• Accessible and secure? design constraints on image and sound based passwords

      Gibson, Marcia; Conrad, Marc; Maple, Carsten; Renaud, Karen; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2010)
      When members of society cannot access the World Wide Web, or the information and services it contains in a meaningful or useful way, they can become digitally excluded. Many factors have been highlighted as having an effect on the likelihood of exclusion, including psychological, material and skills related barriers. In this paper, we consider the role played by authentication systems in the divide. In light of the widely researched tension between aspects of usability and security in authentication, we identify a number of conflicting accessibility and security goals as manifested in image and sound based schemes.
    • Analysis of thermal field in 110 kV cable systems

      Tykocki, Janusz; Yue, Yong; Jordan, Andrzej; State College of Computer Science and Business Administration in Łomża; University of Bedfordshire (Przeglad Elektrotechniczny, Poland, 2012)
      The paper presents the distribution of temperature field in high voltage cables, 64/110 kV, (2XS (FL)) with copper conductor, depending on the depth of their arrangement in the soil and the soil thermal conductivity. Used to simulate the professional program NISA / Heat Transfer in the calculation using the finite element method (FEM).
    • Anonymity networks and the fragile cyber ecosystem

      Haughey, Hamish; Epiphaniou, Gregory; al-Khateeb, Haider; University of Northumbria; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2016-03)
      It is well known that government agencies have had the capability to eavesdrop on public switched telephone networks for many decades.1 However, with the growing use of the Internet and the increasing technical capabilities of agencies to conduct mass surveillance, an individual's right to privacy is of far greater concern in recent years. The ethical issues surrounding privacy, anonymity and mass-surveillance are complicated, with compelling arguments for and against, due in part to the fact that privacy and anonymity are desired by criminals and terrorists, not just individuals who care about their privacy.
    • Anti-reflection structures fabricated by direct laser interference technology under different ambiances

      Wang, Dapeng; Yue, Yong; Zhang, Ziang; Li, Dayou; Maple, Carsten; Wang, Zuobin; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE, 2013-08)
      In this paper, we take the strategy of direct laser interference technology to modify the silicon surface under air and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) gas ambiance conditions. With the investigation of optical properties, the silicon spike structures (known as black silicon) which were fabricated in the SF6 ambiance showed the excellent ability of reducing light reflection with a broadband spectrum. For comparison, well-defined microcone structures were fabricated in the air ambiance. After hydrofluoric (HF) acid wiping off the oxides on the surface, micro cone structures have shown the anti-reflection function as well and its reflective behaviour was dependent on the structural depth relatively. Due to a high impurities concentration of spike structures obtained in the SF6 ambiance, applications of sulphur-doped black silicon would be limited. To obtain large-scale uniform structures, direct laser interference technology in the air ambiance could be an alternative.
    • Applications of concurrent access patterns in web usage mining

      Lu, Jing; Keech, Malcolm; Wang, Cuiqing; University of Bedfordshire (Springer, 2013-08)
      This paper builds on the original data mining and modelling research which has proposed the discovery of novel structural relation patterns, applying the approach in web usage mining. The focus of attention here is on concurrent access patterns (CAP), where an overarching framework illuminates the methodology for web access patterns post-processing. Data pre-processing, pattern discovery and patterns analysis all proceed in association with access patterns mining, CAP mining and CAP modelling. Pruning and selection of access patterns takes place as necessary, allowing further CAP mining and modelling to be pursued in the search for the most interesting concurrent access patterns. It is shown that higher level CAPs can be modelled in a way which brings greater structure to bear on the process of knowledge discovery. Experiments with real-world datasets highlight the applicability of the approach in web navigation.
    • Applications of concurrent sequential patterns in protein data mining

      Wang, Cuiqing; Keech, Malcolm; Lu, Jing; University of Bedfordshire (Springer, 2014)
      Protein sequences of the same family typically share common patterns which imply their structural function and biological relationship. Traditional sequential patterns mining has its focus on mining frequently occurring sub-sequences. However, a number of applications motivate the search for more structured patterns, such as protein motif mining. This paper builds on the original idea of structural relation patterns and applies the Concurrent Sequential Patterns (ConSP) mining approach in bioinformatics. Specifically, a new method and algorithms are presented using support vectors as the data structure for the extraction of novel patterns in protein sequences. Experiments with real-world protein datasets highlight the applicability of the ConSP methodology in protein data mining. The results show the potential for knowledge discovery in the field of protein structure identification.
    • Bayesian assessment of newborn brain maturity from two-channel sleep electroencephalograms

