) treatment leading to death of dDCN.