• About the kernel of the augmentation of finitely generated Z-modules

      Conrad, Marc (University of Osijek, 2000)
      Let M be a free finitely generated Z-module with basis B and ΔM the kernel of the homomorphism M→Z which maps B to 1. A basis of ΔM can be easily constructed from the basis B of M. Let further R be a submodule of M such that N = M/R is free. The subject of investigation is the module ΔN = (ΔM + R) / R. We compute the index [N:ΔN] and construct bases of ΔN with the help of a basis of N. Finally, the results are applied to a special class of modules which is connected with the group of cyclotomic units.
    • Accessible and secure? design constraints on image and sound based passwords

      Gibson, Marcia; Conrad, Marc; Maple, Carsten; Renaud, Karen; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2010)
      When members of society cannot access the World Wide Web, or the information and services it contains in a meaningful or useful way, they can become digitally excluded. Many factors have been highlighted as having an effect on the likelihood of exclusion, including psychological, material and skills related barriers. In this paper, we consider the role played by authentication systems in the divide. In light of the widely researched tension between aspects of usability and security in authentication, we identify a number of conflicting accessibility and security goals as manifested in image and sound based schemes.
    • Active robot learning for building up high-order beliefs

      Li, Dayou; Liu, Beisheng; Maple, Carsten; Jiang, Daming; Yue, Yong (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2008)
      High-order beliefs of service robots regard the robots' thought about their users' intention and preference. The existing approaches to the development of such beliefs through machine learning rely on particular social cues or specifically defined award functions. Their applications can, therefore, be limited. This paper presents an active robot learning approach to facilitate the robots to develop the beliefs by actively collecting/discovering evidence they need. The emphasis is on active learning. Hence social cues and award functions are not necessary. Simulations show that the presented approach successfully enabled a robot to discover evidences it needs.
    • Adaptive bees algorithm : bioinspiration from honeybee foraging to optimize fuel economy of a semi-track air-cushion vehicle

      Xu, Shuo; Yu, Fan; Luo, Zhe; Ji, Ze; Pham, Duc Truong; Qiu, Renxi; Shanghai Jiao Tong University; Cardiff University (Oxford University Press, 2011-01-04)
      This interdisciplinary study covers bionics, optimization and vehicle engineering. Semi-track air-cushion vehicle (STACV) provides a solution to transportation on soft terrain, whereas it also brings a new problem of excessive fuel consumption. By mimicking the foraging behaviour of honeybees, the bioinspired adaptive bees algorithm (ABA) is proposed to calculate its running parameters for fuel economy optimization. Inherited from the basic algorithm prototype, it involves parallel-operated global search and local search, which undertake exploration and exploitation, respectively. The innovation of this improved algorithm lies in the adaptive adjustment mechanism of the range of local search (called ‘patch size’) according to the source and the rate of change of the current optimum. Three gradually in-depth experiments are implemented for 143 kinds of soils. First, the two optimal STACV running parameters present the same increasing or decreasing trend with soil parameters. This result is consistent with the terramechanics-based theoretical analysis. Second, the comparisons with four alternative algorithms exhibit the ABA's effectiveness and efficiency, and accordingly highlight the advantage of the novel adaptive patch size adjustment mechanism. Third, the impacts of two selected optimizer parameters to optimization accuracy and efficiency are investigated and their recommended values are thus proposed.
    • An advanced FEA based force induced error compensation strategy in milling

      Ratchev, Svetan; Liu, Shulong; Huang, Wei; Becker, Adib A.; University of Nottingham (Elsevier, 2006-04)
      The study introduces a multi-level machining error compensation approach focused on force-induced errors in machining of thin-wall structures. The prediction algorithm takes into account the deflection of the part in different points of the tool path. The machining conditions are modified at each step when the cutting force and deflection achieve a local equilibrium. The machining errors are predicted using a theoretical flexible force-deflection model. The error compensation is based on optimising the tool path taking into account the predicted milling error. The error compensation scheme is simulated using NC simulation package and is experimentally verified.
    • An advanced machining simulation environment employing workpiece structural analysis