      Jakaite, Livija; Schetinin, Vitaly; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire (2012)
      Newborn brain maturity can be assessed by expert analysis of maturity-related patterns recognizable in polysomnograms. Since 36 weeks most of these patterns become recognizable in EEG exclusively, particularly, in EEG recorded via the two central-temporal channels. The use of such EEG recordings enables experts to minimize the disturbance of sleep, preparation time as well as the movement artifacts. We assume that the brain maturity of newborns aged 36 weeks and older can be automatically assessed from the 2-channel sleep EEG as accurately as by expert analysis of the full polysomnographic information. We use Bayesian inference to test this assumption and assist experts to obtain the full probabilistic information on the EEG assessments. The Bayesian methodology is feasibly implemented with Monte Carlo integration over areas of high posterior probability density, however the existing techniques tend to provide biased assessments in the absence of prior information required to explore a model space in detail within a reasonable time. In this paper we aim to use the posterior information about EEG features to reduce possible bias in the assessments. The performance of the proposed method is tested on a set of EEG recordings.
    • Bayesian decision trees for predicting survival of patients: a study on the US National Trauma Data Bank

      Schetinin, Vitaly; Jakaite, Livija; Jakaitis, Janis; Krzanowski, Wojtek; University of Bedfordshire; University of Exeter (2013)
      Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) models have been developed for predicting the survival probability of injured patients the majority of which obtain up to three injuries in six body regions. Practitioners have noted that the accuracy of TRISS predictions is unacceptable for patients with a larger number of injuries. Moreover, the TRISS method is incapable of providing accurate estimates of predictive density of survival, that are required for calculating confidence intervals. In this paper we propose Bayesian in ference for estimating the desired predictive density. The inference is based on decision tree models which split data along explanatory variables, that makes these models interpretable. The proposed method has outperformed the TRISS method in terms of accuracy of prediction on the cases recorded in the US National Trauma Data Bank. The developed method has been made available for evaluation purposes as a stand-alone application.
    • Both antireflection and superhydrophobicity structures achieved by direct laser interference nanomanufacturing

      Wang, Dapeng; Wang, Zuobin; Zhang, Ziang; Yue, Yong; Li, Dayou; Qiu, Renxi; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire; Changchun University of Science and Technology; Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University (American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2014)
      Inspired by nature, a number of techniques have been developed to fabricate the bionic structures of lotus leaves and moth eyes in order to realize the extraordinary functions of self-cleaning and antireflection. Compared with the existing technologies, we present a straightforward method to fabricate well-defined micro and nano artificial bio-structures in this work. The proposed method of direct laser interference nanomanufacturing (DLIN) takes a significant advantage of high efficiency as only a single technological procedure is needed without pretreatment, mask, and pattern transfer processes. Meanwhile, the corresponding structures show both antireflection and superhydrophobicity properties simultaneously. The developed four-beam nanosecond laser interference system configuring the TE-TE-TE-TE and TE-TE-TE-TM polarization modes was set up to generate periodic micro cone and hole structures with a huge number of nano features on the surface. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that the periodic microcone structure exhibits excellent properties with both a high contact angle (CA = 156.3°) and low omnidirectional reflectance (5.9–15.4%). Thus, DLIN is a novel and promising method suitable for mass production of self-cleaning and antireflection surface structures.
    • Case study: multi-role shadow robotic system for independent living

      Maple, Carsten; Yue, Yong; Li, Dayou; Bochenkov, Alexey; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012)
      The project is focused on development and prototyping of remotely-controlled, semi-autonomous robotic solutions in domestic environments to support elderly people. In particular, the SRS project is demonstrating an innovative, practical and efficient system called "SRS robot" for personalised home care and assisted living.
    • CCBS – a method to maintain memorability, accuracy of password submission and the effective password space in click-based visual passwords

