• Active robot learning for building up high-order beliefs

      Li, Dayou; Liu, Beisheng; Maple, Carsten; Jiang, Daming; Yue, Yong (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2008)
      High-order beliefs of service robots regard the robots' thought about their users' intention and preference. The existing approaches to the development of such beliefs through machine learning rely on particular social cues or specifically defined award functions. Their applications can, therefore, be limited. This paper presents an active robot learning approach to facilitate the robots to develop the beliefs by actively collecting/discovering evidence they need. The emphasis is on active learning. Hence social cues and award functions are not necessary. Simulations show that the presented approach successfully enabled a robot to discover evidences it needs.
    • Analysis of thermal field in 110 kV cable systems

      Tykocki, Janusz; Yue, Yong; Jordan, Andrzej; State College of Computer Science and Business Administration in Łomża; University of Bedfordshire (Przeglad Elektrotechniczny, Poland, 2012)
      The paper presents the distribution of temperature field in high voltage cables, 64/110 kV, (2XS (FL)) with copper conductor, depending on the depth of their arrangement in the soil and the soil thermal conductivity. Used to simulate the professional program NISA / Heat Transfer in the calculation using the finite element method (FEM).
    • Anti-reflection structures fabricated by direct laser interference technology under different ambiances

      Wang, Dapeng; Yue, Yong; Zhang, Ziang; Li, Dayou; Maple, Carsten; Wang, Zuobin; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE, 2013-08)
      In this paper, we take the strategy of direct laser interference technology to modify the silicon surface under air and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) gas ambiance conditions. With the investigation of optical properties, the silicon spike structures (known as black silicon) which were fabricated in the SF6 ambiance showed the excellent ability of reducing light reflection with a broadband spectrum. For comparison, well-defined microcone structures were fabricated in the air ambiance. After hydrofluoric (HF) acid wiping off the oxides on the surface, micro cone structures have shown the anti-reflection function as well and its reflective behaviour was dependent on the structural depth relatively. Due to a high impurities concentration of spike structures obtained in the SF6 ambiance, applications of sulphur-doped black silicon would be limited. To obtain large-scale uniform structures, direct laser interference technology in the air ambiance could be an alternative.
    • Both antireflection and superhydrophobicity structures achieved by direct laser interference nanomanufacturing

      Wang, Dapeng; Wang, Zuobin; Zhang, Ziang; Yue, Yong; Li, Dayou; Qiu, Renxi; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire; Changchun University of Science and Technology; Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University (American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2014)
      Inspired by nature, a number of techniques have been developed to fabricate the bionic structures of lotus leaves and moth eyes in order to realize the extraordinary functions of self-cleaning and antireflection. Compared with the existing technologies, we present a straightforward method to fabricate well-defined micro and nano artificial bio-structures in this work. The proposed method of direct laser interference nanomanufacturing (DLIN) takes a significant advantage of high efficiency as only a single technological procedure is needed without pretreatment, mask, and pattern transfer processes. Meanwhile, the corresponding structures show both antireflection and superhydrophobicity properties simultaneously. The developed four-beam nanosecond laser interference system configuring the TE-TE-TE-TE and TE-TE-TE-TM polarization modes was set up to generate periodic micro cone and hole structures with a huge number of nano features on the surface. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that the periodic microcone structure exhibits excellent properties with both a high contact angle (CA = 156.3°) and low omnidirectional reflectance (5.9–15.4%). Thus, DLIN is a novel and promising method suitable for mass production of self-cleaning and antireflection surface structures.
    • Case study: multi-role shadow robotic system for independent living

      Maple, Carsten; Yue, Yong; Li, Dayou; Bochenkov, Alexey; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012)
      The project is focused on development and prototyping of remotely-controlled, semi-autonomous robotic solutions in domestic environments to support elderly people. In particular, the SRS project is demonstrating an innovative, practical and efficient system called "SRS robot" for personalised home care and assisted living.
    • Classification of multi-channels SEMG signals using wavelet and neural networks on assistive robot