      Ratchev, Svetan; Liu, Shulong; Huang, Wei; Becker, Adib A.; University of Nottingham (World Academy of Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, 2006)
      Purpose: The study aims to reduce the surface dimensional error due to the part deflection during the machining of thin wall structures, thus, reduce machining costs and lead times by producing “right first time” components.Design/methodology/approach: The proposed simulation environment involves a data model, an analytical force prediction model, a material removal model and an FE analysis commercial software package. It focuses on the development of the simulation environment with a multi-level machining error compensation approach.Findings: The developed simulation environment can predict and reduce the form error, which is a limitation of the existing approaches.Research limitations/implications: The energy consumption, temperature change and residual stress are not studied in this research.Practical implications: The developed method provides a platform to deliver new functionality for machining process simulation. The convergence of the proposed integrated system can be achieved quickly after only a few iterations, which makes the methodology reliable and efficient.Originality/value: The study offers an opportunity to satisfy tight tolerances, eliminate hand-finishing processes and assure part-to-part accuracy at the right first time, which is a limitation of previous approaches.
    • Affects of queuing mechanisms on RTP traffic: comparative analysis of jitter, end-to-end delay and packet loss

      Epiphaniou, Gregory; Maple, Carsten; Sant, Paul; Reeve, Matthew (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2010)
      The idea of converging voice and data into a best-effort service network, such as the Internet, has rapidly developed the need to effectively define the mechanisms for achieving preferential handling of traffic. This sense of QoS assurance has increased due to the enormous growth of users accessing networks, different types of traffic competing for available bandwidth and multiple services running on the core network, defined by different protocols and vendors. VoIP traffic behaviour has become a crucial element of the intrinsic QoS mainly affected by jitter, latency and packet loss rates. This paper focuses on three different mechanisms, DropTail (FIFO), RED and DiffServ, and their effects on real-time voice traffic. Measurements of jitter, end-to-end delay and packet loss, based on simulation scenarios using the NS-2 network simulator are also presented and analyzed.
    • Alignment method with application to gas chromatography / mass spectrometry screening

      Hitchcock, Jonathan James; Li, Dayou; Maple, Carsten; Keech, Malcolm (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012-09-08)
      The paper presents a new spectrum-based alignment method that is able to precisely adjust the retention times of Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry data so that corresponding scans of two samples can be chosen for comparison purposes. It includes the ability to do precise alignment within fractions of a scan; this is equivalent to doing sub-pixel registration of images.
    • Analysis of thermal field in 110 kV cable systems

      Tykocki, Janusz; Yue, Yong; Jordan, Andrzej; State College of Computer Science and Business Administration in Łomża; University of Bedfordshire (Przeglad Elektrotechniczny, Poland, 2012)
      The paper presents the distribution of temperature field in high voltage cables, 64/110 kV, (2XS (FL)) with copper conductor, depending on the depth of their arrangement in the soil and the soil thermal conductivity. Used to simulate the professional program NISA / Heat Transfer in the calculation using the finite element method (FEM).
    • An analysis on decentralized adaptive MAC protocols for Cognitive Radio networks

      Shah, Munam Ali; Zhang, Sijing; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire, UK (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012)
      The scarcity of bandwidth in the radio spectrum has become more vital since the demand for more and more wireless applications has increased. Most of the spectrum bands have been allocated although many studies have shown that these bands are significantly underutilized most of the time. The problem of unavailability of spectrum and inefficiency in its utilization has been smartly addressed by the Cognitive Radio (CR) Technology which is an opportunistic network that senses the environment, observes the network changes, and then using knowledge gained from the prior interaction with the network, makes intelligent decisions by dynamically adapting their transmission characteristics. In this paper some of the decentralized adaptive MAC protocols for CR networks have been critically analyzed and a novel adaptive MAC protocol for CR networks, DNG-MAC which is decentralized and non-global in nature, has been proposed. The results show the DNG-MAC out performs other CR MAC protocols in terms of time and energy efficiency.
    • An analytical evaluation of network security modelling techniques applied to manage threats