      al-Khateeb, Haider; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire (IADIS, 2011-07)
      Text passwords are vulnerable to many security attacks due to a number of reasons such as the insecure practices of end users who select weak passwords to maintain their long term memory. As such, visual password (VP) solutions were developed to maintain the security and usability of user authentication in collaborative systems. This paper focuses on the challenges facing click-based visual password systems and proposes a novel method in response to them. For instance, Hotspots reveal a serious vulnerability. They occur because users are attracted to specific parts of an image and neglect other areas. Undertaking image analysis to identify these high probability areas can assist dictionary attacks. Another concern is that click-based systems do not guide users towards the correct click-point they are aiming to select. For instance, users might recall the correct spot or area but still fail to include their click within the tolerance distance around the original click-point which results in more incorrect password submissions. Nevertheless, the Passpoints study by Wiedenbeck et al., 2005 inspected the retention of their VP in comparison with text passwords over the long term. Despite being cued-recall the successful rate of their VP submission was not superior to text passwords as it decreased from 85% (the instant retention on the day of registration) to 55% after 2 weeks. This result was identical to that of the text password in the same experiment. The successful submission rates after 6 weeks were also 55% for both VP and text passwords. This paper addresses these issues, and then presents a novel method (CCBS) as a usable solution supported by an empirical proof. A user study is conducted and the results are evaluated against a comparative study.
    • Characterization of the numerical Group velocity in Yee's FDTD Grid

      Valcarce, Alvaro; Song, Hui; Zhang, Jie; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE, 2010-12)
      A method is introduced for the optimization of the numerical group velocity in standard finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic simulations. Through this method analytical expressions for the extrema of are presented for the first time, thus also characterizing its anisotropy. The knowledge of these expressions is hence essential for the evaluation of the anisotropy error in FDTD-based electrodynamics simulations of the propagation of wavepackets in 2D and 3D. This can be of assistance, for example, in the design of error-bounded FDTD simulations with pulsed sources at low computational cost.
    • Comparative study of different approaches to solve batch process scheduling and optimisation problems

      Tan, Yaqing; Huang, Wei; Sun, Yanming; Yue, Yong; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012)
      Effective approaches are important to batch process scheduling problems, especially those with complex constraints. However, most research focus on improving optimisation techniques, and those concentrate on comparing their difference are inadequate. This study develops an optimisation model of batch process scheduling problems with complex constraints and investigates the performance of different optimisation techniques, such as Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Constraint Programming (CP). It finds that CP has a better capacity to handle batch process problems with complex constraints but it costs longer time.
    • Computer-aided segmentation and estimation of indices in brain CT scans

      Schetinin, Vitaly; Qureshi, Adnan Nabeel Abid; University of Bedfordshire (City University, London, 2014)
      The importance of neuro-imaging as one of the biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of pathologies and traumatic cases is well established. Doctors routinely perform linear measurements on neuro-images to ascertain severity and extent of the pathology or trauma from significant anatomical changes. However, it is a tedious and time consuming process and manually assessing and reporting on large volume of data is fraught with errors and variation. In this paper we present a novel technique for segmentation of significant anatomical landmarks using artificial neural networks and estimation of various ratios and indices performed on brain CT scans. The proposed method is efficient and robust in detecting and measuring sizes of anatomical structures on non-contrast CT scans and has been evaluated on images from subjects with ages between 5 to 85 years. Results show that our method has average ICC of ≥0.97 and, hence, can be used in processing data for further use in research and clinical environment.
    • Concurrent sequential patterns mining and frequent partial orders modelling

      Lu, Jing; Keech, Malcolm; Chen, Weiru; Wang, Cuiqing; University of Bedfordshire (Inderscience Publishers, 2013)
      Structural relation patterns have been introduced to extend the search for complex patterns often hidden behind large sequences of data, with applications (e.g.) in the analysis of customer behaviour, bioinformatics and web mining. In the overall context of frequent itemset mining, the focus of attention in the structural relation patterns family has been on the mining of concurrent sequential patterns, where a companion approach to graph-based modelling can be illuminating. The crux of this paper sets out to establish the connection between concurrent sequential patterns and frequent partial orders, which are well known for discovering ordering information from sequence databases. It is shown that frequent partial orders can be derived from concurrent sequential patterns, under certain conditions, and worked examples highlight the relationship. Experiments with real and synthetic datasets contrast the results of the data mining and modelling involved.
    • Coordinating metaheuristic agents with swarm intelligence