      Gu, Shuang; Yue, Yong; Wu, Chengdong; Maple, Carsten; Liu, Beisheng; University of Bedfordshire, UK (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012)
      Recently, the robot technology research is changing from manufacturing industry to non-manufacturing industry, especially the service industry related to the human life. Assistive robot is a kind of novel service robot. It can not only help the elder and disabled people to rehabilitate their impaired musculoskeletal functions, but also help healthy people to perform tasks requiring large forces. This kind of robot has a broad application prospect in many areas, such as medical rehabilitation, special military operations, special/high intensity physical labour, space, sports, and entertainment. SEMG (Surface Electromyography) of Palmaris longus, brachioradialis, flexor carpiulnaris and biceps brachii are analysed with a wavelet transform method. The absolute variance of 3-layer wavelet coefficients is distilled and regarded as signal characteristics to compose eigenvectors. The eigenvectors are input data of a neural network classifier used to identify 5 different kinds of movement patterns including wrist flexor, wrist extensor, elbow flexion, forearm pronation and forearm rotation. Experiments verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
    • Comparative study of different approaches to solve batch process scheduling and optimisation problems

      Tan, Yaqing; Huang, Wei; Sun, Yanming; Yue, Yong; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012)
      Effective approaches are important to batch process scheduling problems, especially those with complex constraints. However, most research focus on improving optimisation techniques, and those concentrate on comparing their difference are inadequate. This study develops an optimisation model of batch process scheduling problems with complex constraints and investigates the performance of different optimisation techniques, such as Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Constraint Programming (CP). It finds that CP has a better capacity to handle batch process problems with complex constraints but it costs longer time.
    • Direct modification of silicon surface by nanosecond laser interference lithography

      Wang, Dapeng; Wang, Zuobin; Zhang, Ziang; Yue, Yong; Li, Dayou; Maple, Carsten (Elsevier, 2013)
      Periodic and quasi-periodic structures on silicon surface have numerous significant applications in photoelectronics and surface engineering. A number of technologies have been developed to fabricate the structures in various research fields. In this work, we take the strategy of direct nanosecond laser interference lithography technology, and focus on the silicon material to create different well-defined surface structures based on theoretical analysis of the formation of laser interference patterns. Two, three and four-beam laser interference systems were set up to fabricate the grating, regular triangle and square structures on silicon surfaces, respectively. From the AFM micrographs, the critical features of structures have a dependence on laser fluences. For a relative low laser fluence, grating and dot structures formed with bumps due to the Marangoni Effect. With the increase of laser fluences, melt and evaporation behaviors can be responsible for the laser modification. By properly selecting the process parameters, well-defined grating and dot structures can been achieved. It can be demonstrated that direct laser interference lithography is a facile and efficient technology with the advantage of a single process procedure over macroscale areas for the fabrication of micro and nano structures.
    • Effectively handling three-dimensional spaces for container loading

      Liu, Jiamin; Zhang, Xiaorui; Yue, Yong; Maple, Carsten; Shenyang University of Technology; University of Bedfordshire (American Institute of Physics, 2012)
      To improve space utilization, the method for handling spaces plays an important role in the container loading problem. This paper deals with loading a set of cuboid items into a single container to maximize the utilization of the space. Six space partitions are presented and a set of rules for merging spaces is proposed. Through experimentation, using a benchmark data set, the influence of partitioning and merging are analyzed. The experimental results show that partitioning and merging in which all loaded boxes have one hundred percent support from below can produce good space utilization.
    • Effects of polarization on four-beam laser interference lithography

      Wang, Dapeng; Wang, Zuobin; Zhang, Ziang; Yue, Yong; Li, Dayou; Maple, Carsten; Changchun University of Science and Technology; University of Bedfordshire (American Institute of Physics, 2013)
      This paper demonstrates that polarization plays an important role in the formation of interference patterns, pattern contrasts, and periods in four-beam interference lithography. Three different polarization modes are presented to study the effects of polarization on four-beam laser interference based on theoretical analysis, simulations, and experiments. A four-beam laser interference system was set up to modify the silicon surface. It was found that the secondary periodicity or modulation was the result of the misaligned or unequal incident angles only in the case of the TE-TE-TM-TM mode. The resulting patterns have shown a good correspondence with the theoretical analysis and simulations.
    • Error factors affecting the result of Laser Interference Lithography