      Viduto, Valentina; Maple, Carsten; Huang, Wei (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2010)
      The current ubiquity of information coupled with the reliance on such data by businesses has led to a great deal of resources being deployed to ensure the security of this information. Threats can come from a number of sources and the dangers from those insiders closest to the source have increased significantly recently. This paper focuses on techniques used to identify and manage threats as well as the measures that every organisation should consider to put into action. A novel game-based onion skin model has been proposed, combining techniques used in theory-based and hardware-based hardening strategies.
    • Anonymity networks and the fragile cyber ecosystem

      Haughey, Hamish; Epiphaniou, Gregory; al-Khateeb, Haider; University of Northumbria; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2016-03)
      It is well known that government agencies have had the capability to eavesdrop on public switched telephone networks for many decades.1 However, with the growing use of the Internet and the increasing technical capabilities of agencies to conduct mass surveillance, an individual's right to privacy is of far greater concern in recent years. The ethical issues surrounding privacy, anonymity and mass-surveillance are complicated, with compelling arguments for and against, due in part to the fact that privacy and anonymity are desired by criminals and terrorists, not just individuals who care about their privacy.
    • Ant robotic swarm for visualizing invisible hazardous substances

      Oyekan, John O.; Hu, Huosheng (2013)
      Inspired by the simplicity of how nature solves its problems, this paper presents a novel approach that would enable a swarm of ant robotic agents (robots with limited sensing, communication, computational and memory resources) form a visual representation of distributed hazardous substances within an environment dominated by diffusion processes using a decentralized approach. Such a visual representation could be very useful in enabling a quicker evacuation of a city’s population affected by such hazardous substances. This is especially true if the ratio of emergency workers to the population number is very small.
    • Anti-reflection structures fabricated by direct laser interference technology under different ambiances

      Wang, Dapeng; Yue, Yong; Zhang, Ziang; Li, Dayou; Maple, Carsten; Wang, Zuobin; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE, 2013-08)
      In this paper, we take the strategy of direct laser interference technology to modify the silicon surface under air and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) gas ambiance conditions. With the investigation of optical properties, the silicon spike structures (known as black silicon) which were fabricated in the SF6 ambiance showed the excellent ability of reducing light reflection with a broadband spectrum. For comparison, well-defined microcone structures were fabricated in the air ambiance. After hydrofluoric (HF) acid wiping off the oxides on the surface, micro cone structures have shown the anti-reflection function as well and its reflective behaviour was dependent on the structural depth relatively. Due to a high impurities concentration of spike structures obtained in the SF6 ambiance, applications of sulphur-doped black silicon would be limited. To obtain large-scale uniform structures, direct laser interference technology in the air ambiance could be an alternative.
    • Applications of concurrent access patterns in web usage mining

      Lu, Jing; Keech, Malcolm; Wang, Cuiqing; University of Bedfordshire (Springer, 2013-08)
      This paper builds on the original data mining and modelling research which has proposed the discovery of novel structural relation patterns, applying the approach in web usage mining. The focus of attention here is on concurrent access patterns (CAP), where an overarching framework illuminates the methodology for web access patterns post-processing. Data pre-processing, pattern discovery and patterns analysis all proceed in association with access patterns mining, CAP mining and CAP modelling. Pruning and selection of access patterns takes place as necessary, allowing further CAP mining and modelling to be pursued in the search for the most interesting concurrent access patterns. It is shown that higher level CAPs can be modelled in a way which brings greater structure to bear on the process of knowledge discovery. Experiments with real-world datasets highlight the applicability of the approach in web navigation.
    • Applications of concurrent sequential patterns in protein data mining