      Aydin, Mehmet Emin; University of Bedfordshire (SpringerLink, 2010-07)
      Coordination of multi agent systems remains as a problem since there is no prominent method suggests any universal solution. Metaheuristic agents are specific implementations of multi-agent systems, which imposes working together to solve optimisation problems using metaheuristic algorithms. An idea for coordinating metaheuristic agents borrowed from swarm intelligence is introduced in this paper. This swarm intelligence-based coordination framework has been implemented as swarms of simulated annealing agents collaborated with particle swarm optimization for multidimensional knapsack problem. A comparative performance analysis is also reported highlighting that the implementation has produced much better results than the previous works.
    • Cyberstalking in the United Kingdom: an analysis of the ECHO Pilot Survey

      Maple, Carsten; Short, Emma; Brown, Antony; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2011)
      Network for Surviving Stalking is internationally recognised as the leading Registered Charity in the United Kingdom dedicated to supporting victims of stalking, free of cost or commercial gain. It aims to provide support to victims, potential victims and others affected by stalking or harassment throughout the UK, to raise awareness of the subject and to provide information about stalking and harassment to professionals, relevant agencies and the public. As we have moved into an age of electronic information and communication, stalkers have found new, more effective and efficient means to perpetrate their malicious acts; stalkers have become Cyberstalkers. Cyberstalking has become somewhat of an epidemic stretching across the globe. Network for Surviving Stalking began to notice that an increasing number of people searching for support were being stalked or harassed online, making the charity concerned as to the prevalence, nature and impact of cyberstalking. The charity commissioned a team of researchers and together developed an online questionnaire to establish answers to these questions. This report provides an analysis of the responses to the questionnaire.
    • Democracy, culture and information security: a case study in Zanzibar

      Shaaban, Hussein Khamis; Conrad, Marc; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2013)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of culture on information security in a developing country's view. Design/methodology/approach – Two questionnaires adopted from the GLOBE project and OCAI were used to collect quantitative data on national and organisational culture. Also, a face to face semi‐structured interview was used to get insight into deep‐rooted issues concerning information security in the study environment. In addition, a previous study was used to find correlation of the data in this study. Findings – The findings show that national culture has more influence than organisation culture on information security. We find that the dimensions that influence information security are Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, In‐Group Collectivism, and Future Orientation. Research limitations/implications – This research was conducted in a public sector environment with employees thereby limiting external validity. Also, the population of the survey was small to make a generalisation of the findings. Also, the length of the questionnaire and complexity of questions put off many potential respondents. Practical implications – Culture has impact on information security implementation and therefore the results imply that some consideration should be given when implementing information security models. Originality/value – This study is important because it empirically correlates information security with cultural dimensions in a developing country's environment.
    • The development of a semi-autonomous framework for personal assistant robots - SRS Project

      Qiu, Renxi; Ji, Ze; Chivarov, N.; Arbeiter, Georg; Weisshardt, Florian; Rooker, M.; Lopez, R.; Kronreif, G.; Spanel, M.; Li, Dayou; et al. (IGI Global, 2013)
      SRS is a European research project for building robust personal assistant robots using ROS (Robotic Operating System) and Care-O-bot (COB) 3 as the demonstration platform. A semi-autonomous framework has been developed in the project. It consists of an autonomous control structure and user interfaces that support the semi-autonomous operation. The control structure is divided into two parts. First, it has an automatic task planner, which initialises actions on the symbolic level. The planner produces proactive robotic behaviours based on updated semantic knowledge. Second, it has an action executive for coordination actions at the level of sensing and actuation. The executive produces reactive behaviours in well-defined domains. The two parts are integrated by fuzzy logic based symbolic grounding. As a whole, they represent the framework for autonomous control. Based on the framework, SRS user interfaces are integrated on top of COB’s existing capabilities to enable robust fetch and carry in unstructured environments.
    • The development of a smart chair to assist sit-to-stand transferring process

      Lu, Hang; Li, Dayou; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE, 2014-07)
      Standing up from a seated position, known as sit-to-stand (STS) movement, is one of the activities of daily living (ADLs) on a daily basis. As people age, physiological changes occur including reduced muscle strength and mass as well as sensory capacity. This may lead to difficulties in STS transferring process, with which the elderly may encounter sedentary lifestyle and contracted social space. There exist market available assistive lift devices with performance far from satisfaction, for the reason being that they fail to provide appropriate assistance. Thus, an intent-based smart lift chair is proposed and partially developed aiming to analyse user's physiological condition through pattern recognition. The idea of assistance-as-needed is also introduced which may help encourage the elderly to improve their own motor function by offering personalised assistance with adaptation to the change of conditions.