      Zhang, Jin; Jiang, Shilei; Tan, Chunlei; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Dayou; Yue, Yong; Qiu, Renxi; Sun, Guobin; Yang, Lihong; Wang, Sanlong; et al. (IEEE, 2013-08)
      Laser Interference Lithography (LIL) techniques enable quantitative generation of periodic structures such as array of holes, dots and lines, which are the intrinsic structure in some optical functional material. In this paper, the most common errors factors that could affect the result of laser interference lithography were presented. The methods to enhance the quality of patterns of LIL also have been introduced.
    • Fuzzy logic based localisation in wireless sensor networks for disaster environment

      Gu, Shuang; Yue, Yong; Maple, Carsten; Wu, Chengdong; University of Bedfordshire, UK (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012)
      Progress in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and radio frequency (RF) technology has fostered the development of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Although WSNs have been successfully applied in built environments, their applications and benefits have not been fully explored in the areas of disaster recovery and rescuing. In this paper, a novel probabilistic fuzzy logic based Range-free localisation algorithm (PFRL) is proposed. The proposed algorithm is compared with other range free localisation algorithms. Simulation results demonstrate the accurate and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
    • Fuzzy logic based symbolic grounding for best grasp pose for homecare robotics

      Liu, Beisheng; Li, Dayou; Yue, Yong; Maple, Carsten; Gu, Shuang; Qiu, Renxi; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012)
      Symbolic grounding in unstructured environments remains an important challenge in robotics [7]. Homecare robots are often required to be instructed by their human users intuitively, which means the robots are expected to take highlevel commands and execute corresponding tasks in a domestic environment. High-level commands are represented with symbolic terms such as “near” and “close” and, on the other hand, robots are controlled based on trajectories. The robots need to translate the symbolic terms to trajectories. In addition, domestic environment is unstructured where the same objects can be placed in different places over the time. This increases the difficulties in symbolic grounding. This paper presents a fuzzy logic based approach to symbolic grounding. In this approach, grounded concepts are modelled as fuzzy sets and the existing knowledge is used to deduce grounded values given real-time sensory inputs. Experiments results show that this approach works well in unstructured environment.
    • Fuzzy optimisation based symbolic grounding for service robots

      Liu, Beisheng; Li, Dayou; Qiu, Renxi; Yue, Yong; Maple, Carsten; Gu, Shuang; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012)
      Symbolic grounding is a bridge between high-level planning and actual robot sensing, and actuation. Uncertainties raised by the unstructured environment make a bottleneck for integrating traditional artificial intelligence with service robotics. This paper presents a fuzzy logic based approach to formalise the grounding problems into a fuzzy optimization problem, which is robust to uncertainties. Novel techniques are applied to establish the objective function, to model fuzzy constraints and to perform fuzzy optimisation. The outcome is tested with a service robot fetch and carry task, where the fuzzy optimisation approach helps the robot to determine the most comfortable position (location and orientation) for grasping objects. Experimental results show that the proposed approach improves the robustness of the task implementation in unstructured environments.
    • Genetic algorithm based solution to dead-end problems in robot navigation

      Kang, Xiaoming; Yue, Yong; Li, Dayou; Maple, Carsten (Inderscience, 2011)
      In robot navigation, mobile robots can suffer from dead-end problems, that is, they can be stuck in areas which are surrounded by obstacles. Attempts have been reported to avoid a robot entering into such a dead-end area. However, in some applications, for example, rescue work, the dead-end areas must be explored. Therefore, it is vital for the robot to come out from the dead-end areas after exploration. This paper presents an approach which enables a robot to come out from dead-end areas. There are two main parts: a dead-end detection mechanism and a genetic algorithm (GA) based online training mechanism. When the robot realises that it is stuck in a dead-end area, it will operate the online training to produce a new best chromosome that will enable the robot to escape from the area.
    • K-order surrounding roadmaps path planner for robot path planning

      Li, Yueqiao; Li, Dayou; Maple, Carsten; Yue, Yong; Oyekan, John O. (Springer, 2014-09)
      Probabilistic roadmaps are commonly used in robot path planning. Most sampling-based path planners often produce poor-quality roadmaps as they focus on improving the speed of constructing roadmaps without paying much attention to the quality. Poor-quality roadmaps can cause problems such as poor-quality paths, time-consuming path searching and failures in the searching. This paper presents a K-order surrounding roadmap (KSR) path planner which constructs a roadmap in an incremental manner. The planner creates a tree while answering a query, selects the part of the tree according to quality measures and adds the part to an existing roadmap which is obtained in the same way when answering the previous queries. The KSR path planner is able to construct high-quality roadmaps in terms of good coverage, high connectivity, provision of alternative paths and small size. Comparison between the KSR path planner and Reconfigurable Random Forest (RRF), an existing incremental path planner, as well as traditional probabilistic roadmap (PRM) path planner shows that the roadmaps constructed using the KSR path planner have higher quality that those that are built by the other planners.
    • Magnetic surface patterns made by non-destructive laser interference