      Wang, Cuiqing; Keech, Malcolm; Lu, Jing; University of Bedfordshire (Springer, 2014)
      Protein sequences of the same family typically share common patterns which imply their structural function and biological relationship. Traditional sequential patterns mining has its focus on mining frequently occurring sub-sequences. However, a number of applications motivate the search for more structured patterns, such as protein motif mining. This paper builds on the original idea of structural relation patterns and applies the Concurrent Sequential Patterns (ConSP) mining approach in bioinformatics. Specifically, a new method and algorithms are presented using support vectors as the data structure for the extraction of novel patterns in protein sequences. Experiments with real-world protein datasets highlight the applicability of the ConSP methodology in protein data mining. The results show the potential for knowledge discovery in the field of protein structure identification.
    • Applying information foraging theory to understand user interaction with content-based image retrieval

      Liu, Haiming; Mulholland, Paul; Song, Dawei; Uren, Victoria; Rüger, Stefan (ACM, 2010)
      The paper proposes an ISE (Information goal, Search strategy, Evaluation threshold) user classification model based on Information Foraging Theory for understanding user interaction with content-based image retrieval (CBIR). The proposed model is verified by a multiple linear regression analysis based on 50 users' interaction features collected from a task-based user study of interactive CBIR systems. To our best knowledge, this is the first principled user classification model in CBIR verified by a formal and systematic qualitative analysis of extensive user interaction data.
    • Automation in handling uncertainty in semantic-knowledge based robotic task-planning by using Markov Logic Networks

      Al-Moadhen, Ahmed; Packianather, Michael; Setchi, Rossi; Qiu, Renxi (Elsevier, 2014)
      Generating plans in real world environments by mobile robot planner is a challenging task due to the uncertainty and environment dynamics. Therefore, task-planning should take in its consideration these issues when generating plans. Semantic knowledge domain has been proposed as a source of information for deriving implicit information and generating semantic plans. This paper extends the Semantic-Knowledge Based (SKB) plan generation to take into account the uncertainty in existing of objects, with their types and properties, and proposes a new approach to construct plans based on probabilistic values which are derived from Markov Logic Networks (MLN). An MLN module is established for probabilistic learning and inferencing together with semantic information to provide a basis for plausible learning and reasoning services in supporting of robot task-planning. In addition, an algorithm has been devised to construct MLN from semantic knowledge. By providing a means of modeling uncertainty in system architecture, task-planning serves as a supporting tool for robotic applications that can benefit from probabilistic inference within a semantic domain. This approach is illustrated using test scenarios run in a domestic environment using a mobile robot.
    • autopin – Automated Optimization of Thread-to-Core Pinning on Multicore Systems

      Klug, Tobias; Ott, Michael; Weidendorfer, Josef; Trinitis, Carsten (Springer, 2011)
      In this paper we present a framework for automatic detection and application of the best binding between threads of a running parallel application and processor cores in a shared memory system, by making use of hardware performance counters. This is especially important within the scope of multicore architectures with shared cache levels. We demonstrate that many applications from the SPEC OMP benchmark show quite sensitive runtime behavior depending on the thread/core binding used. In our tests, the proposed framework is able to find the best binding in nearly all cases. The proposed framework is intended to supplement job scheduling systems for better automatic exploitation of systems with multicore processors, as well as making programmers aware of this issue by providing measurement logs.
    • Awareness of wireless security by home and business users

      Maple, Carsten; Jacobs, Helen; Reeve, Matthew (IADIS, 2006)
      There has been rapid increase in the popularity of wireless networks in both the home and the small office environment. However, with the convenience wireless networking brings there is also an added risk in terms of security. From surveys conducted in a number of countries, it appears there is still lack of awareness of the need for securing wireless networks and the level of security provided by the different wire less encryption protocols. With increasing quantities of e-Government services being available online, such as income tax returns, car registration and health-related services, it is important that the public are aware of the risks of submitting personal information on unsecured or weakly secured networks. This paper highlights the types of wireless encryption protocols available,the cost of using these protocols and provides recommendation for home and business users when us ing e-Government services.