• An analysis on decentralized adaptive MAC protocols for Cognitive Radio networks

      Shah, Munam Ali; Zhang, Sijing; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire, UK (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012)
      The scarcity of bandwidth in the radio spectrum has become more vital since the demand for more and more wireless applications has increased. Most of the spectrum bands have been allocated although many studies have shown that these bands are significantly underutilized most of the time. The problem of unavailability of spectrum and inefficiency in its utilization has been smartly addressed by the Cognitive Radio (CR) Technology which is an opportunistic network that senses the environment, observes the network changes, and then using knowledge gained from the prior interaction with the network, makes intelligent decisions by dynamically adapting their transmission characteristics. In this paper some of the decentralized adaptive MAC protocols for CR networks have been critically analyzed and a novel adaptive MAC protocol for CR networks, DNG-MAC which is decentralized and non-global in nature, has been proposed. The results show the DNG-MAC out performs other CR MAC protocols in terms of time and energy efficiency.
    • Classification of multi-channels SEMG signals using wavelet and neural networks on assistive robot

      Gu, Shuang; Yue, Yong; Wu, Chengdong; Maple, Carsten; Liu, Beisheng; University of Bedfordshire, UK (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012)
      Recently, the robot technology research is changing from manufacturing industry to non-manufacturing industry, especially the service industry related to the human life. Assistive robot is a kind of novel service robot. It can not only help the elder and disabled people to rehabilitate their impaired musculoskeletal functions, but also help healthy people to perform tasks requiring large forces. This kind of robot has a broad application prospect in many areas, such as medical rehabilitation, special military operations, special/high intensity physical labour, space, sports, and entertainment. SEMG (Surface Electromyography) of Palmaris longus, brachioradialis, flexor carpiulnaris and biceps brachii are analysed with a wavelet transform method. The absolute variance of 3-layer wavelet coefficients is distilled and regarded as signal characteristics to compose eigenvectors. The eigenvectors are input data of a neural network classifier used to identify 5 different kinds of movement patterns including wrist flexor, wrist extensor, elbow flexion, forearm pronation and forearm rotation. Experiments verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
    • Defining minimum requirements of inter-collaborated nodes by measuring the weight of node interactions

      Sotiriadis, Stelios; Bessis, Nik; Huang, Ye; Sant, Paul; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire, UK (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2010)
      In this paper we are focusing on the minimum requirements to be addressed in order to demonstrate a inter-node communication within a Virtual Organisation (VO) using the method of Self-led Critical Friends (SCF). The method is able to decide paths that a node can choose in order to locate neighbouring nodes by aiming at realizing the overhead of each communication. The weight of each path will be measured by the analysis of prerequisites in order to achieve the interaction between nodes. We define requirements as the least fundamentals that a node needs to achieve in order to determine its accessibility factor. The information gathered from an interaction is then stored in a snapshot, a profile that is made available during the discovery stage.
    • Encoding minimum requirements of ad hoc inter-connected grids to a genetic algorithm infrastructure

      Sotiriadis, Stelios; Bessis, Nik; Sant, Paul; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire, UK (IADIS, 2010)
    • From grids to clouds: a collective intelligence study for inter-cooperated infrastructures

      Sotiriadis, Stelios; Bessis, Nik; Sant, Paul; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire, UK (IARIA, 2010)
      Recently, more effort has been put into developing interoperable and distributed environments that offer users exceptional opportunities for utilizing resources over the internet. By utilising grids and clouds, resource consumers and providers, they gain significant benefits by either using or purchasing the computer processing capacities and the information provided by data centres. On the other hand, the collective intelligence paradigm is characterized as group based intelligence that emerges from the collaboration of many individuals, who in turn, define a coordinated knowledge model. It is envisaged that such a knowledge model could be of significant advantage if it is incorporated within the grid and cloud community. The dynamic load and access balancing of the grid and cloud data centres and the collective intelligence provides multiple opportunities, involving resource provisioning and development of scalable and heterogeneous applications. The contribution of this paper is that by utilizing grid and cloud resources, internal information stored within a public profile of each participant, resource providers as well as consumers, can lead to an effective mobilization of improved skills of members. We aim to unify the grid and cloud functionality as consumable computational power, for a) discussing the supreme advantages of such on-line resource utilization and provisioning models and b) analyzing the impact of the collective intelligence in the future trends of the aforementioned technologies.
    • Fuzzy logic based localisation in wireless sensor networks for disaster environment