      Hou, Yu; Wang, Zuobin; Song, Jiaojiao; Li, Dayou; Yue, Yong; Maple, Carsten; Changchun University of Science and Technology; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE, 2013-08)
      This paper presents a method to make magnetic surface patterns by non-destructive laser interference, and periodic magnetic fringes produced on magnetic material surfaces are investigated by magnetic force microscopy (MFM). Various thermal effects are obtained by two beam laser interference with different exposure times and pulse energies. The experimental results have shown that magnetic patterns can be made on magnetic materials by laser interference without any damage to the surfaces. The method provides a way for the rapid producing of magnetic marks or recording magnetic data in a large area on a magnetic material surface, and it could be useful for biological, material, optical, electronic and information engineering applications.
    • Managing inconsistencies in data grid environments

      Ahmed, Ejaz; Bessis, Nik; Norrington, Peter; Yue, Yong (IGI Global, 2010)
      Much work has been done in the area of data access and integration using various data mapping, matching, and loading techniques. One of the main concerns when integrating data from heterogeneous data sources is data redundancy. The concern is mainly due to the different business contexts and purposes from which the data systems were originally built. A common process for accessing data from integrated databases involves the use of each data source’s own catalogue or metadata schema. In this article, the authors take the view that there is a greater chance of data inconsistencies, such as data redundancies when integrating them within a grid environment as compared to traditional distributed paradigms. The importance of improving the data search and matching process is briefly discussed, and a partial service oriented generic strategy is adopted to consolidate distinct catalogue schemas of federated databases to access information seamlessly. To this end, a proposed matching strategy between structure objects and data values across federated databases in a grid environment is presented.
    • Nonedge-specific adaptive scheme for highly robust blind motion deblurring of natural imagess

      Wang, Chao; Yue, Yong; Dong, Feng; Tao, Yubo; Ma, Xiangyin; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Lin, Hai; Ye, Xujiong; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2013)
      Blind motion deblurring estimates a sharp image from a motion blurred image without the knowledge of the blur kernel. Although significant progress has been made on tackling this problem, existing methods, when applied to highly diverse natural images, are still far from stable. This paper focuses on the robustness of blind motion deblurring methods toward image diversity-a critical problem that has been previously neglected for years. We classify the existing methods into two schemes and analyze their robustness using an image set consisting of 1.2 million natural images. The first scheme is edge-specific, as it relies on the detection and prediction of large-scale step edges. This scheme is sensitive to the diversity of the image edges in natural images. The second scheme is nonedge-specific and explores various image statistics, such as the prior distributions. This scheme is sensitive to statistical variation over different images. Based on the analysis, we address the robustness by proposing a novel nonedge-specific adaptive scheme (NEAS), which features a new prior that is adaptive to the variety of textures in natural images. By comparing the performance of NEAS against the existing methods on a very large image set, we demonstrate its advance beyond the state-of-the-art.
    • A novel hybrid tabu search approach to container loading

      Liu, Jiamin; Yue, Yong; Dong, Zongran; Maple, Carsten; Keech, Malcolm (Elsevier, 2011-04)
      The container loading problem, which is significant for a number of industrial sectors, aims to obtain a high space utilisation in the container while satisfying practical constraints. This paper presents a novel hybrid tabu search approach to the container loading problem. A loading heuristic is devised to incorporate heuristic strategies with a handling method for remaining spaces to generate optimal loading arrangements of boxes with stability considered. The tabu search technique, which covers the encoding, evaluation criteria and configuration of neighbourhood and candidate solutions, is used to improve the performance of the loading heuristic. Experimental results with benchmark data show that the hybrid approach provides a better space utilisation than the published approaches under the condition of all loaded boxes with one hundred percent support from below. Moreover, it is shown that the hybrid tabu search can solve problems with the constraints of weight limit and weight distribution with real world data.