• Exploring a multidimensional representation of documents and queries

      Piwowarski, Benjamin; Lalmas, Mounia; Frommholz, Ingo; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; University of Glasgow (LE CENTRE DE HAUTES ETUDES INTERNATIONALES D'INFORMATIQUE DOCUMENTAIRE, 2010)
      n Information Retrieval (IR), whether implicitly or explicitly, queries and documents are often represented as vectors. However, it may be more beneficial to consider documents and/or queries as multidimensional objects. Our belief is this would allow building "truly" interactive IR systems, i.e., where interaction is fully incorporated in the IR framework. The probabilistic formalism of quantum physics represents events and densities as multidimensional objects. This paper presents our first step towards building an interactive IR framework upon this formalism, by stating how the first interaction of the retrieval process, when the user types a query, can be formalised.
    • Filtering documents with subspaces

      Piwowarski, Benjamin; Frommholz, Ingo; Moshfeghi, Yashar; Lalmas, Mounia; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; University of Glasgow (Springer, 2010)
      We propose an approach to build a subspace representation for documents. This more powerful representation is a first step towards the development of a quantum-based model for Information Retrieval (IR). To validate our methodology, we apply it to the adaptive document filtering task.
    • How quantum theory is developing the field of information retrieval

      Song, Dawei; Lalmas, Mounia; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; Frommholz, Ingo; Piwowarski, Benjamin; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Peng; Zuccon, Guido; Bruza, Peter; Arafat, Sachi; et al. (AAAI - Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, 2010)
      This position paper provides an overview of work conducted and an outlook of future directions within the field of Information Retrieval (IR) that aims to develop novel models, methods and frameworks inspired by Quantum Theory (QT).
    • Multi-facet classification of e-mails in a helpdesk scenario

      Beckers, Thomas; Frommholz, Ingo; Bonning, Ralf; University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany; University of Glasgow; d.velop AG (Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V., 2009)
      Helpdesks have to manage a huge amount of support requests which are usually submitted via e-mail. In order to be assigned to experts e ciently, incoming e-mails have to be classi- ed w. r. t. several facets, in particular topic, support type and priority. It is desirable to perform these classi cations automatically. We report on experiments using Support Vector Machines and k-Nearest-Neighbours, respectively, for the given multi-facet classi - cation task. The challenge is to de ne suitable features for each facet. Our results suggest that improvements can be gained for all facets, and they also reveal which features are promising for a particular facet.
    • On the probabilistic logical modelling of quantum and geometrically-inspired IR

      Smeraldi, Fabrizio; Martinez-Alvarez, Miguel; Frommholz, Ingo; Roelleke, Thomas; Queen Mary University, London; University of Glasgow (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2011)
      Information Retrieval approaches can mostly be classed into probabilistic, geometric or logic-based. Recently, a new unifying framework for IR has emerged that integrates a probabilistic description within a geometric framework, namely vectors in Hilbert spaces. The geometric model leads naturally to a predicate logic over linear subspaces, also known as quantum logic. In this paper we show the relation between this model and classic concepts such as the Generalised Vector Space Model, highlighting similarities and differences. We also show how some fundamental components of quantum-based IR can be modelled in a descriptive way using a well-established tool, i.e. Probabilistic Datalog.
    • Processing queries in session in a quantum-inspired IR framework

      Frommholz, Ingo; Piwowarski, Benjamin; Lalmas, Mounia; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; University of Glasgow; Yahoo! Research Barcelona (Springer, 2011)
    • Supporting polyrepresentation in a quantum-inspired geometrical retrieval framework

      Frommholz, Ingo; Lalmas, Mounia; Larsen, Birger; Ingwersen, Peter; Piwowarski, Benjamin; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; University of Glasgow; Royal School of Library and Information Science, Copenhagen, Denmark (ACM, 2010)
      The relevance of a document has many facets, going beyond the usual topical one, which have to be considered to satisfy a user's information need. Multiple representations of documents, like user-given reviews or the actual document content, can give evidence towards certain facets of relevance. In this respect polyrepresentation of documents, where such evidence is combined, is a crucial concept to estimate the relevance of a document. In this paper, we discuss how a geometrical retrieval framework inspired by quantum mechanics can be extended to support polyrepresentation. We show by example how different representations of a document can be modelled in a Hilbert space, similar to physical systems known from quantum mechanics. We further illustrate how these representations are combined by means of the tensor product to support polyrepresentation, and discuss the case that representations of documents are not independent from a user point of view. Besides giving a principled framework for polyrepresentation, the potential of this approach is to capture and formalise the complex interdependent relationships that the different representations can have between each other.
    • Towards a geometrical cognitive framework

      Frommholz, Ingo; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; Crestani, Fabio; Lalmas, Mounia; University of Glasgow; University of Lugano (Royal School of Library and Information Science, Copenhagen, 2010)
      Ingwersens cognitive framework is regarded as the begin- ning of a turn which eventually should bring together classical system- oriented and user-oriented IR communities. One of the consequences of this framework is the polyrepresentation principle. The Logical Uncertainty Principle (LUP) is regarded as a compatible model with the cognitive framework. Recently it was shown how LUP can be expressed using the mathematics of Hilbert spaces. This formalism, which is applied in quantum mechanics, harmonises geometry, probability theory and logics. Apart from being a way to express LUP, a further potential arises from a quantum perspective of IR. We present an interactive framework as an example of a quantum-inspired approach which also supports polyrepresentation
    • Towards a geometrical model for polyrepresentation of information objects

      Frommholz, Ingo; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; University of Glasgow (Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V., 2009)
      The principle of polyrepresentation is one of the fundamental recent developments in the field of interactive retrieval. An open problem is how to define a framework which unifies different as- pects of polyrepresentation and allows for their application in several ways. Such a framework can be of geometrical nature and it may embrace concepts known from quantum theory. In this short paper, we discuss by giving examples how this framework can look like, with a focus on in- formation objects. We further show how it can be exploited to find a cognitive overlap of different representations on the one hand, and to combine different representations by means of knowledge augmentation on the other hand. We discuss the potential that lies within a geometrical frame- work and motivate its further development
    • Towards quantum-based DB+IR processing based on the principle of polyrepresentation

      Zellhöfer, David; Frommholz, Ingo; Schmitt, Ingo; Lalmas, Mounia; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus, Germany; University of Glasgow; Yahoo! Research, Spain (Springer, 2011)
      The cognitively motivated principle of polyrepresentation still lacks a theoretical foundation in IR. In this work, we discuss two competing polyrepresentation frameworks that are based on quantum theory. Both approaches support different aspects of polyrepresentation, where one is focused on the geometric properties of quantum theory while the other has a strong logical basis. We compare both approaches and outline how they can be combined to express further aspects of polyrepresentation.