      Gu, Shuang; Yue, Yong; Maple, Carsten; Wu, Chengdong; University of Bedfordshire, UK (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012)
      Progress in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and radio frequency (RF) technology has fostered the development of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Although WSNs have been successfully applied in built environments, their applications and benefits have not been fully explored in the areas of disaster recovery and rescuing. In this paper, a novel probabilistic fuzzy logic based Range-free localisation algorithm (PFRL) is proposed. The proposed algorithm is compared with other range free localisation algorithms. Simulation results demonstrate the accurate and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
    • A mobile agent strategy for grid interoperable virtual organisations

      Sotiriadis, Stelios; Bessis, Nik; Sant, Paul; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire, UK (IADIS, 2010)
    • A resource discovery architecture of loosely coupled grid inter-cooperated virtual organisations using mobile agents and neural networks

      Sotiriadis, Stelios; Bessis, Nik; Sant, Paul; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire, UK (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2010)
      Grid computing offers a service for sharing resources over uncertain and complex environments. In such multi-participated settings it is essential to make the grid middleware functionality transparent to members by providing the ability to act autonomous and learning from the environment. Parallel to grid, artificial neural networks is a paradigm for processing information, which is inspired by the processes of biological nervous systems. The latter fields can be really promoted from the artificial intelligent agents, which offer an autonomous acting infrastructure of members with proactive and reactive aptitude. As grid is about sharing and allocating resources within uncertain domains, intelligent agents and neural networks may be the mean of achieving an autonomous learning environment of self-motivated members. In this study, we focus on the mobility agents' model aiming to discovery resources dynamically, parallel to the artificial neural networks as a way to achieve the best resource discovery paths. Our work is fundamentally based on the Self-led Critical Friends method, a technique for realizing inter-cooperation among various scales Virtual Organisations (VOs). Their mediator acting nature redirects communication to other parties of different VOs by utilizing a public profile of data stored within VO members.
    • Towards decentralized grid agent models for continuous resource discovery of interoperable grid Virtual Organisations

      Sotiriadis, Stelios; Bessis, Nik; Huang, Ye; Sant, Paul; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire, UK (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2010)
      Grid technology enables resource sharing among a massive number of dynamic and geographically distributed resources. The significance of such environments is based on the aptitude of grid members to look across multiple grids for resource discovery and allocation. Parallel to grid, agents are autonomous problem solvers capable of self-directed actions in flexible environments. As grid systems require self-sufficiency, agents may be the means by which to achieve a robust autonomy infrastructure. In this direction we propose a resource discovery method of interoperable grid agents which travel within Virtual Organizations (VOs) and by capturing resource information regarding their action domain; they update the internal data of each grid member. Moreover we propose that resource discovery is a systematic and continually updating process that occurs within a VO and allows information exchange to happen. This exchange takes place between various community members at a pre-defined interval, aiming to distribute internal knowledge about the domain.
    • Towards optimal multi-objective models of network security: survey

      Viduto, Valentina; Huang, Wei; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire, UK (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2011)
      Information security is an important aspect of a successful business today. However, financial difficulties and budget cuts create a problem of selecting appropriate security measures and keeping networked systems up and running. Economic models proposed in the literature do not address the challenging problem of security countermeasure selection. We have made a classification of security models, which can be used to harden a system in a cost effective manner based on the methodologies used. In addition, we have specified the challenges of the simplified risk assessment approaches used in the economic models and have made recommendations how the challenges can be addressed in order to support decision makers.
    • Vulnerability, victims and free movement: the case of cyberstalking

      Maple, Carsten; Lang, Richard; University of Bedfordshire, UK (Intersentia, 2012)
      Any crime can have enormous emotional and physical consequences for the victim. However, two potential attributes of a crime which can signifi cantly worsen the ordeal suff ered by the victim are, fi rstly, that it is committed behind closed doors, especially the doors of one’s home, and secondly, that it is committed anonymously.1 Cyberstalking, by which high-tech methods are used to distress, frighten and intimidate the victim, is almost unique in that it can possess both of these attributes, sometimes even both at once. Despite this, the European Commission, in a recent proposal for a directive, has not seen fi t to include it on a list of crimes the victims of which are “particularly vulnerable”. In this article, the authors consider the proposal in detail, before looking at cyberstalking itself, and demonstrating why, in their opinion, the new directive should be amended to contain a specific reference to this crime. Going forward, they call for bespoke EU legislation to protect victims of cyberstalking throughout Europe.